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  1<appendix id="gfdl">
  3<title>GNU Free Documentation License</title>
  5 <pubdate>Version 1.2, November 2002</pubdate>
  6 <copyright><year>2000,2001,2002</year>
  7 <holder>Free Software Foundation, Inc.</holder></copyright>
  8 <legalnotice id="gfdl-legalnotice">
  9 <para><address>Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 10 <street>51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor</street>,
 11 <city>Boston</city>,
 12 <state>MA</state>
 13 <postcode>02110-1301</postcode>
 14 <country>USA</country>
 15 </address></para>
 16 <para>Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 17 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.</para>
 18 </legalnotice>
 19 <releaseinfo>Version 1.2, November 2002</releaseinfo>
 22<title>GNU Free Documentation License</title>
 23<section id="gfdl-0"><title>PREAMBLE</title>
 25<para>The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or
 26other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
 27assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with
 28or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
 29Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
 30to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
 31modifications made by others.</para>
 33<para>This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
 34works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
 35complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license
 36designed for free software.</para>
 38<para>We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
 39free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
 40program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
 41software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals; it
 42can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
 43whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
 44principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.</para>
 47<section id="gfdl-1"><title>APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS</title>
 49<para id="gfdl-doc">This License applies to any manual or other work, in
 50any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying
 51it can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
 52grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use
 53that work under the conditions stated herein.  The "Document", below,
 54refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
 55licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept the license if you
 56copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
 57copyright law.</para>
 59<para id="gfdl-mod-ver">A "Modified Version" of the Document means any
 60work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim,
 61or with modifications and/or translated into another language.</para>
 63<para id="gfdl-secnd-sect">A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or
 64a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
 65relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
 66Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing
 67that could fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the
 68Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may
 69not explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
 70historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
 71legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
 72regarding them.</para>
 74<para id="gfdl-inv-sect">The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary
 75Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant
 76Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under
 77this License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
 78Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The
 79Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not
 80identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.</para>
 82<para id="gfdl-cov-text">The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of
 83text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the
 84notice that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
 85Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at
 86most 25 words.</para>
 88<para id="gfdl-transparent">A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a
 89machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is
 90available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the
 91document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
 92composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely
 93available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
 94formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable
 95for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent
 96file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to
 97thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not
 98Transparent.  An image format is not Transparent if used for any
 99substantial amount of text.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
102<para>Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
103ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or
104XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML,
105PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples of
106transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats
107include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
108proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
109processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
110HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output
111purposes only.</para>
113<para id="gfdl-title-page">The "Title Page" means, for a printed book,
114the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold,
115legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page.
116For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
117Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's
118title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.</para>
120<para id="gfdl-entitled">A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit
121of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in
122parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language.
123(Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
124"Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)  To
125"Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document
126means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this
129<para>The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
130which states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
131Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License,
132but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that
133these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the
134meaning of this License.</para>
137<section id="gfdl-2"><title>VERBATIM COPYING</title>
139<para>You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
140commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
141copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to
142the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
143conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
144technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying
145of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
146compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
147number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
150<para>You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
151and you may publicly display copies.</para>
154<section id="gfdl-3"><title>COPYING IN QUANTITY</title>
156<para>If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
157have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
158Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
159copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
160Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back
161cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
162publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present the full title
163with all words of the title equally prominent and visible.  You may add
164other material on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited
165to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
166satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other
169<para>If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
170legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
171reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
174<para>If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
175numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable
176Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each
177Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
178network-using public has access to download using public-standard
179network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of
180added material.  If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably
181prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity,
182to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the
183stated location until at least one year after the last time you
184distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers)
185of that edition to the public.</para>
187<para>It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
188the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
189give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
193<section id="gfdl-4"><title>MODIFICATIONS</title>
195<para>You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
196under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
197release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
198Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
199distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever
200possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the
201Modified Version:</para>
203<orderedlist id="gfdl-modif-cond" numeration="upperalpha">
204  <title>GNU FDL Modification Conditions</title>
205<listitem><simpara>Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a
206  title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous
207  versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History
208  section of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous
209  version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
211<listitem><simpara>List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more
212  persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
213  the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal
214  authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer
215  than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
217<listitem><simpara>State on the Title page the name of the publisher of
218  the Modified Version, as the publisher.</simpara></listitem>
219<listitem><simpara>Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
221<listitem><simpara>Add an appropriate copyright notice for your
222  modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
224<listitem><simpara>Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a
225  license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
226  Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
227  <link linkend="gfdl-addendum">Addendum</link> below.
229<listitem><simpara>Preserve in that license notice the full lists of
230  Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
231  license notice.</simpara></listitem>
232<listitem><simpara>Include an unaltered copy of this License.
234<listitem><simpara>Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its
235  Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
236  authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title
237  Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document,
238  create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the
239  Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the
240  Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
242<listitem><simpara>Preserve the network location, if any, given in the
243  Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
244  likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous
245  versions it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History"
246  section.  You may omit a network location for a work that was
247  published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the
248  original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
250<listitem><simpara>For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or
251  "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
252  section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
253  acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
255<listitem><simpara>Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
256  unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
257  equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
259<listitem><simpara>Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".
260  Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
262<listitem><simpara>Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
263  "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
265<listitem><simpara>Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
269<para>If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
270appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
271copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
272of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
273list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
274These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.</para>
276<para>You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it
277contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
278parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
279been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
282<para>You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
283and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the
284list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
285Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through
286arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already includes
287a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by
288arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may
289not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission
290from the previous publisher that added the old one.</para>
292<para>The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
293License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
294assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.</para>
297<section id="gfdl-5"><title>COMBINING DOCUMENTS</title>
299<para>You may combine the Document with other documents released under
300this License, under the terms defined in <link linkend="gfdl-4">section
3014</link> above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
302combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original
303documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
304combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their
305Warranty Disclaimers.</para>
307<para>The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
308multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
309copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
310different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding
311at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or
312publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.  Make the
313same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections
314in the license notice of the combined work.</para>
316<para>In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
317"History" in the various original documents, forming one section
318Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
319"Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must
320delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".</para>
323<section id="gfdl-6"><title>COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS</title>
325<para>You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
326documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies
327of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is
328included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this
329License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other
332<para>You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
333distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
334copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
335License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
339<section id="gfdl-7"><title>AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS</title>
341<para>A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
342separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a
343storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
344copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal
345rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works
346permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does
347not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
348derivative works of the Document.</para>
350<para>If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
351copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
352the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers
353that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic
354equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.  Otherwise
355they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
359<section id="gfdl-8"><title>TRANSLATION</title>
361<para>Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
362distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
363Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
364permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
365translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
366original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
367translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
368Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
369the original English version of this License and the original versions
370of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between the
371translation and the original version of this License or a notice or
372disclaimer, the original version will prevail.</para>
374<para>If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
375"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its
376Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
380<section id="gfdl-9"><title>TERMINATION</title>
382<para>You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
383except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt
384to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
385automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
386parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License
387will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain
388in full compliance.</para>
391<section id="gfdl-10"><title>FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE</title>
393<para>The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
394the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions
395will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
396detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
399<para>Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
400number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of
401this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option
402of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version
403or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
404Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
405number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
406as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.</para>
409<section id="gfdl-addendum"><title>ADDENDUM: How to use this License for
410  your documents</title>
412<para>To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy
413of the License in the document and put the following copyright and
414license notices just after the title page:</para>
416<blockquote id="copyright-sample">
417  <title>Sample Invariant Sections list</title><para>
418    Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
419    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
420    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
421    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
422    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
423    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
424    Free Documentation License".
427<para>If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
428Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:</para>
430<blockquote id="inv-cover-sample">
431  <title>Sample Invariant Sections list</title>
433    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
434    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
437<para>If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
438combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
441<para>If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
442recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
443software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit
444their use in free software.</para>