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https://github.com/webspinner/backbone
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   1<!DOCTYPE HTML>
   2<html>
   3<head>
   4  <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" />
   5  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="chrome=1">
   6  <title>Backbone.js</title>
   7  <style>
   8    body {
   9      font-size: 14px;
  10      line-height: 22px;
  11      font-family: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial;
  12      background: #f4f4f4 url(docs/images/background.png);
  13    }
  14    .interface {
  15      font-family: "Lucida Grande", "Lucida Sans Unicode", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif !important;
  16    }
  17    div#sidebar {
  18      background: #fff;
  19      position: fixed;
  20      top: 0; left: 0; bottom: 0;
  21      width: 200px;
  22      overflow-y: auto;
  23      overflow-x: hidden;
  24      padding: 15px 0 30px 30px;
  25      border-right: 1px solid #ddd;
  26      box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc; -webkit-box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc; -moz-box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc;
  27    }
  28      a.toc_title, a.toc_title:visited {
  29        display: block;
  30        color: black;
  31        font-weight: bold;
  32        margin-top: 15px;
  33      }
  34        a.toc_title:hover {
  35          text-decoration: underline;
  36        }
  37        #sidebar .version {
  38          font-size: 10px;
  39          font-weight: normal;
  40        }
  41      ul.toc_section {
  42        font-size: 11px;
  43        line-height: 14px;
  44        margin: 5px 0 0 0;
  45        padding-left: 0px;
  46        list-style-type: none;
  47        font-family: Lucida Grande;
  48      }
  49        .toc_section li {
  50          cursor: pointer;
  51          margin: 0 0 3px 0;
  52        }
  53          .toc_section li a {
  54            text-decoration: none;
  55            color: black;
  56          }
  57            .toc_section li a:hover {
  58              text-decoration: underline;
  59            }
  60    div.container {
  61      position: relative;
  62      width: 550px;
  63      margin: 40px 0 50px 260px;
  64    }
  65    div.run {
  66      position: absolute;
  67      right: 15px;
  68      width: 26px; height: 18px;
  69      background: url('docs/images/arrows.png') no-repeat -26px 0;
  70    }
  71      div.run:active {
  72        background-position: -51px 0;
  73      }
  74    p, div.container ul {
  75      margin: 20px 0;
  76      width: 550px;
  77    }
  78      p.warning {
  79        font-size: 12px;
  80        line-height: 18px;
  81        font-style: italic;
  82      }
  83      div.container ul {
  84        list-style: circle;
  85        font-size: 12px;
  86        padding-left: 15px;
  87      }
  88    a, a:visited {
  89      color: #444;
  90    }
  91    a:active, a:hover {
  92      color: #000;
  93    }
  94    a img {
  95      border: 0;
  96    }
  97    h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
  98      padding-top: 20px;
  99    }
 100      h2 {
 101        font-size: 20px;
 102      }
 103    b.header {
 104      font-size: 16px;
 105      line-height: 30px;
 106    }
 107    span.alias {
 108      font-size: 14px;
 109      font-style: italic;
 110      margin-left: 20px;
 111    }
 112    table {
 113      margin: 15px 0 0; padding: 0;
 114    }
 115      tr, td {
 116        margin: 0; padding: 0;
 117      }
 118        td {
 119          padding: 0px 15px 5px 0;
 120        }
 121    code, pre, tt {
 122      font-family: Monaco, Consolas, "Lucida Console", monospace;
 123      font-size: 12px;
 124      line-height: 18px;
 125      font-style: normal;
 126    }
 127      tt {
 128        padding: 0px 3px;
 129        background: #fff;
 130        border: 1px solid #ddd;
 131        zoom: 1;
 132      }
 133      code {
 134        margin-left: 20px;
 135      }
 136      pre {
 137        font-size: 12px;
 138        padding: 2px 0 2px 15px;
 139        border: 4px solid #bbb; border-top: 0; border-bottom: 0;
 140        margin: 0px 0 30px;
 141      }
 142      img.example_image {
 143        margin: 0px auto 30px;
 144      }
 145  </style>
 146</head>
 147<body>
 148
 149  <div id="sidebar" class="interface">
 150
 151    <a class="toc_title" href="#">
 152      Backbone.js <span class="version">(0.3.3)</span>
 153    </a>
 154
 155    <a class="toc_title" href="#Introduction">
 156      Introduction
 157    </a>
 158
 159    <a class="toc_title" href="#Events">
 160      Events
 161    </a>
 162    <ul class="toc_section">
 163      <li><a href="#Events-bind">bind</a></li>
 164      <li><a href="#Events-unbind">unbind</a></li>
 165      <li><a href="#Events-trigger">trigger</a></li>
 166    </ul>
 167
 168    <a class="toc_title" href="#Model">
 169      Model
 170    </a>
 171    <ul class="toc_section">
 172      <li><a href="#Model-extend">extend</a></li>
 173      <li><a href="#Model-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 174      <li><a href="#Model-get">get</a></li>
 175      <li><a href="#Model-set">set</a></li>
 176      <li><a href="#Model-escape">escape</a></li>
 177      <li><a href="#Model-has">has</a></li>
 178      <li><a href="#Model-unset">unset</a></li>
 179      <li><a href="#Model-clear">clear</a></li>
 180      <li><a href="#Model-id">id</a></li>
 181      <li><a href="#Model-cid">cid</a></li>
 182      <li><a href="#Model-attributes">attributes</a></li>
 183      <li><a href="#Model-defaults">defaults</a></li>
 184      <li>- <a href="#Model-toJSON">toJSON</a></li>
 185      <li><a href="#Model-fetch">fetch</a></li>
 186      <li><a href="#Model-save">save</a></li>
 187      <li><a href="#Model-destroy">destroy</a></li>
 188      <li><a href="#Model-validate">validate</a></li>
 189      <li><a href="#Model-url">url</a></li>
 190      <li><a href="#Model-urlRoot">urlRoot</a></li>
 191      <li><a href="#Model-parse">parse</a></li>
 192      <li><a href="#Model-clone">clone</a></li>
 193      <li><a href="#Model-isNew">isNew</a></li>
 194      <li><a href="#Model-change">change</a></li>
 195      <li><a href="#Model-hasChanged">hasChanged</a></li>
 196      <li><a href="#Model-changedAttributes">changedAttributes</a></li>
 197      <li><a href="#Model-previous">previous</a></li>
 198      <li><a href="#Model-previousAttributes">previousAttributes</a></li>
 199    </ul>
 200
 201    <a class="toc_title" href="#Collection">
 202      Collection
 203    </a>
 204    <ul class="toc_section">
 205      <li><a href="#Collection-extend">extend</a></li>
 206      <li><a href="#Collection-model">model</a></li>
 207      <li><a href="#Collection-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 208      <li><a href="#Collection-models">models</a></li>
 209      <li><a href="#Collection-toJSON">toJSON</a></li>
 210      <li><a href="#Collection-Underscore-Methods"><b>Underscore Methods (25)</b></a></li>
 211      <li><a href="#Collection-add">add</a></li>
 212      <li><a href="#Collection-remove">remove</a></li>
 213      <li><a href="#Collection-get">get</a></li>
 214      <li><a href="#Collection-getByCid">getByCid</a></li>
 215      <li><a href="#Collection-at">at</a></li>
 216      <li><a href="#Collection-length">length</a></li>
 217      <li><a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a></li>
 218      <li><a href="#Collection-sort">sort</a></li>
 219      <li><a href="#Collection-pluck">pluck</a></li>
 220      <li><a href="#Collection-url">url</a></li>
 221      <li><a href="#Collection-parse">parse</a></li>
 222      <li><a href="#Collection-fetch">fetch</a></li>
 223      <li><a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a></li>
 224      <li><a href="#Collection-create">create</a></li>
 225    </ul>
 226
 227    <a class="toc_title" href="#Controller">
 228      Controller
 229    </a>
 230    <ul class="toc_section">
 231      <li><a href="#Controller-extend">extend</a></li>
 232      <li><a href="#Controller-routes">routes</a></li>
 233      <li><a href="#Controller-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 234      <li><a href="#Controller-route">route</a></li>
 235      <li><a href="#Controller-saveLocation">saveLocation</a></li>
 236    </ul>
 237
 238    <a class="toc_title" href="#History">
 239      History
 240    </a>
 241    <ul class="toc_section">
 242      <li><a href="#History-start">start</a></li>
 243    </ul>
 244
 245    <a class="toc_title" href="#Sync">
 246      Sync
 247    </a>
 248    <ul class="toc_section">
 249      <li><a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a></li>
 250      <li><a href="#Sync-emulateHTTP">Backbone.emulateHTTP</a></li>
 251      <li><a href="#Sync-emulateJSON">Backbone.emulateJSON</a></li>
 252    </ul>
 253
 254    <a class="toc_title" href="#View">
 255      View
 256    </a>
 257    <ul class="toc_section">
 258      <li><a href="#View-extend">extend</a></li>
 259      <li><a href="#View-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 260      <li><a href="#View-el">el</a></li>
 261      <li><a href="#View-dollar">$ (jQuery or Zepto)</a></li>
 262      <li><a href="#View-render">render</a></li>
 263      <li><a href="#View-remove">remove</a></li>
 264      <li><a href="#View-make">make</a></li>
 265      <li><a href="#View-delegateEvents">delegateEvents</a></li>
 266    </ul>
 267
 268    <a class="toc_title" href="#Utility">
 269      Utility
 270    </a>
 271    <ul class="toc_section">
 272      <li><a href="#Utility-noConflict">noConflict</a></li>
 273    </ul>
 274
 275    <a class="toc_title" href="#examples">
 276      Examples
 277    </a>
 278    <ul class="toc_section">
 279      <li><a href="#examples-todos">Todos</a></li>
 280      <li><a href="#examples-documentcloud">DocumentCloud</a></li>
 281      <li><a href="#examples-basecamp">Basecamp Mobile</a></li>
 282      <li><a href="#examples-flow">Flow</a></li>
 283      <li><a href="#examples-tilemill">TileMill</a></li>
 284      <li><a href="#examples-soundcloud">Mobile SoundCloud</a></li>
 285      <li>- <a href="#examples-instagreat">Insta-great!</a></li>
 286      <li>- <a href="#examples-quietwrite">QuietWrite</a></li>
 287      <li>- <a href="#examples-tzigla">Tzigla</a></li>
 288      <li>- <a href="#examples-substance">Substance</a></li>
 289    </ul>
 290
 291    <a class="toc_title" href="#faq">
 292      F.A.Q.
 293    </a>
 294    <ul class="toc_section">
 295      <li><a href="#FAQ-events">Catalog of Events</a></li>
 296      <li><a href="#FAQ-nested">Nested Models &amp; Collections</a></li>
 297      <li><a href="#FAQ-bootstrap">Loading Bootstrapped Models</a></li>
 298      <li><a href="#FAQ-mvc">Traditional MVC</a></li>
 299      <li><a href="#FAQ-this">Binding "this"</a></li>
 300      <li>- <a href="#FAQ-rias">Other RIA Frameworks</a></li>
 301    </ul>
 302
 303    <a class="toc_title" href="#changelog">
 304      Change Log
 305    </a>
 306
 307  </div>
 308
 309  <div class="container">
 310
 311    <p>
 312      <img style="width: 385px; height: 126px;" src="docs/images/backbone.png" alt="Backbone.js" />
 313    </p>
 314
 315    <p>
 316      <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/">Backbone</a>
 317      supplies structure to JavaScript-heavy applications by providing <b>models</b> with
 318      key-value binding and custom events, <b>collections</b> with a rich API of enumerable functions,
 319      <b>views</b> with declarative event handling, and connects it all to your
 320      existing application over a RESTful JSON interface.
 321    </p>
 322
 323    <p>
 324      The project is <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/">hosted on GitHub</a>,
 325      and the <a href="docs/backbone.html">annotated source code</a> is available,
 326      as well as an online <a href="test/test.html">test suite</a>, and
 327      <a href="examples/todos/index.html">example application</a>.
 328    </p>
 329
 330    <p>
 331      You can report bugs and discuss features on the
 332      <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/issues">issues page</a>,
 333      on Freenode in the <tt>#documentcloud</tt> channel,
 334      or send tweets to <a href="http://twitter.com/documentcloud">@documentcloud</a>.
 335    </p>
 336
 337    <p>
 338      <i>
 339        Backbone is an open-source component of
 340        <a href="http://documentcloud.org/">DocumentCloud</a>.
 341      </i>
 342    </p>
 343
 344    <h2 id="downloads">
 345      Downloads &amp; Dependencies
 346      <span style="padding-left: 7px; font-size:11px; font-weight: normal;" class="interface">(Right-click, and use "Save As")</span>
 347    </h2>
 348
 349    <table>
 350      <tr>
 351        <td><a href="backbone.js">Development Version (0.3.3)</a></td>
 352        <td><i>35kb, Uncompressed with Comments</i></td>
 353      </tr>
 354      <tr>
 355        <td><a href="backbone-min.js">Production Version (0.3.3)</a></td>
 356        <td><i>3.9kb, Packed and Gzipped</i></td>
 357      </tr>
 358    </table>
 359
 360    <p>
 361      Backbone's only hard dependency is
 362      <a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/">Underscore.js</a>.
 363      For RESTful persistence, and DOM manipulation with
 364      <a href="#View">Backbone.View</a>,
 365      it's highly recommended to include
 366      <a href="https://github.com/douglascrockford/JSON-js">json2.js</a>, and either
 367      <a href="http://jquery.com">jQuery</a> or <a href="http://zeptojs.com/">Zepto</a>.
 368    </p>
 369
 370    <h2 id="Introduction">Introduction</h2>
 371
 372    <p>
 373      When working on a web application that involves a lot of JavaScript, one
 374      of the first things you learn is to stop tying your data to the DOM. It's all
 375      too easy to create JavaScript applications that end up as tangled piles of
 376      jQuery selectors and callbacks, all trying frantically to keep data in
 377      sync between the HTML UI, your JavaScript logic, and the database on your
 378      server. For rich client-side applications, a more structured approach
 379      is helpful.
 380    </p>
 381
 382    <p>
 383      With Backbone, you represent your data as
 384      <a href="#Model">Models</a>, which can be created, validated, destroyed,
 385      and saved to the server. Whenever a UI action causes an attribute of
 386      a model to change, the model triggers a <i>"change"</i> event; all
 387      the <a href="#View">Views</a> that display the model's data are notified of the
 388      event, causing them to re-render. You don't have to write the glue
 389      code that looks into the DOM to find an element with a specific <i>id</i>,
 390      and update the HTML manually
 391      &mdash; when the model changes, the views simply update themselves.
 392    </p>
 393
 394    <p>
 395      Many of the examples that follow are runnable. Click the <i>play</i> button
 396      to execute them.
 397    </p>
 398
 399    <h2 id="Events">Backbone.Events</h2>
 400
 401    <p>
 402      <b>Events</b> is a module that can be mixed in to any object, giving the
 403      object the ability to bind and trigger custom named events. Events do not
 404      have to be declared before they are bound, and may take passed arguments.
 405      For example:
 406    </p>
 407
 408<pre class="runnable">
 409var object = {};
 410
 411_.extend(object, Backbone.Events);
 412
 413object.bind("alert", function(msg) {
 414  alert("Triggered " + msg);
 415});
 416
 417object.trigger("alert", "an event");
 418</pre>
 419
 420    <p id="Events-bind">
 421      <b class="header">bind</b><code>object.bind(event, callback)</code>
 422      <br />
 423      Bind a <b>callback</b> function to an object. The callback will be invoked
 424      whenever the <b>event</b> (specified by an arbitrary string identifier) is fired.
 425      If you have a large number of different events on a page, the convention is to use colons to
 426      namespace them: <tt>"poll:start"</tt>, or <tt>"change:selection"</tt>
 427    </p>
 428
 429    <p>
 430      Callbacks bound to the special
 431      <tt>"all"</tt> event will be triggered when any event occurs, and are passed
 432      the name of the event as the first argument. For example, to proxy all events
 433      from one object to another:
 434    </p>
 435
 436<pre>
 437proxy.bind("all", function(eventName) {
 438  object.trigger(eventName);
 439});
 440</pre>
 441
 442    <p id="Events-unbind">
 443      <b class="header">unbind</b><code>object.unbind([event], [callback])</code>
 444      <br />
 445      Remove a previously-bound <b>callback</b> function from an object. If no
 446      callback is specified, all callbacks for the <b>event</b> will be
 447      removed. If no event is specified, <i>all</i> event callbacks on the object
 448      will be removed.
 449    </p>
 450
 451<pre>
 452object.unbind("change", onChange);  // Removes just the onChange callback.
 453
 454object.unbind("change");            // Removes all "change" callbacks.
 455
 456object.unbind();                    // Removes all callbacks on object.
 457</pre>
 458
 459    <p id="Events-trigger">
 460      <b class="header">trigger</b><code>object.trigger(event, [*args])</code>
 461      <br />
 462      Trigger callbacks for the given <b>event</b>. Subsequent arguments to
 463      <b>trigger</b> will be passed along to the event callbacks.
 464    </p>
 465
 466    <h2 id="Model">Backbone.Model</h2>
 467
 468    <p>
 469      <b>Models</b> are the heart of any JavaScript application, containing
 470      the interactive data as well as a large part of the logic surrounding it:
 471      conversions, validations, computed properties, and access control. You
 472      extend <b>Backbone.Model</b> with your domain-specific methods, and
 473      <b>Model</b> provides a basic set of functionality for managing changes.
 474    </p>
 475
 476    <p>
 477      The following is a contrived example, but it demonstrates defining a model
 478      with a custom method, setting an attribute, and firing an event keyed
 479      to changes in that specific attribute.
 480      After running this code once, <tt>sidebar</tt> will be
 481      available in your browser's console, so you can play around with it.
 482    </p>
 483
 484<pre class="runnable">
 485var Sidebar = Backbone.Model.extend({
 486  promptColor: function() {
 487    var cssColor = prompt("Please enter a CSS color:");
 488    this.set({color: cssColor});
 489  }
 490});
 491
 492window.sidebar = new Sidebar;
 493
 494sidebar.bind('change:color', function(model, color) {
 495  $('#sidebar').css({background: color});
 496});
 497
 498sidebar.set({color: 'white'});
 499
 500sidebar.promptColor();
 501</pre>
 502
 503    <p id="Model-extend">
 504      <b class="header">extend</b><code>Backbone.Model.extend(properties, [classProperties])</code>
 505      <br />
 506      To create a <b>Model</b> class of your own, you extend <b>Backbone.Model</b>
 507      and provide instance <b>properties</b>, as well as optional
 508      <b>classProperties</b> to be attached directly to the constructor function.
 509    </p>
 510
 511    <p>
 512      <b>extend</b> correctly sets up the prototype chain, so subclasses created
 513      with <b>extend</b> can be further extended and subclassed as far as you like.
 514    </p>
 515
 516<pre>
 517var Note = Backbone.Model.extend({
 518
 519  initialize: function() { ... },
 520
 521  author: function() { ... },
 522
 523  coordinates: function() { ... },
 524
 525  allowedToEdit: function(account) {
 526    return true;
 527  }
 528
 529});
 530
 531var PrivateNote = Note.extend({
 532
 533  allowedToEdit: function(account) {
 534    return account.owns(this);
 535  }
 536
 537});
 538</pre>
 539
 540    <p class="warning">
 541        Brief aside on <tt>super</tt>: JavaScript does not provide
 542        a simple way to call super &mdash; the function of the same name defined
 543        higher on the prototype chain. If you override a core function like
 544        <tt>set</tt>, or <tt>save</tt>, and you want to invoke the
 545        parent object's implementation, you'll have to explicitly call it, along these lines:
 546    </p>
 547
 548<pre>
 549var Note = Backbone.Model.extend({
 550  set: function(attributes, options) {
 551    Backbone.Model.prototype.set.call(this, attributes, options);
 552    ...
 553  }
 554});
 555</pre>
 556
 557    <p id="Model-constructor">
 558      <b class="header">constructor / initialize</b><code>new Model([attributes])</code>
 559      <br />
 560      When creating an instance of a model, you can pass in the initial values
 561      of the <b>attributes</b>, which will be <a href="#Model-set">set</a> on the
 562      model. If you define an <b>initialize</b> function, it will be invoked when
 563      the model is created.
 564    </p>
 565
 566<pre>
 567new Book({
 568  title: "One Thousand and One Nights",
 569  author: "Scheherazade"
 570});
 571</pre>
 572
 573    <p id="Model-get">
 574      <b class="header">get</b><code>model.get(attribute)</code>
 575      <br />
 576      Get the current value of an attribute from the model. For example:
 577      <tt>note.get("title")</tt>
 578    </p>
 579
 580    <p id="Model-escape">
 581      <b class="header">escape</b><code>model.escape(attribute)</code>
 582      <br />
 583      Similar to <a href="#Model-get">get</a>, but returns the HTML-escaped version
 584      of a model's attribute. If you're interpolating data from the model into
 585      HTML, using <b>escape</b> to retrieve attributes will prevent
 586      <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting">XSS</a> attacks.
 587    </p>
 588
 589<pre class="runnable">
 590var hacker = new Backbone.Model({
 591  name: "&lt;script&gt;alert('xss')&lt;/script&gt;"
 592});
 593
 594alert(hacker.escape('name'));
 595</pre>
 596
 597    <p id="Model-set">
 598      <b class="header">set</b><code>model.set(attributes, [options])</code>
 599      <br />
 600      Set a hash of attributes (one or many) on the model. If any of the attributes
 601      change the models state, a <tt>"change"</tt> event will be triggered, unless
 602      <tt>{silent: true}</tt> is passed as an option. Change events for specific
 603      attributes are also triggered, and you can bind to those as well, for example:
 604      <tt>change:title</tt>, and <tt>change:content</tt>.
 605    </p>
 606
 607<pre>
 608note.set({title: "October 12", content: "Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet..."});
 609</pre>
 610
 611    <p>
 612      If the model has a <a href="#Model-validate">validate</a> method,
 613      it will be validated before the attributes are set, no changes will
 614      occur if the validation fails, and <b>set</b> will return <tt>false</tt>.
 615      You may also pass an <tt>error</tt>
 616      callback in the options, which will be invoked instead of triggering an
 617      <tt>"error"</tt> event, should validation fail.
 618    </p>
 619
 620    <p id="Model-escape">
 621      <b class="header">escape</b><code>model.escape(attribute)</code>
 622      <br />
 623      Similar to <a href="#Model-get">get</a>, but returns the HTML-escaped version
 624      of a model's attribute. If you're interpolating data from the model into
 625      HTML, using <b>escape</b> to retrieve attributes will prevent
 626      <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting">XSS</a> attacks.
 627    </p>
 628
 629<pre class="runnable">
 630var hacker = new Backbone.Model({
 631  name: "&lt;script&gt;alert('xss')&lt;/script&gt;"
 632});
 633
 634alert(hacker.escape('name'));
 635</pre>
 636
 637    <p id="Model-has">
 638      <b class="header">has</b><code>model.has(attribute)</code>
 639      <br />
 640      Returns <tt>true</tt> if the attribute is set to a non-null or non-undefined
 641      value.
 642    </p>
 643
 644<pre>
 645if (note.has("title")) {
 646  ...
 647}
 648</pre>
 649
 650    <p id="Model-unset">
 651      <b class="header">unset</b><code>model.unset(attribute, [options])</code>
 652      <br />
 653      Remove an attribute by deleting it from the internal attributes hash.
 654      Fires a <tt>"change"</tt> event unless <tt>silent</tt> is passed as an option.
 655    </p>
 656
 657    <p id="Model-clear">
 658      <b class="header">clear</b><code>model.clear([options])</code>
 659      <br />
 660      Removes all attributes from the model. Fires a <tt>"change"</tt> event unless
 661      <tt>silent</tt> is passed as an option.
 662    </p>
 663
 664    <p id="Model-id">
 665      <b class="header">id</b><code>model.id</code>
 666      <br />
 667      A special property of models, the <b>id</b> is an arbitrary string
 668      (integer id or UUID). If you set the <b>id</b> in the
 669      attributes hash, it will be copied onto the model as a direct property.
 670      Models can be retrieved by id from collections, and the id is used to generate
 671      model URLs by default.
 672    </p>
 673
 674    <p id="Model-cid">
 675      <b class="header">cid</b><code>model.cid</code>
 676      <br />
 677      A special property of models, the <b>cid</b> or client id is a unique identifier
 678      automatically assigned to all models when they're first created. Client ids
 679      are handy when the model has not yet been saved to the server, and does not
 680      yet have its eventual true <b>id</b>, but already needs to be visible in the UI.
 681      Client ids take the form: <tt>c1, c2, c3 ...</tt>
 682    </p>
 683
 684    <p id="Model-attributes">
 685      <b class="header">attributes</b><code>model.attributes</code>
 686      <br />
 687      The <b>attributes</b> property is the internal hash containing the model's
 688      state. Please use <a href="#Model-set">set</a> to update the attributes instead of modifying
 689      them directly. If you'd like to retrieve and munge a copy of the model's
 690      attributes, use <a href="#Model-toJSON">toJSON</a> instead.
 691    </p>
 692
 693    <p id="Model-defaults">
 694      <b class="header">defaults</b><code>model.defaults or model.defaults()</code>
 695      <br />
 696      The <b>defaults</b> hash (or function) can be used to specify the default
 697      attributes for your model. When creating an instance of the model,
 698      any unspecified attributes will be set to their default value.
 699    </p>
 700
 701<pre class="runnable">
 702var Meal = Backbone.Model.extend({
 703  defaults: {
 704    "appetizer":  "caesar salad",
 705    "entree":     "ravioli",
 706    "dessert":    "cheesecake"
 707  }
 708});
 709
 710alert("Dessert will be " + (new Meal).get('dessert'));
 711</pre>
 712
 713    <p id="Model-toJSON">
 714      <b class="header">toJSON</b><code>model.toJSON()</code>
 715      <br />
 716      Return a copy of the model's <a href="#Model-attributes">attributes</a> for JSON stringification.
 717      This can be used for persistence, serialization, or for augmentation before
 718      being handed off to a view. The name of this method is a bit confusing, as
 719      it doesn't actually return a JSON string &mdash; but I'm afraid that it's
 720      the way that the <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JSON#toJSON()_method">JavaScript API for <b>JSON.stringify</b> works</a>.
 721    </p>
 722
 723<pre class="runnable">
 724var artist = new Backbone.Model({
 725  firstName: "Wassily",
 726  lastName: "Kandinsky"
 727});
 728
 729artist.set({birthday: "December 16, 1866"});
 730
 731alert(JSON.stringify(artist));
 732</pre>
 733
 734    <p id="Model-fetch">
 735      <b class="header">fetch</b><code>model.fetch([options])</code>
 736      <br />
 737      Refreshes the model's state from the server. Useful if the model has never
 738      been populated with data, or if you'd like to ensure that you have the
 739      latest server state. A <tt>"change"</tt> event will be triggered if the
 740      server's state differs from the current attributes. Accepts
 741      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the options hash, which
 742      are passed <tt>(model, response)</tt> as arguments.
 743    </p>
 744
 745<pre>
 746// Poll every 10 seconds to keep the channel model up-to-date.
 747setInterval(function() {
 748  channel.fetch();
 749}, 10000);
 750</pre>
 751
 752    <p id="Model-save">
 753      <b class="header">save</b><code>model.save([attributes], [options])</code>
 754      <br />
 755      Save a model to your database (or alternative persistence layer),
 756      by delegating to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>. The <b>attributes</b>
 757      hash (as in <a href="#Model-set">set</a>) should contain the attributes
 758      you'd like to change -- keys that aren't mentioned won't be altered.
 759      If the model has a <a href="#Model-validate">validate</a>
 760      method, and validation fails, the model will not be saved. If the model
 761      <a href="#Model-isNew">isNew</a>, the save will be a <tt>"create"</tt>
 762      (HTTP <tt>POST</tt>), if the model already
 763      exists on the server, the save will be an <tt>"update"</tt> (HTTP <tt>PUT</tt>).
 764    </p>
 765
 766    <p>
 767      In the following example, notice how because the model has never been
 768      saved previously, our overridden version of <tt>Backbone.sync</tt> receives a <tt>"create"</tt> request.
 769    </p>
 770
 771<pre class="runnable">
 772Backbone.sync = function(method, model) {
 773  alert(method + ": " + JSON.stringify(model));
 774};
 775
 776var book = new Backbone.Model({
 777  title: "The Rough Riders",
 778  author: "Theodore Roosevelt"
 779});
 780
 781book.save();
 782</pre>
 783
 784    <p>
 785      <b>save</b> accepts <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the
 786      options hash, which are passed <tt>(model, response)</tt> as arguments.
 787      The <tt>error</tt> callback will also be invoked if the model has a
 788      <tt>validate</tt> method, and validation fails. If a server-side
 789      validation fails, return a non-<tt>200</tt> HTTP response code, along with
 790      an error response in text or JSON.
 791    </p>
 792
 793<pre>
 794book.save({author: "F.D.R."}, {error: function(){ ... }});
 795</pre>
 796
 797    <p id="Model-destroy">
 798      <b class="header">destroy</b><code>model.destroy([options])</code>
 799      <br />
 800      Destroys the model on the server by delegating an HTTP <tt>DELETE</tt>
 801      request to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>. Accepts
 802      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the options hash.
 803      Triggers a <tt>"destroy"</tt> event on the model, which will bubble up
 804      through any collections that contain it.
 805    </p>
 806
 807<pre>
 808book.destroy({success: function(model, response) {
 809  ...
 810}});
 811</pre>
 812
 813    <p id="Model-validate">
 814      <b class="header">validate</b><code>model.validate(attributes)</code>
 815      <br />
 816      This method is left undefined, and you're encouraged to override it with
 817      your custom validation logic, if you have any that can be performed
 818      in JavaScript. <b>validate</b> is called before <tt>set</tt> and
 819      <tt>save</tt>, and is passed the attributes that are about to be updated.
 820      If the model and attributes are valid, don't return anything from <b>validate</b>;
 821      if the attributes are invalid, return an error of your choosing. It
 822      can be as simple as a string error message to be displayed, or a complete
 823      error object that describes the error programmatically. <tt>set</tt> and
 824      <tt>save</tt> will not continue if <b>validate</b> returns an error.
 825      Failed validations trigger an <tt>"error"</tt> event.
 826    </p>
 827
 828<pre class="runnable">
 829var Chapter = Backbone.Model.extend({
 830  validate: function(attrs) {
 831    if (attrs.end < attrs.start) {
 832      return "can't end before it starts";
 833    }
 834  }
 835});
 836
 837var one = new Chapter({
 838  title : "Chapter One: The Beginning"
 839});
 840
 841one.bind("error", function(model, error) {
 842  alert(model.get("title") + " " + error);
 843});
 844
 845one.set({
 846  start: 15,
 847  end:   10
 848});
 849</pre>
 850
 851    <p>
 852      <tt>"error"</tt> events are useful for providing coarse-grained error
 853      messages at the model or collection level, but if you have a specific view
 854      that can better handle the error, you may override and suppress the event
 855      by passing an <tt>error</tt> callback directly:
 856    </p>
 857
 858<pre>
 859account.set({access: "unlimited"}, {
 860  error: function(model, error) {
 861    alert(error);
 862  }
 863});
 864</pre>
 865
 866    <p id="Model-url">
 867      <b class="header">url</b><code>model.url()</code>
 868      <br />
 869      Returns the relative URL where the model's resource would be located on
 870      the server. If your models are located somewhere else, override this method
 871      with the correct logic. Generates URLs of the form: <tt>"/[collection.url]/[id]"</tt>,
 872      falling back to <tt>"/[urlRoot]/id"</tt> if the model is not part of a collection.
 873    </p>
 874
 875    <p>
 876      Delegates to <a href="#Collection-url">Collection#url</a> to generate the
 877      URL, so make sure that you have it defined, or a <a href="#Model-urlRoot">urlRoot</a>
 878      property, if all models of this class share a common root URL.
 879      A model with an id of <tt>101</tt>, stored in a
 880      <a href="#Collection">Backbone.Collection</a> with a <tt>url</tt> of <tt>"/documents/7/notes"</tt>,
 881      would have this URL: <tt>"/documents/7/notes/101"</tt>
 882    </p>
 883
 884    <p id="Model-urlRoot">
 885      <b class="header">urlRoot</b><code>model.urlRoot</code>
 886      <br />
 887      Specify a <tt>urlRoot</tt> if you're using a model outside of a collection,
 888      to enable the default <a href="#Model-url">url</a> function to generate
 889      URLs based on the model id. <tt>"/[urlRoot]/id"</tt>
 890    </p>
 891
 892<pre class="runnable">
 893var Book = Backbone.Model.extend({urlRoot : '/books'});
 894
 895var solaris = new Book({id: "1083-lem-solaris"});
 896
 897alert(solaris.url());
 898</pre>
 899
 900    <p id="Model-parse">
 901      <b class="header">parse</b><code>model.parse(response)</code>
 902      <br />
 903      <b>parse</b> is called whenever a model's data is returned by the
 904      server, in <a href="#Model-fetch">fetch</a>, and <a href="#Model-save">save</a>.
 905      The function is passed the raw <tt>response</tt> object, and should return
 906      the attributes hash to be <a href="#Model-set">set</a> on the model. The
 907      default implementation is a no-op, simply passing through the JSON response.
 908      Override this if you need to work with a preexisting API, or better namespace
 909      your responses.
 910    </p>
 911
 912    <p>
 913      If you're working with a Rails backend, you'll notice that Rails' default
 914      <tt>to_json</tt> implementation includes a model's attributes under a
 915      namespace. To disable this behavior for seamless Backbone integration, set:
 916    </p>
 917
 918<pre>
 919ActiveRecord::Base.include_root_in_json = false
 920</pre>
 921
 922    <p id="Model-clone">
 923      <b class="header">clone</b><code>model.clone()</code>
 924      <br />
 925      Returns a new instance of the model with identical attributes.
 926    </p>
 927
 928    <p id="Model-isNew">
 929      <b class="header">isNew</b><code>model.isNew()</code>
 930      <br />
 931      Has this model been saved to the server yet? If the model does not yet have
 932      an <tt>id</tt>, it is considered to be new.
 933    </p>
 934
 935    <p id="Model-change">
 936      <b class="header">change</b><code>model.change()</code>
 937      <br />
 938      Manually trigger the <tt>"change"</tt> event.
 939      If you've been passing <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to the <a href="#Model-set">set</a> function in order to
 940      aggregate rapid changes to a model, you'll want to call <tt>model.change()</tt>
 941      when you're all finished.
 942    </p>
 943
 944    <p id="Model-hasChanged">
 945      <b class="header">hasChanged</b><code>model.hasChanged([attribute])</code>
 946      <br />
 947      Has the model changed since the last <tt>"change"</tt> event? If an <b>attribute</b>
 948      is passed, returns <tt>true</tt> if that specific attribute has changed.
 949    </p>
 950
 951<pre>
 952book.bind("change", function() {
 953  if (book.hasChanged("title")) {
 954    ...
 955  }
 956});
 957</pre>
 958
 959    <p id="Model-changedAttributes">
 960      <b class="header">changedAttributes</b><code>model.changedAttributes([attributes])</code>
 961      <br />
 962      Retrieve a hash of only the model's attributes that have changed. Optionally,
 963      an external <b>attributes</b> hash can be passed in, returning
 964      the attributes in that hash which differ from the model. This can be used
 965      to figure out which portions of a view should be updated, or what calls
 966      need to be made to sync the changes to the server.
 967    </p>
 968
 969    <p id="Model-previous">
 970      <b class="header">previous</b><code>model.previous(attribute)</code>
 971      <br />
 972      During a <tt>"change"</tt> event, this method can be used to get the
 973      previous value of a changed attribute.
 974    </p>
 975
 976<pre class="runnable">
 977var bill = new Backbone.Model({
 978  name: "Bill Smith"
 979});
 980
 981bill.bind("change:name", function(model, name) {
 982  alert("Changed name from " + bill.previous("name") + " to " + name);
 983});
 984
 985bill.set({name : "Bill Jones"});
 986</pre>
 987
 988    <p id="Model-previousAttributes">
 989      <b class="header">previousAttributes</b><code>model.previousAttributes()</code>
 990      <br />
 991      Return a copy of the model's previous attributes. Useful for getting a
 992      diff between versions of a model, or getting back to a valid state after
 993      an error occurs.
 994    </p>
 995
 996    <h2 id="Collection">Backbone.Collection</h2>
 997
 998    <p>
 999      Collections are ordered sets of models. You can to bind <tt>"change"</tt> events
1000      to be notified when any model in the collection has been modified,
1001      listen for <tt>"add"</tt> and <tt>"remove"</tt> events, <tt>fetch</tt>
1002      the collection from the server, and use a full suite of
1003      <a href="#Collection-Underscore-Methods">Underscore.js methods</a>.
1004    </p>
1005
1006    <p>
1007      Any event that is triggered on a model in a collection will also be
1008      triggered on the collection directly, for convenience.
1009      This allows you to listen for changes to specific attributes in any
1010      model in a collection, for example:
1011      <tt>Documents.bind("change:selected", ...)</tt>
1012    </p>
1013
1014    <p id="Collection-extend">
1015      <b class="header">extend</b><code>Backbone.Collection.extend(properties, [classProperties])</code>
1016      <br />
1017      To create a <b>Collection</b> class of your own, extend <b>Backbone.Collection</b>,
1018      providing instance <b>properties</b>, as well as optional <b>classProperties</b> to be attached
1019      directly to the collection's constructor function.
1020    </p>
1021
1022    <p id="Collection-model">
1023      <b class="header">model</b><code>collection.model</code>
1024      <br />
1025      Override this property to specify the model class that the collection
1026      contains. If defined, you can pass raw attributes objects (and arrays) to
1027      <a href="#Collection-add">add</a>, <a href="#Collection-create">create</a>,
1028      and <a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a>, and the attributes will be
1029      converted into a model of the proper type.
1030    </p>
1031
1032<pre>
1033var Library = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1034  model: Book
1035});
1036</pre>
1037
1038    <p id="Collection-constructor">
1039      <b class="header">constructor / initialize</b><code>new Collection([models], [options])</code>
1040      <br />
1041      When creating a Collection, you may choose to pass in the initial array of <b>models</b>.
1042      The collection's <a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a> function
1043      may be included as an option. If you define an <b>initialize</b> function, it will be
1044      invoked when the collection is created.
1045    </p>
1046
1047<pre>
1048var tabs = new TabSet([tab1, tab2, tab3]);
1049</pre>
1050
1051    <p id="Collection-models">
1052      <b class="header">models</b><code>collection.models</code>
1053      <br />
1054      Raw access to the JavaScript array of models inside of the collection. Usually you'll
1055      want to use <tt>get</tt>, <tt>at</tt>, or the <b>Underscore methods</b>
1056      to access model objects, but occasionally a direct reference to the array
1057      is desired.
1058    </p>
1059
1060    <p id="Collection-toJSON">
1061      <b class="header">toJSON</b><code>collection.toJSON()</code>
1062      <br />
1063      Return an array containing the attributes hash of each model in the
1064      collection. This can be used to serialize and persist the
1065      collection as a whole. The name of this method is a bit confusing, because
1066      it conforms to
1067      <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JSON#toJSON()_method">JavaScript's JSON API</a>.
1068    </p>
1069
1070<pre class="runnable">
1071var collection = new Backbone.Collection([
1072  {name: "Tim", age: 5},
1073  {name: "Ida", age: 26},
1074  {name: "Rob", age: 55}
1075]);
1076
1077alert(JSON.stringify(collection));
1078</pre>
1079
1080    <p id="Collection-Underscore-Methods">
1081      <b class="header">Underscore Methods (25)</b>
1082      <br />
1083      Backbone proxies to <b>Underscore.js</b> to provide 25 iteration functions
1084      on <b>Backbone.Collection</b>. They aren't all documented here, but
1085      you can take a look at the Underscore documentation for the full details&hellip;
1086    </p>
1087
1088    <ul>
1089      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#each">forEach (each)</a></li>
1090      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#map">map</a></li>
1091      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reduce">reduce (foldl, inject)</a></li>
1092      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reduceRight">reduceRight (foldr)</a></li>
1093      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#detect">find (detect)</a></li>
1094      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#select">filter (select)</a></li>
1095      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reject">reject</a></li>
1096      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#all">every (all)</a></li>
1097      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#any">some (any)</a></li>
1098      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#include">include</a></li>
1099      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#invoke">invoke</a></li>
1100      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#max">max</a></li>
1101      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#min">min</a></li>
1102      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#sortBy">sortBy</a></li>
1103      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#sortedIndex">sortedIndex</a></li>
1104      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#toArray">toArray</a></li>
1105      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#size">size</a></li>
1106      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#first">first</a></li>
1107      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#rest">rest</a></li>
1108      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#last">last</a></li>
1109      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#without">without</a></li>
1110      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#indexOf">indexOf</a></li>
1111      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#lastIndexOf">lastIndexOf</a></li>
1112      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#isEmpty">isEmpty</a></li>
1113      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#chain">chain</a></li>
1114    </ul>
1115
1116<pre>
1117Books.each(function(book) {
1118  book.publish();
1119});
1120
1121var titles = Books.map(function(book) {
1122  return book.get("title");
1123});
1124
1125var publishedBooks = Books.filter(function(book) {
1126  return book.get("published") === true;
1127});
1128
1129var alphabetical = Books.sortBy(function(book) {
1130  return book.author.get("name").toLowerCase();
1131});
1132</pre>
1133
1134    <p id="Collection-add">
1135      <b class="header">add</b><code>collection.add(models, [options])</code>
1136      <br />
1137      Add a model (or an array of models) to the collection. Fires an <tt>"add"</tt>
1138      event, which you can pass <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to suppress. If a
1139      <a href="#Collection-model">model</a> property is defined, you may also pass
1140      raw attributes objects, and have them be vivified as instances of the model.
1141    </p>
1142
1143<pre class="runnable">
1144var ships = new Backbone.Collection;
1145
1146ships.bind("add", function(ship) {
1147  alert("Ahoy " + ship.get("name") + "!");
1148});
1149
1150ships.add([
1151  {name: "Flying Dutchman"},
1152  {name: "Black Pearl"}
1153]);
1154</pre>
1155
1156    <p id="Collection-remove">
1157      <b class="header">remove</b><code>collection.remove(models, [options])</code>
1158      <br />
1159      Remove a model (or an array of models) from the collection. Fires a
1160      <tt>"remove"</tt> event, which you can use <tt>silent</tt>
1161      to suppress.
1162    </p>
1163
1164    <p id="Collection-get">
1165      <b class="header">get</b><code>collection.get(id)</code>
1166      <br />
1167      Get a model from a collection, specified by <b>id</b>.
1168    </p>
1169
1170<pre>
1171var book = Library.get(110);
1172</pre>
1173
1174    <p id="Collection-getByCid">
1175      <b class="header">getByCid</b><code>collection.getByCid(cid)</code>
1176      <br />
1177      Get a model from a collection, specified by client id. The client id
1178      is the <tt>.cid</tt> property of the model, automatically assigned whenever
1179      a model is created. Useful for models which have not yet been saved to
1180      the server, and do not yet have true ids.
1181    </p>
1182
1183    <p id="Collection-at">
1184      <b class="header">at</b><code>collection.at(index)</code>
1185      <br />
1186      Get a model from a collection, specified by index. Useful if your collection
1187      is sorted, and if your collection isn't sorted, <b>at</b> will still
1188      retrieve models in insertion order.
1189    </p>
1190
1191    <p id="Collection-length">
1192      <b class="header">length</b><code>collection.length</code>
1193      <br />
1194      Like an array, a Collection maintains a <tt>length</tt> property, counting
1195      the number of models it contains.
1196    </p>
1197
1198    <p id="Collection-comparator">
1199      <b class="header">comparator</b><code>collection.comparator</code>
1200      <br />
1201      By default there is no <b>comparator</b> function on a collection.
1202      If you define a comparator, it will be used to maintain
1203      the collection in sorted order. This means that as models are added,
1204      they are inserted at the correct index in <tt>collection.models</tt>.
1205      Comparator functions take a model and return a numeric or string value
1206      by which the model should be ordered relative to others.
1207    </p>
1208
1209    <p>
1210      Note how even though all of the chapters in this example are added backwards,
1211      they come out in the proper order:
1212    </p>
1213
1214<pre class="runnable">
1215var Chapter  = Backbone.Model;
1216var chapters = new Backbone.Collection;
1217
1218chapters.comparator = function(chapter) {
1219  return chapter.get("page");
1220};
1221
1222chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 9, title: "The End"}));
1223chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 5, title: "The Middle"}));
1224chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 1, title: "The Beginning"}));
1225
1226alert(chapters.pluck('title'));
1227</pre>
1228
1229    <p class="warning">
1230      Brief aside: This comparator function is different than JavaScript's regular
1231      "sort", which must return <tt>0</tt>, <tt>1</tt>, or <tt>-1</tt>,
1232      and is more similar to a <tt>sortBy</tt> &mdash; a much nicer API.
1233    </p>
1234
1235    <p id="Collection-sort">
1236      <b class="header">sort</b><code>collection.sort([options])</code>
1237      <br />
1238      Force a collection to re-sort itself. You don't need to call this under
1239      normal circumstances, as a collection with a <a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a> function
1240      will maintain itself in proper sort order at all times. Calling <b>sort</b>
1241      triggers the collection's <tt>"refresh"</tt> event, unless silenced by passing
1242      <tt>{silent: true}</tt>
1243    </p>
1244
1245    <p id="Collection-pluck">
1246      <b class="header">pluck</b><code>collection.pluck(attribute)</code>
1247      <br />
1248      Pluck an attribute from each model in the collection. Equivalent to calling
1249      <tt>map</tt>, and returning a single attribute from the iterator.
1250    </p>
1251
1252<pre class="runnable">
1253var stooges = new Backbone.Collection([
1254  new Backbone.Model({name: "Curly"}),
1255  new Backbone.Model({name: "Larry"}),
1256  new Backbone.Model({name: "Moe"})
1257]);
1258
1259var names = stooges.pluck("name");
1260
1261alert(JSON.stringify(names));
1262</pre>
1263
1264    <p id="Collection-url">
1265      <b class="header">url</b><code>collection.url or collection.url()</code>
1266      <br />
1267      Set the <b>url</b> property (or function) on a collection to reference
1268      its location on the server. Models within the collection will use <b>url</b>
1269      to construct URLs of their own.
1270    </p>
1271
1272<pre>
1273var Notes = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1274  url: '/notes'
1275});
1276
1277// Or, something more sophisticated:
1278
1279var Notes = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1280  url: function() {
1281    return this.document.url() + '/notes';
1282  }
1283});
1284</pre>
1285
1286    <p id="Collection-parse">
1287      <b class="header">parse</b><code>collection.parse(response)</code>
1288      <br />
1289      <b>parse</b> is called by Backbone whenever a collection's models are
1290      returned by the server, in <a href="#Collection-fetch">fetch</a>.
1291      The function is passed the raw <tt>response</tt> object, and should return
1292      the array of model attributes to be <a href="#Collection-add">added</a>
1293      to the collection. The default implementation is a no-op, simply passing
1294      through the JSON response. Override this if you need to work with a
1295      preexisting API, or better namespace your responses.
1296    </p>
1297
1298<pre>
1299var Tweets = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1300  // The Twitter Search API returns tweets under "results".
1301  parse: function(response) {
1302    return response.results;
1303  }
1304});
1305</pre>
1306
1307    <p id="Collection-fetch">
1308      <b class="header">fetch</b><code>collection.fetch([options])</code>
1309      <br />
1310      Fetch the default set of models for this collection from the server,
1311      refreshing the collection when they arrive. The <b>options</b> hash takes
1312      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt>
1313      callbacks which will be passed <tt>(collection, response)</tt> as arguments.
1314      When the model data returns from the server, the collection will
1315      <a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a>.
1316      Delegates to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>
1317      under the covers, for custom persistence strategies.
1318      The server handler for <b>fetch</b> requests should return a JSON array of
1319      models.
1320    </p>
1321
1322<pre class="runnable">
1323Backbone.sync = function(method, model) {
1324  alert(method + ": " + model.url);
1325};
1326
1327var Accounts = new Backbone.Collection;
1328Accounts.url = '/accounts';
1329
1330Accounts.fetch();
1331</pre>
1332
1333    <p>
1334      If you'd like to add the incoming models to the current collection, instead
1335      of replacing the collection's contents, pass <tt>{add: true}</tt> as an
1336      option to <b>fetch</b>.
1337    </p>
1338
1339    <p>
1340      Note that <b>fetch</b> should not be used to populate collections on
1341      page load &mdash; all models needed at load time should already be
1342      <a href="#FAQ-bootstrap">bootstrapped</a> in to place. <b>fetch</b> is
1343      intended for lazily-loading models for interfaces that are not needed
1344      immediately: for example, documents with collections of notes that may be
1345      toggled open and closed.
1346    </p>
1347
1348    <p id="Collection-refresh">
1349      <b class="header">refresh</b><code>collection.refresh(models, [options])</code>
1350      <br />
1351      Adding and removing models one at a time is all well and good, but sometimes
1352      you have so many models to change that you'd rather just update the collection
1353      in bulk. Use <b>refresh</b> to replace a collection with a new list
1354      of models (or attribute hashes), triggering a single <tt>"refresh"</tt> event
1355      at the end. Pass <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to suppress the <tt>"refresh"</tt> event.
1356    </p>
1357
1358    <p>
1359      Here's an example using <b>refresh</b> to bootstrap a collection during initial page load,
1360      in a Rails application.
1361    </p>
1362
1363<pre>
1364&lt;script&gt;
1365  Accounts.refresh(&lt;%= @accounts.to_json %&gt;);
1366&lt;/script&gt;
1367</pre>
1368
1369    <p id="Collection-create">
1370      <b class="header">create</b><code>collection.create(attributes, [options])</code>
1371      <br />
1372      Convenience to create a new instance of a model within a collection.
1373      Equivalent to instantiating a model with a hash of attributes,
1374      saving the model to the server, and adding the model to the set after being
1375      successfully created. Returns
1376      the model, or <tt>false</tt> if a validation error prevented the
1377      model from being created. In order for this to work, your should set the
1378      <a href="#Collection-model">model</a> property of the collection.
1379    </p>
1380
1381<pre>
1382var Library = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1383  model: Book
1384});
1385
1386var NYPL = new Library;
1387
1388var othello = NYPL.create({
1389  title: "Othello",
1390  author: "William Shakespeare"
1391});
1392</pre>
1393
1394    <h2 id="Controller">Backbone.Controller</h2>
1395
1396    <p>
1397      Web applications often choose to change their URL fragment (<tt>#fragment</tt>)
1398      in order to provide shareable, bookmarkable URLs for an Ajax-heavy application.
1399      <b>Backbone.Controller</b> provides methods for routing client-s…

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