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  1		GNU Free Documentation License
  2		   Version 1.1, March 2000
  3
  4 Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  5     59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
  6 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
  7 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  8
  9
 100. PREAMBLE
 11
 12The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
 13written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
 14the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
 15modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
 16this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
 17credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
 18modifications made by others.
 19
 20This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
 21works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
 22complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
 23license designed for free software.
 24
 25We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
 26software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
 27program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
 28software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
 29it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
 30whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
 31principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
 32
 33
 341. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
 35
 36This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
 37notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
 38under the terms of this License.  The "Document", below, refers to any
 39such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
 40addressed as "you".
 41
 42A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
 43Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
 44modifications and/or translated into another language.
 45
 46A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
 47the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
 48publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
 49(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
 50within that overall subject.  (For example, if the Document is in part a
 51textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
 52mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
 53connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
 54commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
 55them.
 56
 57The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
 58are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
 59that says that the Document is released under this License.
 60
 61The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
 62as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
 63the Document is released under this License.
 64
 65A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
 66represented in a format whose specification is available to the
 67general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
 68straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
 69pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
 70drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
 71for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
 72to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
 73format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
 74subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.  A copy that is
 75not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
 76
 77Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
 78ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
 79or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
 80HTML designed for human modification.  Opaque formats include
 81PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only
 82by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
 83processing tools are not generally available, and the
 84machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output
 85purposes only.
 86
 87The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
 88plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
 89this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
 90formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
 91the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
 92preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
 93
 94
 952. VERBATIM COPYING
 96
 97You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
 98commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
 99copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
100to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
101conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
102technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
103copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
104compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
105number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
106
107You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
108you may publicly display copies.
109
110
1113. COPYING IN QUANTITY
112
113If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
114and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
115the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
116Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
117the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
118you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
119the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
120visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
121Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
122the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
123as verbatim copying in other respects.
124
125If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
126legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
127reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
128pages.
129
130If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
131more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
132copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
133a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
134Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
135general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
136charge using public-standard network protocols.  If you use the latter
137option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
138distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
139Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
140until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
141copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
142the public.
143
144It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
145Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
146them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
147
148
1494. MODIFICATIONS
150
151You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
152the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
153the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
154Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
155and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
156of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
157
158A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
159   from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
160   (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
161   of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
162   if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
163B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
164   responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
165   Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
166   Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).
167C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
168   Modified Version, as the publisher.
169D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
170E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
171   adjacent to the other copyright notices.
172F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
173   giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
174   terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
175G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
176   and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
177H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
178I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to
179   it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
180   publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
181   there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one
182   stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
183   given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
184   Version as stated in the previous sentence.
185J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
186   public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
187   the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
188   it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
189   You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
190   least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
191   publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
192K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
193   preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
194   substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
195   and/or dedications given therein.
196L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
197   unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
198   or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
199M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
200   may not be included in the Modified Version.
201N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements"
202   or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
203
204If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
205appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
206copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
207of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
208list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
209These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
210
211You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
212nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
213parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
214been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
215standard.
216
217You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
218passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
219of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
220Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
221through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
222includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
223by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
224you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
225permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
226
227The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
228give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
229imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
230
231
2325. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
233
234You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
235License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
236versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
237Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
238list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
239license notice.
240
241The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
242multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
243copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
244different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
245adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
246author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
247Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
248Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
249
250In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History"
251in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
252"History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements",
253and any sections entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
254entitled "Endorsements."
255
256
2576. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
258
259You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
260released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
261License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
262the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
263verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
264
265You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
266it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
267License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
268other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
269
270
2717. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
272
273A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
274and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
275distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
276of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
277compilation.  Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this
278License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
279with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
280are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
281
282If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
283copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
284of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
285covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
286Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
287
288
2898. TRANSLATION
290
291Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
292distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
293Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
294permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
295translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
296original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
297translation of this License provided that you also include the
298original English version of this License.  In case of a disagreement
299between the translation and the original English version of this
300License, the original English version will prevail.
301
302
3039. TERMINATION
304
305You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
306as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
307copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
308automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
309parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
310License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
311parties remain in full compliance.
312
313
31410. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
315
316The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
317of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
318versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
319differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
320http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
321
322Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
323If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
324License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
325following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
326of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
327Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
328number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
329as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
330
331
332ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
333
334To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
335the License in the document and put the following copyright and
336license notices just after the title page:
337
338      Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
339      Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
340      under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
341      or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
342      with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
343      Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
344      A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
345      Free Documentation License".
346
347If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
348instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no
349Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of
350"Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
351
352If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
353recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
354free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
355to permit their use in free software.