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1 GNU Free Documentation License 2 Version 1.1, March 2000 3 4 Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 5 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA 6 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies 7 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 8 9 100. PREAMBLE 11 12The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other 13written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone 14the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without 15modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, 16this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get 17credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for 18modifications made by others. 19 20This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative 21works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It 22complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft 23license designed for free software. 24 25We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free 26software, because free software needs free documentation: a free 27program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the 28software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; 29it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or 30whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License 31principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. 32 33 341. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS 35 36This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a 37notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed 38under the terms of this License. The "Document", below, refers to any 39such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is 40addressed as "you". 41 42A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the 43Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with 44modifications and/or translated into another language. 45 46A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of 47the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the 48publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject 49(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly 50within that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a 51textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any 52mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical 53connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, 54commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding 55them. 56 57The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles 58are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice 59that says that the Document is released under this License. 60 61The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, 62as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that 63the Document is released under this License. 64 65A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, 66represented in a format whose specification is available to the 67general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and 68straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of 69pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available 70drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or 71for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input 72to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file 73format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage 74subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. A copy that is 75not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". 76 77Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain 78ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML 79or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple 80HTML designed for human modification. Opaque formats include 81PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only 82by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or 83processing tools are not generally available, and the 84machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for output 85purposes only. 86 87The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, 88plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material 89this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in 90formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means 91the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, 92preceding the beginning of the body of the text. 93 94 952. VERBATIM COPYING 96 97You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either 98commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the 99copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies 100to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other 101conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use 102technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further 103copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept 104compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough 105number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. 106 107You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and 108you may publicly display copies. 109 110 1113. COPYING IN QUANTITY 112 113If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100, 114and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose 115the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover 116Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on 117the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify 118you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present 119the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and 120visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. 121Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve 122the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated 123as verbatim copying in other respects. 124 125If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit 126legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit 127reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent 128pages. 129 130If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering 131more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent 132copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy 133a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete 134Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the 135general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no 136charge using public-standard network protocols. If you use the latter 137option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin 138distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this 139Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location 140until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque 141copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to 142the public. 143 144It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the 145Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give 146them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 147 148 1494. MODIFICATIONS 150 151You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under 152the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release 153the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified 154Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution 155and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy 156of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version: 157 158A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct 159 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions 160 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section 161 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version 162 if the original publisher of that version gives permission. 163B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities 164 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified 165 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the 166 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five). 167C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the 168 Modified Version, as the publisher. 169D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. 170E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications 171 adjacent to the other copyright notices. 172F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice 173 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the 174 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. 175G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections 176 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. 177H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. 178I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to 179 it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and 180 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If 181 there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one 182 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as 183 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified 184 Version as stated in the previous sentence. 185J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for 186 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise 187 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions 188 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. 189 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at 190 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original 191 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. 192K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", 193 preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the 194 substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements 195 and/or dedications given therein. 196L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, 197 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers 198 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. 199M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section 200 may not be included in the Modified Version. 201N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" 202 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. 203 204If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or 205appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material 206copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all 207of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the 208list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. 209These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. 210 211You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains 212nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various 213parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has 214been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a 215standard. 216 217You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a 218passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list 219of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of 220Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or 221through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already 222includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or 223by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, 224you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit 225permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. 226 227The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License 228give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or 229imply endorsement of any Modified Version. 230 231 2325. COMBINING DOCUMENTS 233 234You may combine the Document with other documents released under this 235License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified 236versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the 237Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and 238list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its 239license notice. 240 241The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and 242multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single 243copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but 244different contents, make the title of each such section unique by 245adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original 246author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. 247Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of 248Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. 249 250In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" 251in the various original documents, forming one section entitled 252"History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", 253and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections 254entitled "Endorsements." 255 256 2576. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS 258 259You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents 260released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this 261License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in 262the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for 263verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. 264 265You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute 266it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this 267License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all 268other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. 269 270 2717. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS 272 273A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate 274and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or 275distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version 276of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the 277compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this 278License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled 279with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they 280are not themselves derivative works of the Document. 281 282If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these 283copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter 284of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on 285covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. 286Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate. 287 288 2898. TRANSLATION 290 291Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may 292distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. 293Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special 294permission from their copyright holders, but you may include 295translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the 296original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a 297translation of this License provided that you also include the 298original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement 299between the translation and the original English version of this 300License, the original English version will prevail. 301 302 3039. TERMINATION 304 305You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except 306as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to 307copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will 308automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, 309parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this 310License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such 311parties remain in full compliance. 312 313 31410. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE 315 316The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions 317of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new 318versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may 319differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See 320http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. 321 322Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. 323If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this 324License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of 325following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or 326of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the 327Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version 328number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not 329as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. 330 331 332ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents 333 334To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of 335the License in the document and put the following copyright and 336license notices just after the title page: 337 338 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. 339 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document 340 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 341 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; 342 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the 343 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. 344 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU 345 Free Documentation License". 346 347If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" 348instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no 349Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of 350"Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts. 351 352If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we 353recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of 354free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, 355to permit their use in free software.