boo-lang /src/Boo.Lang.Compiler/TypeSystem/TypeSystemServices.cs

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#region license
// Copyright (c) 2004, Rodrigo B. de Oliveira (rbo@acm.org)
// All rights reserved.
//
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
// are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
//
//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
//     this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
//     this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
//     and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
//     * Neither the name of Rodrigo B. de Oliveira nor the names of its
//     contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this
//     software without specific prior written permission.
//
// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
// ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
// WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
// DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
// FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
// DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
// SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
// CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
// OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
// THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#endregion

namespace Boo.Lang.Compiler.TypeSystem
{
	using System;
	using System.Collections;
	using System.Reflection;
	using System.Text;
	using Boo.Lang.Compiler.Ast;
	using Attribute = Boo.Lang.Compiler.Ast.Attribute;
	using Module = Boo.Lang.Compiler.Ast.Module;

	public class TypeSystemServices
	{
		public DuckTypeImpl DuckType;

		public ExternalType IQuackFuType;

		public ExternalType MulticastDelegateType;

		public ExternalType DelegateType;

		public ExternalType IntPtrType;

		public ExternalType UIntPtrType;

		public ExternalType ObjectType;

		public ExternalType ValueTypeType;

		public ExternalType EnumType;

		public ExternalType RegexType;

		public ExternalType ArrayType;

		public ExternalType TypeType;

		public IArrayType ObjectArrayType;

		public ExternalType VoidType;

		public ExternalType StringType;

		public ExternalType BoolType;

		public ExternalType CharType;

		public ExternalType SByteType;

		public ExternalType ByteType;

		public ExternalType ShortType;

		public ExternalType UShortType;

		public ExternalType IntType;

		public ExternalType UIntType;

		public ExternalType LongType;

		public ExternalType ULongType;

		public ExternalType SingleType;

		public ExternalType DoubleType;

		public ExternalType DecimalType;

		public ExternalType TimeSpanType;

		protected ExternalType DateTimeType;

		public ExternalType RuntimeServicesType;

		public ExternalType BuiltinsType;

		public ExternalType ListType;

		public ExternalType HashType;

		public ExternalType ICallableType;

		public ExternalType IEnumerableType;

		public ExternalType IEnumeratorType;

		public ExternalType	IEnumerableGenericType;

		public ExternalType	IEnumeratorGenericType;

		public ExternalType ICollectionType;

		public ExternalType IListType;

		public ExternalType IDictionaryType;

		public ExternalType SystemAttribute;

		public ExternalType ConditionalAttribute;

		protected Hashtable _primitives = new Hashtable();

		protected Hashtable _entityCache = new Hashtable();

		protected Hashtable _arrayCache = new Hashtable();

		public static readonly IType ErrorEntity = Error.Default;

		public readonly BooCodeBuilder CodeBuilder;

		private StringBuilder _buffer = new StringBuilder();

		private Module _compilerGeneratedTypesModule;

		private Module _compilerGeneratedExtensionsModule;

		private ClassDefinition _compilerGeneratedExtensionsClass;

		protected readonly CompilerContext _context;

		private readonly AnonymousCallablesManager _anonymousCallablesManager;

		private readonly GenericsServices _genericsServices;

		public TypeSystemServices() : this(new CompilerContext())
		{
		}

		public TypeSystemServices(CompilerContext context)
		{
			if (null == context) throw new ArgumentNullException("context");

			_context = context;
			_anonymousCallablesManager = new AnonymousCallablesManager(this);
			_genericsServices = new GenericsServices(context);

			CodeBuilder = new BooCodeBuilder(this);

			Cache(typeof(Builtins.duck), DuckType = new DuckTypeImpl(this));
			Cache(IQuackFuType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(IQuackFu)));
			Cache(VoidType = new VoidTypeImpl(this));
			Cache(ObjectType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Object));
			Cache(RegexType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Regex));
			Cache(ValueTypeType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(ValueType)));
			Cache(EnumType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(Enum)));
			Cache(ArrayType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Array));
			Cache(TypeType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Type));
			Cache(StringType = new ExternalType(this, Types.String));
			Cache(BoolType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Bool));
			Cache(SByteType = new ExternalType(this, Types.SByte));
			Cache(CharType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Char));
			Cache(ShortType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Short));
			Cache(IntType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Int));
			Cache(LongType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Long));
			Cache(ByteType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Byte));
			Cache(UShortType = new ExternalType(this, Types.UShort));
			Cache(UIntType = new ExternalType(this, Types.UInt));
			Cache(ULongType = new ExternalType(this, Types.ULong));
			Cache(SingleType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Single));
			Cache(DoubleType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Double));
			Cache(DecimalType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Decimal));
			Cache(TimeSpanType = new ExternalType(this, Types.TimeSpan));
			Cache(DateTimeType = new ExternalType(this, Types.DateTime));
			Cache(RuntimeServicesType = new ExternalType(this, Types.RuntimeServices));
			Cache(BuiltinsType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Builtins));
			Cache(ListType = new ExternalType(this, Types.List));
			Cache(HashType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Hash));
			Cache(ICallableType = new ExternalType(this, Types.ICallable));
			Cache(IEnumerableType = new ExternalType(this, Types.IEnumerable));
			Cache(IEnumeratorType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(IEnumerator)));
			Cache(ICollectionType = new ExternalType(this, Types.ICollection));
			Cache(IListType = new ExternalType(this, Types.IList));
			Cache(IDictionaryType = new ExternalType(this, Types.IDictionary));
			Cache(IntPtrType = new ExternalType(this, Types.IntPtr));
			Cache(UIntPtrType = new ExternalType(this, Types.UIntPtr));
			Cache(MulticastDelegateType = new ExternalType(this, Types.MulticastDelegate));
			Cache(DelegateType = new ExternalType(this, Types.Delegate));
			Cache(SystemAttribute = new ExternalType(this, typeof(System.Attribute)));
			Cache(ConditionalAttribute = new ExternalType(this, typeof(System.Diagnostics.ConditionalAttribute)));
			Cache(IEnumerableGenericType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<>)));
			Cache(IEnumeratorGenericType = new ExternalType(this, typeof(System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator<>)));

			ObjectArrayType = GetArrayType(ObjectType, 1);

			PreparePrimitives();
			PrepareBuiltinFunctions();

		}

		public CompilerContext Context
		{
			get { return _context; }
			}

		public GenericsServices GenericsServices
		{
			get { return _genericsServices; }
		}

		public IType GetMostGenericType(IType current, IType candidate)
		{
			if (current.IsAssignableFrom(candidate))
			{
				return current;
			}

			if (candidate.IsAssignableFrom(current))
			{
				return candidate;
			}

			if (IsNumberOrBool(current) && IsNumberOrBool(candidate))
			{
				return GetPromotedNumberType(current, candidate);
			}

			if (IsCallableType(current) && IsCallableType(candidate))
			{
				return ICallableType;
			}

			if (current.IsClass && candidate.IsClass)
			{
				if (current ==  ObjectType || candidate == ObjectType)
				{
					return ObjectType;
				}
				if (current.GetTypeDepth() < candidate.GetTypeDepth())
				{
					return GetMostGenericType(current.BaseType, candidate);
				}
				return GetMostGenericType(current, candidate.BaseType);
			}
			return ObjectType;
		}

		public IType GetPromotedNumberType(IType left, IType right)
		{
			if (left == DecimalType ||
				right == DecimalType)
			{
				return DecimalType;
			}
			if (left == DoubleType ||
				right == DoubleType)
			{
				return DoubleType;
			}
			if (left == SingleType ||
				right == SingleType)
			{
				return SingleType;
			}
			if (left == ULongType)
			{
				if (right == SByteType ||
				    right == ShortType ||
				    right == IntType ||
				    right == LongType)
				{
					// This is against the C# spec but allows expressions like:
					//    ulong x = 4
					//    y = x + 1
					// y will be long.
					// C# disallows mixing ulongs and signed numbers
					// but in the above case it promotes the constant to ulong
					// and the result is ulong.
					// Since its too late here to promote the constant,
					// maybe we should return LongType.  I didn't chose ULongType
					// because in other cases <unsigned> <op> <signed> returns <signed>.
					return LongType;
				}
				return ULongType;
			}
			if (right == ULongType)
			{
				if (left == SByteType ||
				    left == ShortType ||
				    left == IntType ||
				    left == LongType)
				{
					// This is against the C# spec but allows expressions like:
					//    ulong x = 4
					//    y = 1 + x
					// y will be long.
					// C# disallows mixing ulongs and signed numbers
					// but in the above case it promotes the constant to ulong
					// and the result is ulong.
					// Since its too late here to promote the constant,
					// maybe we should return LongType.  I didn't chose ULongType
					// because in other cases <signed> <op> <unsigned> returns <signed>.
					return LongType;
				}
				return ULongType;
			}
			if (left == LongType ||
				right == LongType)
			{
				return LongType;
			}
			if (left == UIntType)
			{
				if (right == SByteType ||
				    right == ShortType ||
				    right == IntType)
				{
					// This is allowed per C# spec and y is long:
					//    uint x = 4
					//    y = x + 1
					// C# promotes <uint> <op> <signed> to <long> also
					// but in the above case it promotes the constant to uint first
					// and the result of "x + 1" is uint.
					// Since its too late here to promote the constant,
					// "y = x + 1" will be long in boo.
					return LongType;
				}
				return UIntType;
			}
			if (right == UIntType)
			{
				if (left == SByteType ||
				    left == ShortType ||
				    left == IntType)
				{
					// This is allowed per C# spec and y is long:
					//    uint x = 4
					//    y = 1 + x
					// C# promotes <signed> <op> <uint> to <long> also
					// but in the above case it promotes the constant to uint first
					// and the result of "1 + x" is uint.
					// Since its too late here to promote the constant,
					// "y = x + 1" will be long in boo.
					return LongType;
				}
				return UIntType;
			}
			if (left == IntType ||
				right == IntType ||
				left == ShortType ||
				right == ShortType ||
				left == UShortType ||
				right == UShortType ||
				left == ByteType ||
				right == ByteType ||
				left == SByteType ||
				right == SByteType)
			{
				return IntType;
			}
			return left;
		}

		public static bool IsReadOnlyField(IField field)
		{
			return field.IsInitOnly || field.IsLiteral;
		}

		public bool IsCallable(IType type)
		{
			return (TypeType == type) || IsCallableType(type) || IsDuckType(type);
		}

		public virtual bool IsDuckTyped(Expression expression)
		{
			IType type = expression.ExpressionType;
			return null != type && this.IsDuckType(type);
		}

		public bool IsQuackBuiltin(Expression node)
		{
			return IsQuackBuiltin(GetOptionalEntity(node));
		}

		public bool IsQuackBuiltin(IEntity entity)
		{
			return BuiltinFunction.Quack == entity;
		}

		public bool IsDuckType(IType type)
		{
			if (null == type)
			{
				throw new ArgumentNullException("type");
			}
			return (
				(type == DuckType)
				|| KnowsQuackFu(type)
				|| (_context.Parameters.Ducky
					&& (type == ObjectType)));
		}

		public bool KnowsQuackFu(IType type)
		{
			return type.IsSubclassOf(IQuackFuType);
		}

		bool IsCallableType(IType type)
		{
			return (ICallableType.IsAssignableFrom(type)) || (type is ICallableType);
		}

		public AnonymousCallableType GetCallableType(IMethod method)
		{
			CallableSignature signature = new CallableSignature(method);
			return GetCallableType(signature);
		}

		public AnonymousCallableType GetCallableType(CallableSignature signature)
		{
			return _anonymousCallablesManager.GetCallableType(signature);
		}

		public virtual IType GetConcreteCallableType(Node sourceNode, CallableSignature signature)
		{
			return _anonymousCallablesManager.GetConcreteCallableType(sourceNode, signature);
		}

		public virtual IType GetConcreteCallableType(Node sourceNode, AnonymousCallableType anonymousType)
		{
			return _anonymousCallablesManager.GetConcreteCallableType(sourceNode, anonymousType);
		}

		public IType GetEnumeratorItemType(IType iteratorType)
		{
			// Arrays are enumerators of their element type
			if (iteratorType.IsArray) return iteratorType.GetElementType();

			// String are enumerators of char
			if (StringType == iteratorType) return CharType;

			// Try to use an EnumerableItemType attribute
			if (iteratorType.IsClass)
			{
				IType enumeratorItemType = GetEnumeratorItemTypeFromAttribute(iteratorType);
				if (null != enumeratorItemType) return enumeratorItemType;
			}

			// Try to use a generic IEnumerable interface
			IType genericItemType = GetGenericEnumerableItemType(iteratorType);
			if (null != genericItemType) return genericItemType;

			// If none of these work, the type is an enumerator of object
			return ObjectType;
		}

		public IType GetExpressionType(Expression node)
		{
			IType type = node.ExpressionType;
			if (null == type)
			{
				throw CompilerErrorFactory.InvalidNode(node);
			}
			return type;
		}

		public IType GetConcreteExpressionType(Expression expression)
		{
			IType type = GetExpressionType(expression);
			AnonymousCallableType anonymousType = type as AnonymousCallableType;
			if (null != anonymousType)
			{
				IType concreteType = GetConcreteCallableType(expression, anonymousType);
				expression.ExpressionType = concreteType;
				return concreteType;
			}
			return type;
		}

		public void MapToConcreteExpressionTypes(ExpressionCollection items)
		{
			foreach (Expression item in items)
			{
				GetConcreteExpressionType(item);
			}
		}

		public ClassDefinition GetCompilerGeneratedExtensionsClass()
		{
			if (null == _compilerGeneratedExtensionsClass)
			{
				BooClassBuilder builder = CodeBuilder.CreateClass("CompilerGeneratedExtensions");
				builder.Modifiers = TypeMemberModifiers.Final|TypeMemberModifiers.Transient|TypeMemberModifiers.Public;
				builder.AddBaseType(ObjectType);

				BooMethodBuilder ctor = builder.AddConstructor();
				ctor.Modifiers = TypeMemberModifiers.Private;
				ctor.Body.Add(
					CodeBuilder.CreateSuperConstructorInvocation(ObjectType));

				ClassDefinition cd = builder.ClassDefinition;
				Module module = GetCompilerGeneratedExtensionsModule();
				module.Members.Add(cd);
				((ModuleEntity)module.Entity).InitializeModuleClass(cd);

				_compilerGeneratedExtensionsClass = cd;
			}
			return _compilerGeneratedExtensionsClass;
		}

		public Module GetCompilerGeneratedExtensionsModule()
		{
			if (null == _compilerGeneratedExtensionsModule)
			{
				_compilerGeneratedExtensionsModule = NewModule(null, "CompilerGeneratedExtensions");
			}
			return _compilerGeneratedExtensionsModule;
		}

		public void AddCompilerGeneratedType(TypeDefinition type)
		{
			GetCompilerGeneratedTypesModule().Members.Add(type);
		}

		public Module GetCompilerGeneratedTypesModule()
		{
			if (null == _compilerGeneratedTypesModule)
			{
				_compilerGeneratedTypesModule = NewModule("CompilerGenerated");
			}
			return _compilerGeneratedTypesModule;
		}

        private Module NewModule(string nameSpace)
        {
            return NewModule(nameSpace, nameSpace);
        }

		private Module NewModule(string nameSpace, string moduleName)
		{
            Module module = new Module();
		    module.Name = moduleName;
			if (null != nameSpace) module.Namespace = new NamespaceDeclaration(nameSpace);
			module.Entity = new ModuleEntity(_context.NameResolutionService, this, module);
			_context.CompileUnit.Modules.Add(module);
			return module;
		}

		public ClassDefinition CreateCallableDefinition(string name)
		{
			ClassDefinition cd = new ClassDefinition();
			cd.IsSynthetic = true;
			cd.BaseTypes.Add(CodeBuilder.CreateTypeReference(this.MulticastDelegateType));
			cd.BaseTypes.Add(CodeBuilder.CreateTypeReference(this.ICallableType));
			cd.Name = name;
			cd.Modifiers = TypeMemberModifiers.Final;
			cd.Members.Add(CreateCallableConstructor());
			cd.Members.Add(CreateCallMethod());
			cd.Entity = new InternalCallableType(this, cd);
			return cd;
		}

		Method CreateCallMethod()
		{
			Method method = new Method("Call");
			method.IsSynthetic = true;
			method.Modifiers = TypeMemberModifiers.Public|TypeMemberModifiers.Virtual;
			method.Parameters.Add(CodeBuilder.CreateParameterDeclaration(1, "args", ObjectArrayType));
			method.ReturnType = CodeBuilder.CreateTypeReference(ObjectType);
			method.Entity = new InternalMethod(this, method);
			return method;
		}

		Constructor CreateCallableConstructor()
		{
			Constructor constructor = new Constructor();
			constructor.IsSynthetic = true;
			constructor.Modifiers = TypeMemberModifiers.Public;
			constructor.ImplementationFlags = MethodImplementationFlags.Runtime;
			constructor.Parameters.Add(
						CodeBuilder.CreateParameterDeclaration(1, "instance", ObjectType));
			constructor.Parameters.Add(
						CodeBuilder.CreateParameterDeclaration(2, "method", IntPtrType));
			constructor.Entity = new InternalConstructor(this, constructor);
			return constructor;
		}

		public bool AreTypesRelated(IType lhs, IType rhs)
		{
			ICallableType ctype = lhs as ICallableType;
			if (null != ctype)
			{
				return ctype.IsAssignableFrom(rhs)
					|| ctype.IsSubclassOf(rhs);
			}

			return lhs.IsAssignableFrom(rhs)
				|| (lhs.IsInterface && !rhs.IsFinal)
				|| (rhs.IsInterface && !lhs.IsFinal)
				|| CanBeReachedByDownCastOrPromotion(lhs, rhs)
				|| FindImplicitConversionOperator(rhs,lhs) != null;
		}

		public IMethod FindExplicitConversionOperator(IType fromType, IType toType)
		{
			return FindConversionOperator("op_Explicit", fromType, toType);
		}

		public IMethod FindImplicitConversionOperator(IType fromType, IType toType)
		{
			return FindConversionOperator("op_Implicit", fromType, toType);
		}

		public IMethod FindConversionOperator(string name, IType fromType, IType toType)
		{
			while (fromType != this.ObjectType)
			{
				IMethod method = FindConversionOperator(name, fromType, toType, fromType.GetMembers());
				if (null != method) return method;
				method = FindConversionOperator(name, fromType, toType, toType.GetMembers());
				if (null != method) return method;
				method = FindConversionOperator(name, fromType, toType, FindExtension(fromType, name));
				if (null != method) return method;

				fromType = fromType.BaseType;
				if (null == fromType) break;
			}
			return null;
		}

		private IEntity[] FindExtension(IType fromType, string name)
		{
			IEntity extension = _context.NameResolutionService.ResolveExtension(fromType, name);
			if (null == extension) return Ambiguous.NoEntities;

			Ambiguous a = extension as Ambiguous;
			if (null != a) return a.Entities;
			return new IEntity[] { extension };
		}

		IMethod FindConversionOperator(string name, IType fromType, IType toType, IEntity[] candidates)
		{
			foreach (IEntity entity in candidates)
			{
				if (EntityType.Method != entity.EntityType || name != entity.Name) continue;
				IMethod method = (IMethod)entity;
				if (IsConversionOperator(method, fromType, toType)) return method;
			}
			return null;
		}

		bool IsConversionOperator(IMethod method, IType fromType, IType toType)
		{
			if (!method.IsStatic) return false;
			if (method.ReturnType != toType) return false;
			IParameter[] parameters = method.GetParameters();
			return  (1 == parameters.Length &&	fromType == parameters[0].Type);
		}

		public bool IsCallableTypeAssignableFrom(ICallableType lhs, IType rhs)
		{
			if (lhs == rhs) return true;
			if (Null.Default == rhs) return true;

			ICallableType other = rhs as ICallableType;
			if (null == other) return false;

				CallableSignature lvalue = lhs.GetSignature();
				CallableSignature rvalue = other.GetSignature();
			if (lvalue == rvalue) return true;

				IParameter[] lparams = lvalue.Parameters;
				IParameter[] rparams = rvalue.Parameters;
			if (lparams.Length < rparams.Length) return false;

					for (int i=0; i<rparams.Length; ++i)
					{
				if (!AreTypesRelated(lparams[i].Type, rparams[i].Type)) return false;
						}

			return CompatibleReturnTypes(lvalue, rvalue);
					}

		private bool CompatibleReturnTypes(CallableSignature lvalue, CallableSignature rvalue)
		{
			if (VoidType != lvalue.ReturnType && VoidType != rvalue.ReturnType)
			{
				return AreTypesRelated(lvalue.ReturnType, rvalue.ReturnType);
			}

			return true;
		}

		public static bool CheckOverrideSignature(IMethod impl, IMethod baseMethod)
		{
			if (!GenericsServices.AreOfSameGenerity(impl, baseMethod))
			{
				return false;
			}

			CallableSignature baseSignature = GetOverriddenSignature(baseMethod, impl);
			return CheckOverrideSignature(impl.GetParameters(), baseSignature.Parameters);
		}

		public static bool CheckOverrideSignature(IParameter[] implParameters, IParameter[] baseParameters)
		{
			return CallableSignature.AreSameParameters(implParameters, baseParameters);
		}

		public static CallableSignature GetOverriddenSignature(IMethod baseMethod, IMethod impl)
		{
			if (baseMethod.GenericInfo != null && TypeSystem.GenericsServices.AreOfSameGenerity(baseMethod, impl))
			{
				return baseMethod.GenericInfo.ConstructMethod(impl.GenericInfo.GenericParameters).CallableType.GetSignature();
			}
			return baseMethod.CallableType.GetSignature();
		}

		public virtual bool CanBeReachedByDownCastOrPromotion(IType expectedType, IType actualType)
		{
			return CanBeReachedByDowncast(expectedType, actualType)
				|| CanBeReachedByPromotion(expectedType, actualType);
		}

		public virtual bool CanBeReachedByDowncast(IType expectedType, IType actualType)
		{
			return actualType.IsAssignableFrom(expectedType);
		}

		public virtual bool CanBeReachedByPromotion(IType expectedType, IType actualType)
		{
			return (expectedType.IsValueType
			        && IsNumber(expectedType)
			        && IsNumber(actualType));
		}

		public bool CanBeExplicitlyCastToInteger(IType type)
		{
			return type.IsEnum || type == this.CharType;
		}

		public static bool ContainsMethodsOnly(List members)
		{
			foreach (IEntity member in members)
			{
				if (EntityType.Method != member.EntityType) return false;
			}
			return true;
		}

		public bool IsIntegerNumber(IType type)
		{
			return
				type == this.ShortType ||
				type == this.IntType ||
				type == this.LongType ||
				type == this.SByteType ||
				type == this.UShortType ||
				type == this.UIntType ||
				type == this.ULongType ||
				type == this.ByteType;
		}

		public bool IsIntegerOrBool(IType type)
		{
			return BoolType == type || IsIntegerNumber(type);
		}

		public bool IsNumberOrBool(IType type)
		{
			return BoolType == type || IsNumber(type);
		}

		public bool IsNumber(IType type)
		{
			return
				IsPrimitiveNumber(type) ||
				type == this.DecimalType;
		}

		public bool IsPrimitiveNumber(IType type)
		{
			return
				IsIntegerNumber(type) ||
				type == this.DoubleType ||
				type == this.SingleType;
		}

		public static bool IsNullable(IType type)
		{
			ExternalType et = type as ExternalType;
			return (null != et && et.ActualType.IsGenericType && et.ActualType.GetGenericTypeDefinition() == Types.Nullable);
		}

		public IType GetNullableUnderlyingType(IType type)
		{
			ExternalType et = type as ExternalType;
			return Map(Nullable.GetUnderlyingType(et.ActualType));
		}

		public static bool IsUnknown(Expression node)
		{
			IType type = node.ExpressionType;
			if (null != type)
			{
				return IsUnknown(type);
			}
			return false;
		}

		public static bool IsUnknown(IType tag)
		{
			return EntityType.Unknown == tag.EntityType;
		}

		public static bool IsError(Expression node)
		{
			IType type = node.ExpressionType;
			if (null != type)
			{
				return IsError(type);
			}
			return false;
		}

		public static bool IsErrorAny(ExpressionCollection collection)
		{
			foreach (Expression n in collection)
			{
				if (IsError(n))
				{
					return true;
				}
			}
			return false;
		}

		public bool IsBuiltin(IEntity tag)
		{
			if (EntityType.Method == tag.EntityType)
			{
				return BuiltinsType == ((IMethod)tag).DeclaringType;
			}
			return false;
		}

		public static bool IsError(IEntity tag)
		{
			return EntityType.Error == tag.EntityType;
		}

		public static TypeMemberModifiers GetAccess(IAccessibleMember member)
		{
			if (member.IsPublic)
			{
				return TypeMemberModifiers.Public;
			}
			else if (member.IsProtected)
			{
				return TypeMemberModifiers.Protected;
			}
			return TypeMemberModifiers.Private;
		}

		public static IEntity[] GetAllMembers(INamespace entity)
		{
			List members = new List();
			GetAllMembers(members, entity);
			return (IEntity[])members.ToArray(new IEntity[members.Count]);
		}

		private static void GetAllMembers(List members, INamespace entity)
		{
			if (null == entity) return;

			IType type = entity as IType;
			if (null != type)
			{
				members.ExtendUnique(type.GetMembers());
				GetAllMembers(members, type.BaseType);
			}
			else
			{
				members.Extend(entity.GetMembers());
			}
		}

		static object EntityAnnotationKey = new object();

		public static void Bind(Node node, IEntity entity)
		{
			if (null == node) throw new ArgumentNullException("node");
			node[EntityAnnotationKey] = entity;
		}

		public static IEntity GetOptionalEntity(Node node)
		{
			if (null == node) throw new ArgumentNullException("node");
			return (IEntity)node[EntityAnnotationKey];
		}

		public static IEntity GetEntity(Node node)
		{
			IEntity tag = GetOptionalEntity(node);
			if (null == tag) InvalidNode(node);

			return tag;
		}

		public static IType GetReferencedType(Expression typeref)
		{
			switch (typeref.NodeType)
			{
				case NodeType.TypeofExpression:
				{
					return GetType(((TypeofExpression)typeref).Type);
				}
				case NodeType.ReferenceExpression:
				case NodeType.MemberReferenceExpression:
				case NodeType.GenericReferenceExpression:
				{
					return typeref.Entity as IType;
				}
			}
			return null;
		}

		public virtual bool IsModule(Type type)
		{
			return type.IsClass
				&& type.IsSealed
				&& !type.IsNestedPublic
				&& MetadataUtil.IsAttributeDefined(type, Types.ModuleAttribute);
		}

		public bool IsAttribute(IType type)
		{
			return type.IsSubclassOf(SystemAttribute);
		}

		public static IType GetType(Node node)
		{
			return ((ITypedEntity)GetEntity(node)).Type;
		}

		public IType Map(Type type)
		{
			ExternalType entity = (ExternalType)_entityCache[type];
			if (null == entity)
			{
				if (type.IsArray) return GetArrayType(Map(type.GetElementType()), type.GetArrayRank());
				entity = CreateEntityForType(type);
				Cache(entity);
			}
			return entity;
		}

		private ExternalType CreateEntityForType(Type type)
		{
			if (type.IsGenericParameter) return new ExternalGenericParameter(this, type);
			if (type.IsSubclassOf(Types.MulticastDelegate)) return new ExternalCallableType(this, type);
			return new ExternalType(this, type);
		}

		public IArrayType GetArrayType(IType elementType, int rank)
		{
			ArrayHash key = new ArrayHash(elementType, rank);
			IArrayType entity = (IArrayType)_arrayCache[key];
			if (null == entity)
			{
				entity = new ArrayType(this, elementType, rank);
				_arrayCache.Add(key, entity);
			}
			return entity;
		}

		protected class ArrayHash
		{
			IType _type;
			int _rank;

			public ArrayHash(IType elementType, int rank)
			{
				_type = elementType;
				_rank = rank;
			}

			public override int GetHashCode()
			{
				return _type.GetHashCode() ^ _rank;
			}

			public override bool Equals(object obj)
			{
				return ((ArrayHash)obj)._type == _type && ((ArrayHash)obj)._rank == _rank;
			}
		}

		public IParameter[] Map(ParameterDeclarationCollection parameters)
		{
			IParameter[] mapped = new IParameter[parameters.Count];
			for (int i=0; i<mapped.Length; ++i)
			{
				mapped[i] = (IParameter)GetEntity(parameters[i]);
			}
			return mapped;
		}

		public IParameter[] Map(ParameterInfo[] parameters)
		{
			IParameter[] mapped = new IParameter[parameters.Length];
			for (int i=0; i<parameters.Length; ++i)
			{
				mapped[i] = new ExternalParameter(this, parameters[i]);
			}
			return mapped;
		}

		public IConstructor Map(ConstructorInfo constructor)
		{
			object key = GetCacheKey(constructor);
			IConstructor entity = (IConstructor)_entityCache[key];
			if (null == entity)
			{
				entity = new ExternalConstructor(this, constructor);
				_entityCache[key] = entity;
			}
			return entity;
		}

		public IMethod Map(MethodInfo method)
		{
			object key = GetCacheKey(method);
			IMethod entity = (IMethod)_entityCache[key];
			if (null == entity)
			{
				entity = new ExternalMethod(this, method);
				_entityCache[key] = entity;
			}
			return entity;
		}

		public IEntity Map(MemberInfo[] info)
		{
			if (info.Length > 1)
			{
				IEntity[] tags = new IEntity[info.Length];
				for (int i=0; i<tags.Length; ++i)
				{
					tags[i] = Map(info[i]);
				}
				return new Ambiguous(tags);
			}
			if (info.Length > 0)
			{
				return Map(info[0]);
			}
			return null;
		}

		public IEntity Map(MemberInfo mi)
		{
			IEntity tag = (IEntity)_entityCache[GetCacheKey(mi)];
			if (null == tag)
			{
				switch (mi.MemberType)
				{
					case MemberTypes.Method:
					{
						return Map((MethodInfo)mi);
					}

					case MemberTypes.Constructor:
					{
						return Map((ConstructorInfo)mi);
					}

					case MemberTypes.Field:
					{
						tag = new ExternalField(this, (FieldInfo)mi);
						break;
					}

					case MemberTypes.Property:
					{
						tag = new ExternalProperty(this, (PropertyInfo)mi);
						break;
					}

					case MemberTypes.Event:
					{
						tag = new ExternalEvent(this, (EventInfo)mi);
						break;
					}

					case MemberTypes.NestedType:
					{
						return Map((Type)mi);
					}

					default:
					{
						throw new NotImplementedException(mi.ToString());
					}
				}
				_entityCache.Add(GetCacheKey(mi), tag);
			}
			return tag;
		}

		public string GetSignature(IEntityWithParameters method)
		{
			return GetSignature(method, true);
		}

		public string GetSignature(IEntityWithParameters method, bool includeFullName)
		{
			_buffer.Length = 0;
			if (includeFullName)
			{
				_buffer.Append(method.FullName);
			}
			else
			{
				_buffer.Append(method.Name);
			}
			_buffer.Append("(");

			IParameter[] parameters = method.GetParameters();
			for (int i=0; i<parameters.Length; ++i)
			{
				if (i > 0) { _buffer.Append(", "); }
				if (method.AcceptVarArgs && i == parameters.Length-1) { _buffer.Append('*'); }
				_buffer.Append(parameters[i].Type);
			}
			_buffer.Append(")");
			return _buffer.ToString();
		}

		public object GetCacheKey(MemberInfo mi)
		{
			return mi;
		}

		public IEntity ResolvePrimitive(string name)
		{
			return (IEntity)_primitives[name];
		}

		public bool IsPrimitive(string name)
		{
			return _primitives.ContainsKey(name);
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// checks if the passed type will be equivalente to
		/// System.Object in runtime (accounting for the presence
		/// of duck typing).
		/// </summary>
		public bool IsSystemObject(IType type)
		{
			return type == ObjectType || type == DuckType;
		}

		public bool RequiresBoxing(IType expectedType, IType actualType)
		{
			if (!actualType.IsValueType) return false;
			return IsSystemObject(expectedType);
		}

		protected virtual void PreparePrimitives()
		{
			AddPrimitiveType("duck", DuckType);
			AddPrimitiveType("void", VoidType);
			AddPrimitiveType("object", ObjectType);
			AddPrimitiveType("bool", BoolType);
			AddPrimitiveType("sbyte", SByteType);
			AddPrimitiveType("byte", ByteType);
			AddPrimitiveType("short", ShortType);
			AddPrimitiveType("ushort", UShortType);
			AddPrimitiveType("int", IntType);
			AddPrimitiveType("uint", UIntType);
			AddPrimitiveType("long", LongType);
			AddPrimitiveType("ulong", ULongType);
			AddPrimitiveType("single", SingleType);
			AddPrimitiveType("double", DoubleType);
			AddPrimitiveType("decimal", DecimalType);
			AddPrimitiveType("char", CharType);
			AddPrimitiveType("string", StringType);
			AddPrimitiveType("regex", RegexType);
			AddPrimitiveType("date", DateTimeType);
			AddPrimitiveType("timespan", TimeSpanType);
			AddPrimitiveType("callable", ICallableType);
		}

		protected virtual void PrepareBuiltinFunctions()
		{
			AddBuiltin(BuiltinFunction.Len);
			AddBuiltin(BuiltinFunction.AddressOf);
			AddBuiltin(BuiltinFunction.Eval);
			AddBuiltin(BuiltinFunction.Switch);
		}

		protected void AddPrimitiveType(string name, ExternalType type)
		{
			_primitives[name] = type;
			type.PrimitiveName = name;
		}

		protected void AddBuiltin(BuiltinFunction function)
		{
			_primitives[function.Name] = function;
		}

		protected void Cache(ExternalType tag)
		{
			_entityCache[tag.ActualType] = tag;
		}

		protected void Cache(object key, IType tag)
		{
			_entityCache[key] = tag;
		}

		public IConstructor GetDefaultConstructor(IType type)
		{
			IConstructor[] constructors = type.GetConstructors();
			for (int i=0; i<constructors.Length; ++i)
			{
				IConstructor constructor = constructors[i];
				if (0 == constructor.GetParameters().Length)
				{
					return constructor;
				}
			}
			return null;
		}

		IType GetExternalEnumeratorItemType(IType iteratorType)
		{
			Type type = ((ExternalType)iteratorType).ActualType;
			EnumeratorItemTypeAttribute attribute = (EnumeratorItemTypeAttribute)System.Attribute.GetCustomAttribute(type, typeof(EnumeratorItemTypeAttribute));
			if (null != attribute)
			{
				return Map(attribute.ItemType);
			}
			return null;
		}

		IType GetEnumeratorItemTypeFromAttribute(IType iteratorType)
		{
            // If iterator type is external get its attributes via reflection
            if (iteratorType is ExternalType)
            {
                return GetExternalEnumeratorItemType(iteratorType);
            }

            // If iterator type is a generic constructed type, map its attribute from its definition
            GenericConstructedType constructedType = iteratorType as GenericConstructedType;
            if (constructedType != null)
            {
                return constructedType.GenericMapping.Map(
                    GetEnumeratorItemTypeFromAttribute(constructedType.GenericDefinition));
            }

            // If iterator type is internal get its attributes from its type definition
			AbstractInternalType internalType = (AbstractInternalType)iteratorType;
            IType enumeratorItemTypeAttribute = Map(typeof(EnumeratorItemTypeAttribute));
			foreach (Attribute attribute in internalType.TypeDefinition.Attributes)
			{
				IConstructor constructor = GetEntity(attribute) as IConstructor;
				if (null != constructor)
				{
					if (constructor.DeclaringType == enumeratorItemTypeAttribute)
					{
						return GetType(attribute.Arguments[0]);
					}
				}
			}
			return null;
		}

		public IType GetGenericEnumerableItemType(IType iteratorType)
		{
			// Arrays implicitly implement IEnumerable[of element type]
			if (iteratorType is ArrayType) return iteratorType.GetElementType();

			// If type is not an array, try to find IEnumerable[of some type] in its interfaces
			IType itemType = null;
			foreach (IType type in GenericsServices.FindConstructedTypes(iteratorType, IEnumerableGenericType))
			{
				IType candidateItemType = type.ConstructedInfo.GenericArguments[0];

				if (itemType != null)
				{
					itemType = GetMostGenericType(itemType, candidateItemType);
				}
				else
				{
					itemType = candidateItemType;
				}
			}

			return itemType;
		}

		public IEntity GetMemberEntity(TypeMember member)
		{
			if (null == member.Entity)
			{
				member.Entity = CreateEntity(member);
			}
			return member.Entity;
		}

		private IEntity CreateEntity(TypeMember member)
		{
			switch (member.NodeType)
			{
				case NodeType.ClassDefinition:
					return new InternalClass(this, (TypeDefinition) member);
				case NodeType.Field:
					return new InternalField((Field)member);
				case NodeType.EnumMember:
					return new InternalEnumMember(this, (EnumMember)member);
				case NodeType.Method:
					return new InternalMethod(this, (Method)member);
				case NodeType.Constructor:
					return new InternalConstructor(this, (Constructor)member);
				case NodeType.Property:
					return new InternalProperty(this, (Property)member);
				case NodeType.Event:
					return new InternalEvent(this, (Event)member);
			}
			throw new ArgumentException("Member type not supported: " + member);
		}


		private static void InvalidNode(Node node)
		{
			throw CompilerErrorFactory.InvalidNode(node);
		}

		public class DuckTypeImpl : ExternalType
		{
			public DuckTypeImpl(TypeSystemServices typeSystemServices) :
				base(typeSystemServices, Types.Object)
			{
			}
		}

		#region VoidTypeImpl
		class VoidTypeImpl : ExternalType
		{
			internal VoidTypeImpl(TypeSystemServices typeSystemServices) : base(typeSystemServices, Types.Void)
			{
			}

			override public bool Resolve(List targetList, string name, EntityType flags)
			{
				return false;
			}

			override public bool IsSubclassOf(IType other)
			{
				return false;
			}

			override public bool IsAssignableFrom(IType other)
			{
				return false;
			}
		}

		#endregion

		public virtual IType ExceptionType
		{
			get { return Map(typeof(Exception)); }
		}

		public virtual bool IsValidException(IType type)
		{
			return ExceptionType.IsAssignableFrom(type);
		}

		public virtual IConstructor GetStringExceptionConstructor()
		{
			return Map(typeof(Exception).GetConstructor(new Type[] { typeof(string) }));
		}
	}
}
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