#### /statsmodels/tsa/seasonal.py

https://github.com/chatcannon/statsmodels
Python | 162 lines | 131 code | 18 blank | 13 comment | 13 complexity | fa4c5e50ad569896c90d7efc72047507 MD5 | raw file
``````
"""
Seasonal Decomposition by Moving Averages
"""
from statsmodels.compat.python import lmap, range, iteritems
import numpy as np
from pandas.core.nanops import nanmean as pd_nanmean
from .filters._utils import _maybe_get_pandas_wrapper_freq
from .filters.filtertools import convolution_filter
from statsmodels.tsa.tsatools import freq_to_period

def seasonal_mean(x, freq):
"""
Return means for each period in x. freq is an int that gives the
number of periods per cycle. E.g., 12 for monthly. NaNs are ignored
in the mean.
"""
return np.array([pd_nanmean(x[i::freq]) for i in range(freq)])

"""
Parameters
----------
x : array-like
Time series
Type of seasonal component. Abbreviations are accepted.
filt : array-like
The filter coefficients for filtering out the seasonal component.
The default is a symmetric moving average.
freq : int, optional
Frequency of the series. Must be used if x is not a pandas
object with a timeseries index.

Returns
-------
results : obj
A object with seasonal, trend, and resid attributes.

Notes
-----
This is a naive decomposition. More sophisticated methods should
be preferred.

The additive model is Y[t] = T[t] + S[t] + e[t]

The multiplicative model is Y[t] = T[t] * S[t] * e[t]

The seasonal component is first removed by applying a convolution
filter to the data. The average of this smoothed series for each
period is the returned seasonal component.

--------
statsmodels.tsa.filters.convolution_filter
"""
_pandas_wrapper, pfreq = _maybe_get_pandas_wrapper_freq(x)
x = np.asanyarray(x).squeeze()
nobs = len(x)

if not np.all(np.isfinite(x)):
raise ValueError("This function does not handle missing values")
if model.startswith('m'):
if np.any(x <= 0):
raise ValueError("Multiplicative seasonality is not appropriate "
"for zero and negative values")

if pfreq is not None:
pfreq = freq_to_period(pfreq)
if freq and pfreq != freq:
raise ValueError("Inferred frequency of index and frequency "
"don't match. This function does not re-sample")
else:
freq = pfreq

elif freq is None:
raise ValueError("You must specify a freq or x must be a "
"pandas object with a timeseries index")

if filt is None:
if freq % 2 == 0:  # split weights at ends
filt = np.array([.5] + [1] * (freq - 1) + [.5]) / freq
else:
filt = np.repeat(1./freq, freq)

trend = convolution_filter(x, filt)

# nan pad for conformability - convolve doesn't do it
if model.startswith('m'):
detrended = x / trend
else:
detrended = x - trend

period_averages = seasonal_mean(detrended, freq)

if model.startswith('m'):
period_averages /= np.mean(period_averages)
else:
period_averages -= np.mean(period_averages)

seasonal = np.tile(period_averages, nobs // freq + 1)[:nobs]

if model.startswith('m'):
resid = x / seasonal / trend
else:
resid = detrended - seasonal

results = lmap(_pandas_wrapper, [seasonal, trend, resid, x])
return DecomposeResult(seasonal=results[0], trend=results[1],
resid=results[2], observed=results[3])

class DecomposeResult(object):
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
for key, value in iteritems(kwargs):
setattr(self, key, value)
self.nobs = len(self.observed)

def plot(self):
from statsmodels.graphics.utils import _import_mpl
plt = _import_mpl()
fig, axes = plt.subplots(4, 1, sharex=True)
if hasattr(self.observed, 'plot'):  # got pandas use it
self.observed.plot(ax=axes[0], legend=False)
axes[0].set_ylabel('Observed')
self.trend.plot(ax=axes[1], legend=False)
axes[1].set_ylabel('Trend')
self.seasonal.plot(ax=axes[2], legend=False)
axes[2].set_ylabel('Seasonal')
self.resid.plot(ax=axes[3], legend=False)
axes[3].set_ylabel('Residual')
else:
axes[0].plot(self.observed)
axes[0].set_ylabel('Observed')
axes[1].plot(self.trend)
axes[1].set_ylabel('Trend')
axes[2].plot(self.seasonal)
axes[2].set_ylabel('Seasonal')
axes[3].plot(self.resid)
axes[3].set_ylabel('Residual')
axes[3].set_xlabel('Time')
axes[3].set_xlim(0, self.nobs)

fig.tight_layout()
return fig

if __name__ == "__main__":
x = np.array([-50, 175, 149, 214, 247, 237, 225, 329, 729, 809,
530, 489, 540, 457, 195, 176, 337, 239, 128, 102,
232, 429, 3, 98, 43, -141, -77, -13, 125, 361, -45, 184])
results = seasonal_decompose(x, freq=4)

from pandas import DataFrame, DatetimeIndex
data = DataFrame(x, DatetimeIndex(start='1/1/1951',
periods=len(x),
freq='Q'))

res = seasonal_decompose(data)

``````