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/public/libs/backbone.js

https://bitbucket.org/tweetegy/save_multiple_images_using_backbone
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   1//     Backbone.js 0.5.1
   2//     (c) 2010 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
   3//     Backbone may be freely distributed under the MIT license.
   4//     For all details and documentation:
   5//     http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone
   6
   7(function(){
   8
   9  // Initial Setup
  10  // -------------
  11
  12  // Save a reference to the global object.
  13  var root = this;
  14
  15  // Save the previous value of the `Backbone` variable.
  16  var previousBackbone = root.Backbone;
  17
  18  // The top-level namespace. All public Backbone classes and modules will
  19  // be attached to this. Exported for both CommonJS and the browser.
  20  var Backbone;
  21  if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
  22    Backbone = exports;
  23  } else {
  24    Backbone = root.Backbone = {};
  25  }
  26
  27  // Current version of the library. Keep in sync with `package.json`.
  28  Backbone.VERSION = '0.5.1';
  29
  30  // Require Underscore, if we're on the server, and it's not already present.
  31  var _ = root._;
  32  if (!_ && (typeof require !== 'undefined')) _ = require('underscore')._;
  33
  34  // For Backbone's purposes, jQuery or Zepto owns the `$` variable.
  35  var $ = root.jQuery || root.Zepto;
  36
  37  // Runs Backbone.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `Backbone` variable
  38  // to its previous owner. Returns a reference to this Backbone object.
  39  Backbone.noConflict = function() {
  40    root.Backbone = previousBackbone;
  41    return this;
  42  };
  43
  44  // Turn on `emulateHTTP` to use support legacy HTTP servers. Setting this option will
  45  // fake `"PUT"` and `"DELETE"` requests via the `_method` parameter and set a
  46  // `X-Http-Method-Override` header.
  47  Backbone.emulateHTTP = false;
  48
  49  // Turn on `emulateJSON` to support legacy servers that can't deal with direct
  50  // `application/json` requests ... will encode the body as
  51  // `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` instead and will send the model in a
  52  // form param named `model`.
  53  Backbone.emulateJSON = false;
  54
  55  // Backbone.Events
  56  // -----------------
  57
  58  // A module that can be mixed in to *any object* in order to provide it with
  59  // custom events. You may `bind` or `unbind` a callback function to an event;
  60  // `trigger`-ing an event fires all callbacks in succession.
  61  //
  62  //     var object = {};
  63  //     _.extend(object, Backbone.Events);
  64  //     object.bind('expand', function(){ alert('expanded'); });
  65  //     object.trigger('expand');
  66  //
  67  Backbone.Events = {
  68
  69    // Bind an event, specified by a string name, `ev`, to a `callback` function.
  70    // Passing `"all"` will bind the callback to all events fired.
  71    bind : function(ev, callback) {
  72      var calls = this._callbacks || (this._callbacks = {});
  73      var list  = calls[ev] || (calls[ev] = []);
  74      list.push(callback);
  75      return this;
  76    },
  77
  78    // Remove one or many callbacks. If `callback` is null, removes all
  79    // callbacks for the event. If `ev` is null, removes all bound callbacks
  80    // for all events.
  81    unbind : function(ev, callback) {
  82      var calls;
  83      if (!ev) {
  84        this._callbacks = {};
  85      } else if (calls = this._callbacks) {
  86        if (!callback) {
  87          calls[ev] = [];
  88        } else {
  89          var list = calls[ev];
  90          if (!list) return this;
  91          for (var i = 0, l = list.length; i < l; i++) {
  92            if (callback === list[i]) {
  93              list[i] = null;
  94              break;
  95            }
  96          }
  97        }
  98      }
  99      return this;
 100    },
 101
 102    // Trigger an event, firing all bound callbacks. Callbacks are passed the
 103    // same arguments as `trigger` is, apart from the event name.
 104    // Listening for `"all"` passes the true event name as the first argument.
 105    trigger : function(eventName) {
 106      var list, calls, ev, callback, args;
 107      var both = 2;
 108      if (!(calls = this._callbacks)) return this;
 109      while (both--) {
 110        ev = both ? eventName : 'all';
 111        if (list = calls[ev]) {
 112          for (var i = 0, l = list.length; i < l; i++) {
 113            if (!(callback = list[i])) {
 114              list.splice(i, 1); i--; l--;
 115            } else {
 116              args = both ? Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1) : arguments;
 117              callback.apply(this, args);
 118            }
 119          }
 120        }
 121      }
 122      return this;
 123    }
 124
 125  };
 126
 127  // Backbone.Model
 128  // --------------
 129
 130  // Create a new model, with defined attributes. A client id (`cid`)
 131  // is automatically generated and assigned for you.
 132  Backbone.Model = function(attributes, options) {
 133    var defaults;
 134    attributes || (attributes = {});
 135    if (defaults = this.defaults) {
 136      if (_.isFunction(defaults)) defaults = defaults();
 137      attributes = _.extend({}, defaults, attributes);
 138    }
 139    this.attributes = {};
 140    this._escapedAttributes = {};
 141    this.cid = _.uniqueId('c');
 142    this.set(attributes, {silent : true});
 143    this._changed = false;
 144    this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
 145    if (options && options.collection) this.collection = options.collection;
 146    this.initialize(attributes, options);
 147  };
 148
 149  // Attach all inheritable methods to the Model prototype.
 150  _.extend(Backbone.Model.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
 151
 152    // A snapshot of the model's previous attributes, taken immediately
 153    // after the last `"change"` event was fired.
 154    _previousAttributes : null,
 155
 156    // Has the item been changed since the last `"change"` event?
 157    _changed : false,
 158
 159    // The default name for the JSON `id` attribute is `"id"`. MongoDB and
 160    // CouchDB users may want to set this to `"_id"`.
 161    idAttribute : 'id',
 162
 163    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
 164    // initialization logic.
 165    initialize : function(){},
 166
 167    // Return a copy of the model's `attributes` object.
 168    toJSON : function() {
 169      return _.clone(this.attributes);
 170    },
 171
 172    // Get the value of an attribute.
 173    get : function(attr) {
 174      return this.attributes[attr];
 175    },
 176
 177    // Get the HTML-escaped value of an attribute.
 178    escape : function(attr) {
 179      var html;
 180      if (html = this._escapedAttributes[attr]) return html;
 181      var val = this.attributes[attr];
 182      return this._escapedAttributes[attr] = escapeHTML(val == null ? '' : '' + val);
 183    },
 184
 185    // Returns `true` if the attribute contains a value that is not null
 186    // or undefined.
 187    has : function(attr) {
 188      return this.attributes[attr] != null;
 189    },
 190
 191    // Set a hash of model attributes on the object, firing `"change"` unless you
 192    // choose to silence it.
 193    set : function(attrs, options) {
 194
 195      // Extract attributes and options.
 196      options || (options = {});
 197      if (!attrs) return this;
 198      if (attrs.attributes) attrs = attrs.attributes;
 199      var now = this.attributes, escaped = this._escapedAttributes;
 200
 201      // Run validation.
 202      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(attrs, options)) return false;
 203
 204      // Check for changes of `id`.
 205      if (this.idAttribute in attrs) this.id = attrs[this.idAttribute];
 206
 207      // We're about to start triggering change events.
 208      var alreadyChanging = this._changing;
 209      this._changing = true;
 210
 211      // Update attributes.
 212      for (var attr in attrs) {
 213        var val = attrs[attr];
 214        if (!_.isEqual(now[attr], val)) {
 215          now[attr] = val;
 216          delete escaped[attr];
 217          this._changed = true;
 218          if (!options.silent) this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, val, options);
 219        }
 220      }
 221
 222      // Fire the `"change"` event, if the model has been changed.
 223      if (!alreadyChanging && !options.silent && this._changed) this.change(options);
 224      this._changing = false;
 225      return this;
 226    },
 227
 228    // Remove an attribute from the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
 229    // to silence it. `unset` is a noop if the attribute doesn't exist.
 230    unset : function(attr, options) {
 231      if (!(attr in this.attributes)) return this;
 232      options || (options = {});
 233      var value = this.attributes[attr];
 234
 235      // Run validation.
 236      var validObj = {};
 237      validObj[attr] = void 0;
 238      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(validObj, options)) return false;
 239
 240      // Remove the attribute.
 241      delete this.attributes[attr];
 242      delete this._escapedAttributes[attr];
 243      if (attr == this.idAttribute) delete this.id;
 244      this._changed = true;
 245      if (!options.silent) {
 246        this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, void 0, options);
 247        this.change(options);
 248      }
 249      return this;
 250    },
 251
 252    // Clear all attributes on the model, firing `"change"` unless you choose
 253    // to silence it.
 254    clear : function(options) {
 255      options || (options = {});
 256      var attr;
 257      var old = this.attributes;
 258
 259      // Run validation.
 260      var validObj = {};
 261      for (attr in old) validObj[attr] = void 0;
 262      if (!options.silent && this.validate && !this._performValidation(validObj, options)) return false;
 263
 264      this.attributes = {};
 265      this._escapedAttributes = {};
 266      this._changed = true;
 267      if (!options.silent) {
 268        for (attr in old) {
 269          this.trigger('change:' + attr, this, void 0, options);
 270        }
 271        this.change(options);
 272      }
 273      return this;
 274    },
 275
 276    // Fetch the model from the server. If the server's representation of the
 277    // model differs from its current attributes, they will be overriden,
 278    // triggering a `"change"` event.
 279    fetch : function(options) {
 280      options || (options = {});
 281      var model = this;
 282      var success = options.success;
 283      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
 284        if (!model.set(model.parse(resp, xhr), options)) return false;
 285        if (success) success(model, resp);
 286      };
 287      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
 288      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
 289    },
 290
 291    // Set a hash of model attributes, and sync the model to the server.
 292    // If the server returns an attributes hash that differs, the model's
 293    // state will be `set` again.
 294    save : function(attrs, options) {
 295      options || (options = {});
 296      if (attrs && !this.set(attrs, options)) return false;
 297      var model = this;
 298      var success = options.success;
 299      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
 300        if (!model.set(model.parse(resp, xhr), options)) return false;
 301        if (success) success(model, resp, xhr);
 302      };
 303      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
 304      var method = this.isNew() ? 'create' : 'update';
 305      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, method, this, options);
 306    },
 307
 308    // Destroy this model on the server if it was already persisted. Upon success, the model is removed
 309    // from its collection, if it has one.
 310    destroy : function(options) {
 311      options || (options = {});
 312      if (this.isNew()) return this.trigger('destroy', this, this.collection, options);
 313      var model = this;
 314      var success = options.success;
 315      options.success = function(resp) {
 316        model.trigger('destroy', model, model.collection, options);
 317        if (success) success(model, resp);
 318      };
 319      options.error = wrapError(options.error, model, options);
 320      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'delete', this, options);
 321    },
 322
 323    // Default URL for the model's representation on the server -- if you're
 324    // using Backbone's restful methods, override this to change the endpoint
 325    // that will be called.
 326    url : function() {
 327	console.log("The url of this collection ", this.collection.url);
 328      var base = getUrl(this.collection) || this.urlRoot || urlError();
 329      if (this.isNew()) return base;
 330      return base + (base.charAt(base.length - 1) == '/' ? '' : '/') + encodeURIComponent(this.id);
 331    },
 332
 333    // **parse** converts a response into the hash of attributes to be `set` on
 334    // the model. The default implementation is just to pass the response along.
 335    parse : function(resp, xhr) {
 336      return resp;
 337    },
 338
 339    // Create a new model with identical attributes to this one.
 340    clone : function() {
 341      return new this.constructor(this);
 342    },
 343
 344    // A model is new if it has never been saved to the server, and lacks an id.
 345    isNew : function() {
 346      return this.id == null;
 347    },
 348
 349    // Call this method to manually fire a `change` event for this model.
 350    // Calling this will cause all objects observing the model to update.
 351    change : function(options) {
 352      this.trigger('change', this, options);
 353      this._previousAttributes = _.clone(this.attributes);
 354      this._changed = false;
 355    },
 356
 357    // Determine if the model has changed since the last `"change"` event.
 358    // If you specify an attribute name, determine if that attribute has changed.
 359    hasChanged : function(attr) {
 360      if (attr) return this._previousAttributes[attr] != this.attributes[attr];
 361      return this._changed;
 362    },
 363
 364    // Return an object containing all the attributes that have changed, or false
 365    // if there are no changed attributes. Useful for determining what parts of a
 366    // view need to be updated and/or what attributes need to be persisted to
 367    // the server.
 368    changedAttributes : function(now) {
 369      now || (now = this.attributes);
 370      var old = this._previousAttributes;
 371      var changed = false;
 372      for (var attr in now) {
 373        if (!_.isEqual(old[attr], now[attr])) {
 374          changed = changed || {};
 375          changed[attr] = now[attr];
 376        }
 377      }
 378      return changed;
 379    },
 380
 381    // Get the previous value of an attribute, recorded at the time the last
 382    // `"change"` event was fired.
 383    previous : function(attr) {
 384      if (!attr || !this._previousAttributes) return null;
 385      return this._previousAttributes[attr];
 386    },
 387
 388    // Get all of the attributes of the model at the time of the previous
 389    // `"change"` event.
 390    previousAttributes : function() {
 391      return _.clone(this._previousAttributes);
 392    },
 393
 394    // Run validation against a set of incoming attributes, returning `true`
 395    // if all is well. If a specific `error` callback has been passed,
 396    // call that instead of firing the general `"error"` event.
 397    _performValidation : function(attrs, options) {
 398      var error = this.validate(attrs);
 399      if (error) {
 400        if (options.error) {
 401          options.error(this, error, options);
 402        } else {
 403          this.trigger('error', this, error, options);
 404        }
 405        return false;
 406      }
 407      return true;
 408    }
 409
 410  });
 411
 412  // Backbone.Collection
 413  // -------------------
 414
 415  // Provides a standard collection class for our sets of models, ordered
 416  // or unordered. If a `comparator` is specified, the Collection will maintain
 417  // its models in sort order, as they're added and removed.
 418  Backbone.Collection = function(models, options) {
 419    options || (options = {});
 420    if (options.comparator) this.comparator = options.comparator;
 421    _.bindAll(this, '_onModelEvent', '_removeReference');
 422    this._reset();
 423    if (models) this.reset(models, {silent: true});
 424    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
 425  };
 426
 427  // Define the Collection's inheritable methods.
 428  _.extend(Backbone.Collection.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
 429
 430    // The default model for a collection is just a **Backbone.Model**.
 431    // This should be overridden in most cases.
 432    model : Backbone.Model,
 433
 434    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
 435    // initialization logic.
 436    initialize : function(){},
 437
 438    // The JSON representation of a Collection is an array of the
 439    // models' attributes.
 440    toJSON : function() {
 441      return this.map(function(model){ return model.toJSON(); });
 442    },
 443
 444    // Add a model, or list of models to the set. Pass **silent** to avoid
 445    // firing the `added` event for every new model.
 446    add : function(models, options) {
 447      if (_.isArray(models)) {
 448        for (var i = 0, l = models.length; i < l; i++) {
 449          this._add(models[i], options);
 450        }
 451      } else {
 452        this._add(models, options);
 453      }
 454      return this;
 455    },
 456
 457    // Remove a model, or a list of models from the set. Pass silent to avoid
 458    // firing the `removed` event for every model removed.
 459    remove : function(models, options) {
 460      if (_.isArray(models)) {
 461        for (var i = 0, l = models.length; i < l; i++) {
 462          this._remove(models[i], options);
 463        }
 464      } else {
 465        this._remove(models, options);
 466      }
 467      return this;
 468    },
 469
 470    // Get a model from the set by id.
 471    get : function(id) {
 472      if (id == null) return null;
 473      return this._byId[id.id != null ? id.id : id];
 474    },
 475
 476    // Get a model from the set by client id.
 477    getByCid : function(cid) {
 478      return cid && this._byCid[cid.cid || cid];
 479    },
 480
 481    // Get the model at the given index.
 482    at: function(index) {
 483      return this.models[index];
 484    },
 485
 486    // Force the collection to re-sort itself. You don't need to call this under normal
 487    // circumstances, as the set will maintain sort order as each item is added.
 488    sort : function(options) {
 489      options || (options = {});
 490      if (!this.comparator) throw new Error('Cannot sort a set without a comparator');
 491      this.models = this.sortBy(this.comparator);
 492      if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
 493      return this;
 494    },
 495
 496    // Pluck an attribute from each model in the collection.
 497    pluck : function(attr) {
 498      return _.map(this.models, function(model){ return model.get(attr); });
 499    },
 500
 501    // When you have more items than you want to add or remove individually,
 502    // you can reset the entire set with a new list of models, without firing
 503    // any `added` or `removed` events. Fires `reset` when finished.
 504    reset : function(models, options) {
 505      models  || (models = []);
 506      options || (options = {});
 507      this.each(this._removeReference);
 508      this._reset();
 509      this.add(models, {silent: true});
 510      if (!options.silent) this.trigger('reset', this, options);
 511      return this;
 512    },
 513
 514    // Fetch the default set of models for this collection, resetting the
 515    // collection when they arrive. If `add: true` is passed, appends the
 516    // models to the collection instead of resetting.
 517    fetch : function(options) {
 518      options || (options = {});
 519      var collection = this;
 520      var success = options.success;
 521      options.success = function(resp, status, xhr) {
 522        collection[options.add ? 'add' : 'reset'](collection.parse(resp, xhr), options);
 523        if (success) success(collection, resp);
 524      };
 525      options.error = wrapError(options.error, collection, options);
 526      return (this.sync || Backbone.sync).call(this, 'read', this, options);
 527    },
 528
 529    // Create a new instance of a model in this collection. After the model
 530    // has been created on the server, it will be added to the collection.
 531    // Returns the model, or 'false' if validation on a new model fails.
 532    create : function(model, options) {
 533      var coll = this;
 534      options || (options = {});
 535      model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
 536      if (!model) return false;
 537      var success = options.success;
 538      options.success = function(nextModel, resp, xhr) {
 539        coll.add(nextModel, options);
 540        if (success) success(nextModel, resp, xhr);
 541      };
 542      model.save(null, options);
 543      return model;
 544    },
 545
 546    // **parse** converts a response into a list of models to be added to the
 547    // collection. The default implementation is just to pass it through.
 548    parse : function(resp, xhr) {
 549      return resp;
 550    },
 551
 552    // Proxy to _'s chain. Can't be proxied the same way the rest of the
 553    // underscore methods are proxied because it relies on the underscore
 554    // constructor.
 555    chain: function () {
 556      return _(this.models).chain();
 557    },
 558
 559    // Reset all internal state. Called when the collection is reset.
 560    _reset : function(options) {
 561      this.length = 0;
 562      this.models = [];
 563      this._byId  = {};
 564      this._byCid = {};
 565    },
 566
 567    // Prepare a model to be added to this collection
 568    _prepareModel: function(model, options) {
 569      if (!(model instanceof Backbone.Model)) {
 570        var attrs = model;
 571        model = new this.model(attrs, {collection: this});
 572        if (model.validate && !model._performValidation(attrs, options)) model = false;
 573      } else if (!model.collection) {
 574        model.collection = this;
 575      }
 576      return model;
 577    },
 578
 579    // Internal implementation of adding a single model to the set, updating
 580    // hash indexes for `id` and `cid` lookups.
 581    // Returns the model, or 'false' if validation on a new model fails.
 582    _add : function(model, options) {
 583      options || (options = {});
 584      model = this._prepareModel(model, options);
 585      if (!model) return false;
 586      var already = this.getByCid(model) || this.get(model);
 587      if (already) throw new Error(["Can't add the same model to a set twice", already.id]);
 588      this._byId[model.id] = model;
 589      this._byCid[model.cid] = model;
 590      var index = options.at != null ? options.at :
 591                  this.comparator ? this.sortedIndex(model, this.comparator) :
 592                  this.length;
 593      this.models.splice(index, 0, model);
 594      model.bind('all', this._onModelEvent);
 595      this.length++;
 596      if (!options.silent) model.trigger('add', model, this, options);
 597      return model;
 598    },
 599
 600    // Internal implementation of removing a single model from the set, updating
 601    // hash indexes for `id` and `cid` lookups.
 602    _remove : function(model, options) {
 603      options || (options = {});
 604      model = this.getByCid(model) || this.get(model);
 605      if (!model) return null;
 606      delete this._byId[model.id];
 607      delete this._byCid[model.cid];
 608      this.models.splice(this.indexOf(model), 1);
 609      this.length--;
 610      if (!options.silent) model.trigger('remove', model, this, options);
 611      this._removeReference(model);
 612      return model;
 613    },
 614
 615    // Internal method to remove a model's ties to a collection.
 616    _removeReference : function(model) {
 617      if (this == model.collection) {
 618        delete model.collection;
 619      }
 620      model.unbind('all', this._onModelEvent);
 621    },
 622
 623    // Internal method called every time a model in the set fires an event.
 624    // Sets need to update their indexes when models change ids. All other
 625    // events simply proxy through. "add" and "remove" events that originate
 626    // in other collections are ignored.
 627    _onModelEvent : function(ev, model, collection, options) {
 628      if ((ev == 'add' || ev == 'remove') && collection != this) return;
 629      if (ev == 'destroy') {
 630        this._remove(model, options);
 631      }
 632      if (model && ev === 'change:' + model.idAttribute) {
 633        delete this._byId[model.previous(model.idAttribute)];
 634        this._byId[model.id] = model;
 635      }
 636      this.trigger.apply(this, arguments);
 637    }
 638
 639  });
 640
 641  // Underscore methods that we want to implement on the Collection.
 642  var methods = ['forEach', 'each', 'map', 'reduce', 'reduceRight', 'find', 'detect',
 643    'filter', 'select', 'reject', 'every', 'all', 'some', 'any', 'include',
 644    'contains', 'invoke', 'max', 'min', 'sortBy', 'sortedIndex', 'toArray', 'size',
 645    'first', 'rest', 'last', 'without', 'indexOf', 'lastIndexOf', 'isEmpty'];
 646
 647  // Mix in each Underscore method as a proxy to `Collection#models`.
 648  _.each(methods, function(method) {
 649    Backbone.Collection.prototype[method] = function() {
 650      return _[method].apply(_, [this.models].concat(_.toArray(arguments)));
 651    };
 652  });
 653
 654  // Backbone.Router
 655  // -------------------
 656
 657  // Routers map faux-URLs to actions, and fire events when routes are
 658  // matched. Creating a new one sets its `routes` hash, if not set statically.
 659  Backbone.Router = function(options) {
 660    options || (options = {});
 661    if (options.routes) this.routes = options.routes;
 662    this._bindRoutes();
 663    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
 664  };
 665
 666  // Cached regular expressions for matching named param parts and splatted
 667  // parts of route strings.
 668  var namedParam    = /:([\w\d]+)/g;
 669  var splatParam    = /\*([\w\d]+)/g;
 670  var escapeRegExp  = /[-[\]{}()+?.,\\^$|#\s]/g;
 671
 672  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.Router** properties and methods.
 673  _.extend(Backbone.Router.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
 674
 675    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
 676    // initialization logic.
 677    initialize : function(){},
 678
 679    // Manually bind a single named route to a callback. For example:
 680    //
 681    //     this.route('search/:query/p:num', 'search', function(query, num) {
 682    //       ...
 683    //     });
 684    //
 685    route : function(route, name, callback) {
 686      Backbone.history || (Backbone.history = new Backbone.History);
 687      if (!_.isRegExp(route)) route = this._routeToRegExp(route);
 688      Backbone.history.route(route, _.bind(function(fragment) {
 689        var args = this._extractParameters(route, fragment);
 690        callback.apply(this, args);
 691        this.trigger.apply(this, ['route:' + name].concat(args));
 692      }, this));
 693    },
 694
 695    // Simple proxy to `Backbone.history` to save a fragment into the history.
 696    navigate : function(fragment, triggerRoute) {
 697      Backbone.history.navigate(fragment, triggerRoute);
 698    },
 699
 700    // Bind all defined routes to `Backbone.history`. We have to reverse the
 701    // order of the routes here to support behavior where the most general
 702    // routes can be defined at the bottom of the route map.
 703    _bindRoutes : function() {
 704      if (!this.routes) return;
 705      var routes = [];
 706      for (var route in this.routes) {
 707        routes.unshift([route, this.routes[route]]);
 708      }
 709      for (var i = 0, l = routes.length; i < l; i++) {
 710        this.route(routes[i][0], routes[i][1], this[routes[i][1]]);
 711      }
 712    },
 713
 714    // Convert a route string into a regular expression, suitable for matching
 715    // against the current location hash.
 716    _routeToRegExp : function(route) {
 717      route = route.replace(escapeRegExp, "\\$&")
 718                   .replace(namedParam, "([^\/]*)")
 719                   .replace(splatParam, "(.*?)");
 720      return new RegExp('^' + route + '$');
 721    },
 722
 723    // Given a route, and a URL fragment that it matches, return the array of
 724    // extracted parameters.
 725    _extractParameters : function(route, fragment) {
 726      return route.exec(fragment).slice(1);
 727    }
 728
 729  });
 730
 731  // Backbone.History
 732  // ----------------
 733
 734  // Handles cross-browser history management, based on URL fragments. If the
 735  // browser does not support `onhashchange`, falls back to polling.
 736  Backbone.History = function() {
 737    this.handlers = [];
 738    _.bindAll(this, 'checkUrl');
 739  };
 740
 741  // Cached regex for cleaning hashes.
 742  var hashStrip = /^#*/;
 743
 744  // Cached regex for detecting MSIE.
 745  var isExplorer = /msie [\w.]+/;
 746
 747  // Has the history handling already been started?
 748  var historyStarted = false;
 749
 750  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.History** properties and methods.
 751  _.extend(Backbone.History.prototype, {
 752
 753    // The default interval to poll for hash changes, if necessary, is
 754    // twenty times a second.
 755    interval: 50,
 756
 757    // Get the cross-browser normalized URL fragment, either from the URL,
 758    // the hash, or the override.
 759    getFragment : function(fragment, forcePushState) {
 760      if (fragment == null) {
 761        if (this._hasPushState || forcePushState) {
 762          fragment = window.location.pathname;
 763          var search = window.location.search;
 764          if (search) fragment += search;
 765          if (fragment.indexOf(this.options.root) == 0) fragment = fragment.substr(this.options.root.length);
 766        } else {
 767          fragment = window.location.hash;
 768        }
 769      }
 770      return fragment.replace(hashStrip, '');
 771    },
 772
 773    // Start the hash change handling, returning `true` if the current URL matches
 774    // an existing route, and `false` otherwise.
 775    start : function(options) {
 776
 777      // Figure out the initial configuration. Do we need an iframe?
 778      // Is pushState desired ... is it available?
 779      if (historyStarted) throw new Error("Backbone.history has already been started");
 780      this.options          = _.extend({}, {root: '/'}, this.options, options);
 781      this._wantsPushState  = !!this.options.pushState;
 782      this._hasPushState    = !!(this.options.pushState && window.history && window.history.pushState);
 783      var fragment          = this.getFragment();
 784      var docMode           = document.documentMode;
 785      var oldIE             = (isExplorer.exec(navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase()) && (!docMode || docMode <= 7));
 786      if (oldIE) {
 787        this.iframe = $('<iframe src="javascript:0" tabindex="-1" />').hide().appendTo('body')[0].contentWindow;
 788        this.navigate(fragment);
 789      }
 790
 791      // Depending on whether we're using pushState or hashes, and whether
 792      // 'onhashchange' is supported, determine how we check the URL state.
 793      if (this._hasPushState) {
 794        $(window).bind('popstate', this.checkUrl);
 795      } else if ('onhashchange' in window && !oldIE) {
 796        $(window).bind('hashchange', this.checkUrl);
 797      } else {
 798        setInterval(this.checkUrl, this.interval);
 799      }
 800
 801      // Determine if we need to change the base url, for a pushState link
 802      // opened by a non-pushState browser.
 803      this.fragment = fragment;
 804      historyStarted = true;
 805      var loc = window.location;
 806      var atRoot  = loc.pathname == this.options.root;
 807      if (this._wantsPushState && !this._hasPushState && !atRoot) {
 808        this.fragment = this.getFragment(null, true);
 809        window.location.replace(this.options.root + '#' + this.fragment);
 810      } else if (this._wantsPushState && this._hasPushState && atRoot && loc.hash) {
 811        this.fragment = loc.hash.replace(hashStrip, '');
 812        window.history.replaceState({}, document.title, loc.protocol + '//' + loc.host + this.options.root + this.fragment);
 813      }
 814      return this.loadUrl();
 815    },
 816
 817    // Add a route to be tested when the fragment changes. Routes added later may
 818    // override previous routes.
 819    route : function(route, callback) {
 820      this.handlers.unshift({route : route, callback : callback});
 821    },
 822
 823    // Checks the current URL to see if it has changed, and if it has,
 824    // calls `loadUrl`, normalizing across the hidden iframe.
 825    checkUrl : function(e) {
 826      var current = this.getFragment();
 827      if (current == this.fragment && this.iframe) current = this.getFragment(this.iframe.location.hash);
 828      if (current == this.fragment || current == decodeURIComponent(this.fragment)) return false;
 829      if (this.iframe) this.navigate(current);
 830      this.loadUrl() || this.loadUrl(window.location.hash);
 831    },
 832
 833    // Attempt to load the current URL fragment. If a route succeeds with a
 834    // match, returns `true`. If no defined routes matches the fragment,
 835    // returns `false`.
 836    loadUrl : function(fragmentOverride) {
 837      var fragment = this.fragment = this.getFragment(fragmentOverride);
 838      var matched = _.any(this.handlers, function(handler) {
 839        if (handler.route.test(fragment)) {
 840          handler.callback(fragment);
 841          return true;
 842        }
 843      });
 844      return matched;
 845    },
 846
 847    // Save a fragment into the hash history. You are responsible for properly
 848    // URL-encoding the fragment in advance. This does not trigger
 849    // a `hashchange` event.
 850    navigate : function(fragment, triggerRoute) {
 851      var frag = (fragment || '').replace(hashStrip, '');
 852      if (this.fragment == frag || this.fragment == decodeURIComponent(frag)) return;
 853      if (this._hasPushState) {
 854        var loc = window.location;
 855        if (frag.indexOf(this.options.root) != 0) frag = this.options.root + frag;
 856        this.fragment = frag;
 857        window.history.pushState({}, document.title, loc.protocol + '//' + loc.host + frag);
 858      } else {
 859        window.location.hash = this.fragment = frag;
 860        if (this.iframe && (frag != this.getFragment(this.iframe.location.hash))) {
 861          this.iframe.document.open().close();
 862          this.iframe.location.hash = frag;
 863        }
 864      }
 865      if (triggerRoute) this.loadUrl(fragment);
 866    }
 867
 868  });
 869
 870  // Backbone.View
 871  // -------------
 872
 873  // Creating a Backbone.View creates its initial element outside of the DOM,
 874  // if an existing element is not provided...
 875  Backbone.View = function(options) {
 876    this.cid = _.uniqueId('view');
 877    this._configure(options || {});
 878    this._ensureElement();
 879    this.delegateEvents();
 880    this.initialize.apply(this, arguments);
 881  };
 882
 883  // Element lookup, scoped to DOM elements within the current view.
 884  // This should be prefered to global lookups, if you're dealing with
 885  // a specific view.
 886  var selectorDelegate = function(selector) {
 887    return $(selector, this.el);
 888  };
 889
 890  // Cached regex to split keys for `delegate`.
 891  var eventSplitter = /^(\S+)\s*(.*)$/;
 892
 893  // List of view options to be merged as properties.
 894  var viewOptions = ['model', 'collection', 'el', 'id', 'attributes', 'className', 'tagName'];
 895
 896  // Set up all inheritable **Backbone.View** properties and methods.
 897  _.extend(Backbone.View.prototype, Backbone.Events, {
 898
 899    // The default `tagName` of a View's element is `"div"`.
 900    tagName : 'div',
 901
 902    // Attach the `selectorDelegate` function as the `$` property.
 903    $       : selectorDelegate,
 904
 905    // Initialize is an empty function by default. Override it with your own
 906    // initialization logic.
 907    initialize : function(){},
 908
 909    // **render** is the core function that your view should override, in order
 910    // to populate its element (`this.el`), with the appropriate HTML. The
 911    // convention is for **render** to always return `this`.
 912    render : function() {
 913      return this;
 914    },
 915
 916    // Remove this view from the DOM. Note that the view isn't present in the
 917    // DOM by default, so calling this method may be a no-op.
 918    remove : function() {
 919      $(this.el).remove();
 920      return this;
 921    },
 922
 923    // For small amounts of DOM Elements, where a full-blown template isn't
 924    // needed, use **make** to manufacture elements, one at a time.
 925    //
 926    //     var el = this.make('li', {'class': 'row'}, this.model.escape('title'));
 927    //
 928    make : function(tagName, attributes, content) {
 929      var el = document.createElement(tagName);
 930      if (attributes) $(el).attr(attributes);
 931      if (content) $(el).html(content);
 932      return el;
 933    },
 934
 935    // Set callbacks, where `this.callbacks` is a hash of
 936    //
 937    // *{"event selector": "callback"}*
 938    //
 939    //     {
 940    //       'mousedown .title':  'edit',
 941    //       'click .button':     'save'
 942    //     }
 943    //
 944    // pairs. Callbacks will be bound to the view, with `this` set properly.
 945    // Uses event delegation for efficiency.
 946    // Omitting the selector binds the event to `this.el`.
 947    // This only works for delegate-able events: not `focus`, `blur`, and
 948    // not `change`, `submit`, and `reset` in Internet Explorer.
 949    delegateEvents : function(events) {
 950      if (!(events || (events = this.events))) return;
 951      $(this.el).unbind('.delegateEvents' + this.cid);
 952      for (var key in events) {
 953        var method = this[events[key]];
 954        if (!method) throw new Error('Event "' + events[key] + '" does not exist');
 955        var match = key.match(eventSplitter);
 956        var eventName = match[1], selector = match[2];
 957        method = _.bind(method, this);
 958        eventName += '.delegateEvents' + this.cid;
 959        if (selector === '') {
 960          $(this.el).bind(eventName, method);
 961        } else {
 962          $(this.el).delegate(selector, eventName, method);
 963        }
 964      }
 965    },
 966
 967    // Performs the initial configuration of a View with a set of options.
 968    // Keys with special meaning *(model, collection, id, className)*, are
 969    // attached directly to the view.
 970    _configure : function(options) {
 971      if (this.options) options = _.extend({}, this.options, options);
 972      for (var i = 0, l = viewOptions.length; i < l; i++) {
 973        var attr = viewOptions[i];
 974        if (options[attr]) this[attr] = options[attr];
 975      }
 976      this.options = options;
 977    },
 978
 979    // Ensure that the View has a DOM element to render into.
 980    // If `this.el` is a string, pass it through `$()`, take the first
 981    // matching element, and re-assign it to `el`. Otherwise, create
 982    // an element from the `id`, `className` and `tagName` proeprties.
 983    _ensureElement : function() {
 984      if (!this.el) {
 985        var attrs = this.attributes || {};
 986        if (this.id) attrs.id = this.id;
 987        if (this.className) attrs['class'] = this.className;
 988        this.el = this.make(this.tagName, attrs);
 989      } else if (_.isString(this.el)) {
 990        this.el = $(this.el).get(0);
 991      }
 992    }
 993
 994  });
 995
 996  // The self-propagating extend function that Backbone classes use.
 997  var extend = function (protoProps, classProps) {
 998    var child = inherits(this, protoProps, classProps);
 999    child.extend = this.extend;
1000    return child;
1001  };
1002
1003  // Set up inheritance for the model, collection, and view.
1004  Backbone.Model.extend = Backbone.Collection.extend =
1005    Backbone.Router.extend = Backbone.View.extend = extend;
1006
1007  // Map from CRUD to HTTP for our default `Backbone.sync` implementation.
1008  var methodMap = {
1009    'create': 'POST',
1010    'update': 'PUT',
1011    'delete': 'DELETE',
1012    'read'  : 'GET'
1013  };
1014
1015  // Backbone.sync
1016  // -------------
1017
1018  // Override this function to change the manner in which Backbone persists
1019  // models to the server. You will be passed the type of request, and the
1020  // model in question. By default, uses makes a RESTful Ajax request
1021  // to the model's `url()`. Some possible customizations could be:
1022  //
1023  // * Use `setTimeout` to batch rapid-fire updates into a single request.
1024  // * Send up the models as XML instead of JSON.
1025  // * Persist models via WebSockets instead of Ajax.
1026  //
1027  // Turn on `Backbone.emulateHTTP` in order to send `PUT` and `DELETE` requests
1028  // as `POST`, with a `_method` parameter containing the true HTTP method,
1029  // as well as all requests with the body as `application/x-www-form-urlencoded` instead of
1030  // `application/json` with the model in a param named `model`.
1031  // Useful when interfacing with server-side languages like **PHP** that make
1032  // it difficult to read the body of `PUT` requests.
1033  Backbone.sync = function(method, model, options) {
1034    var type = methodMap[method];
1035
1036    // Default JSON-request options.
1037    var params = _.extend({
1038      type:         type,
1039      dataType:     'json',
1040      processData:  false
1041    }, options);
1042
1043    // Ensure that we have a URL.
1044    if (!params.url) {
1045      params.url = getUrl(model) || urlError();
1046    }
1047
1048    // Ensure that we have the appropriate request data.
1049    if (!params.data && model && (method == 'create' || method == 'update')) {
1050      params.contentType = 'application/json';
1051      params.data = JSON.stringify(model.toJSON());
1052    }
1053
1054    // For older servers, emulate JSON by encoding the request into an HTML-form.
1055    if (Backbone.emulateJSON) {
1056      params.contentType = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';
1057      params.processData = true;
1058      params.data        = params.data ? {model : params.data} : {};
1059    }
1060
1061    // For older servers, emulate HTTP by mimicking the HTTP method with `_method`
1062    // And an `X-HTTP-Method-Override` header.
1063    if (Backbone.emulateHTTP) {
1064      if (type === 'PUT' || type === 'DELETE') {
1065        if (Backbone.emulateJSON) params.data._method = type;
1066        params.type = 'POST';
1067        params.beforeSend = function(xhr) {
1068          xhr.setRequestHeader('X-HTTP-Method-Override', type);
1069        };
1070      }
1071    }
1072
1073    // Make the request.
1074    return $.ajax(params);
1075  };
1076
1077  // Helpers
1078  // -------
1079
1080  // Shared empty constructor function to aid in prototype-chain creation.
1081  var ctor = function(){};
1082
1083  // Helper function to correctly set up the prototype chain, for subclasses.
1084  // Similar to `goog.inherits`, but uses a hash of prototype properties and
1085  // class properties to be extended.
1086  var inherits = function(parent, protoProps, staticProps) {
1087    var child;
1088
1089    // The constructor function for the new subclass is either defined by you
1090    // (the "constructor" property in your `extend` definition), or defaulted
1091    // by us to simply call `super()`.
1092    if (protoProps && protoProps.hasOwnProperty('constructor')) {
1093      child = protoProps.constructor;
1094    } else {
1095      child = function(){ return parent.apply(this, arguments); };
1096    }
1097
1098    // Inherit class (static) properties from parent.
1099    _.extend(child, parent);
1100
1101    // Set the prototype chain to inherit from `parent`, without calling
1102    // `parent`'s constructor function.
1103    ctor.prototype = parent.prototype;
1104    child.prototype = new ctor();
1105
1106    // Add prototype properties (instance properties) to the subclass,
1107    // if supplied.
1108    if (protoProps) _.extend(child.prototype, protoProps);
1109
1110    // Add static properties to the constructor function, if supplied.
1111    if (staticProps) _.extend(child, staticProps);
1112
1113    // Correctly set child's `prototype.constructor`.
1114    child.prototype.constructor = child;
1115
1116    // Set a convenience property in case the parent's prototype is needed later.
1117    child.__super__ = parent.prototype;
1118
1119    return child;
1120  };
1121
1122  // Helper function to get a URL from a Model or Collection as a property
1123  // or as a function.
1124  var getUrl = function(object) {
1125      console.log("in getUrl: ", object);
1126    if (!(object && object.url)) return null;
1127    return _.isFunction(object.url) ? object.url() : object.url;
1128  };
1129
1130  // Throw an error when a URL is needed, and none is supplied.
1131  var urlError = function() {
1132    throw new Error('A "url" property or function must be specified');
1133  };
1134
1135  // Wrap an optional error callback with a fallback error event.
1136  var wrapError = function(onError, model, options) {
1137    return function(resp) {
1138      if (onError) {
1139        onError(model, resp, options);
1140      } else {
1141        model.trigger('error', model, resp, options);
1142      }
1143    };
1144  };
1145
1146  // Helper function to escape a string for HTML rendering.
1147  var escapeHTML = function(string) {
1148    return string.replace(/&(?!\w+;|#\d+;|#x[\da-f]+;)/gi, '&amp;').replace(/</g, '&lt;').replace(/>/g, '&gt;').replace(/"/g, '&quot;').replace(/'/g, '&#x27').replace(/\//g,'&#x2F;');
1149  };
1150
1151}).call(this);