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/config/release/3rdparty/syslinux/doc/syslinux.txt

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  1			 The Syslinux Project
  2
  3		   A suite of bootloaders for Linux
  4
  5	 Copyright 1994-2010 H. Peter Anvin and contributors
  6
  7This program is provided under the terms of the GNU General Public
  8License, version 2 or, at your option, any later version.  There is no
  9warranty, neither expressed nor implied, to the function of this
 10program.  Please see the included file COPYING for details.
 11
 12----------------------------------------------------------------------
 13
 14      Syslinux now has a home page at http://syslinux.zytor.com/
 15
 16----------------------------------------------------------------------
 17
 18The Syslinux suite contains the following boot loaders
 19("derivatives"), for their respective boot media:
 20
 21	SYSLINUX - MS-DOS/Windows FAT filesystem
 22	PXELINUX - PXE network booting
 23	ISOLINUX - ISO9660 CD-ROM
 24	EXTLINUX - Linux ext2/ext3 filesystem
 25
 26For historical reasons, some of the sections in this document applies
 27to the FAT loader (SYSLINUX) only; see pxelinux.txt, isolinux.txt and
 28extlinux.txt for what differs in these versions.  The all-caps term
 29"SYSLINUX" generally refers to the FAT loader, whereas "Syslinux"
 30refers to the project as a whole.
 31
 32Help with cleaning up the docs would be greatly appreciated.
 33
 34
 35   ++++ Options ++++
 36
 37These are the options common to all versions of Syslinux:
 38
 39	-s	Safe, slow, stupid; uses simpler code that boots better
 40	-f	Force installing
 41	-r	Raid mode.  If boot fails, tell the BIOS to boot the next
 42		device in the boot sequence (usually the next hard disk)
 43		instead of stopping with an error message.
 44		This is useful for RAID-1 booting.
 45
 46These are only in the Windows version:
 47
 48	-m	Mbr; install a bootable MBR sector to the beginning of the
 49		drive.
 50	-a	Active; marks the partition used active (=bootable)
 51
 52
 53   ++++ CREATING A BOOTABLE LINUX FLOPPY +++
 54
 55In order to create a bootable Linux floppy using SYSLINUX, prepare a
 56normal MS-DOS formatted floppy.  Copy one or more Linux kernel files to
 57it, then execute the DOS command:
 58
 59        syslinux [-sfrma][-d directory] a: [bootsecfile]
 60
 61(or whichever drive letter is appropriate; the [] meaning optional.)
 62
 63Use "syslinux.com" (in the dos subdirectory of the distribution) for
 64plain DOS (MS-DOS, DR-DOS, PC-DOS, FreeDOS...) or Win9x/ME.
 65
 66Use "syslinux.exe" (in the win32 subdirectory of the distribution) for
 67WinNT/2000/XP.
 68
 69Under Linux, execute the command:
 70
 71	syslinux [-sfr][-d directory][-o offset] /dev/fd0
 72
 73(or, again, whichever device is the correct one.)
 74
 75This will alter the boot sector on the disk and copy a file named
 76LDLINUX.SYS into its root directory (or a subdirectory, if the -d
 77option is specified.)
 78
 79The -s option, if given, will install a "safe, slow and stupid"
 80version of SYSLINUX.  This version may work on some very buggy BIOSes
 81on which SYSLINUX would otherwise fail.  If you find a machine on
 82which the -s option is required to make it boot reliably, please send
 83as much info about your machine as you can, and include the failure
 84mode.
 85
 86The -o option is used with a disk image file and specifies the byte
 87offset of the filesystem image in the file.
 88
 89For the DOS and Windows installers, the -m and -a options can be used
 90on hard drives to write a Master Boot Record (MBR), and to mark the
 91specific partition active.
 92
 93If the Shift or Alt keys are held down during boot, or the Caps or Scroll
 94locks are set, Syslinux will display a LILO-style "boot:" prompt.  The
 95user can then type a kernel file name followed by any kernel parameters.
 96The Syslinux loader does not need to know about the kernel file in
 97advance; all that is required is that it is a file located in the root
 98directory on the disk.
 99
100There are two versions of the Linux installer; one in the "mtools"
101directory which requires no special privilege (other than write
102permission to the device where you are installing) but requires the
103mtools program suite to be available, and one in the "unix" directory
104which requires root privilege.
105
106
107   ++++ CONFIGURATION FILE ++++
108
109All options here apply to PXELINUX, ISOLINUX and EXTLINUX as well as
110SYSLINUX unless otherwise noted.  See the respective .txt files.
111
112All the configurable defaults in SYSLINUX can be changed by putting a
113file called "syslinux.cfg" in the root directory of the boot disk.
114
115Starting with version 3.35, the configuration file can also be in
116either the /boot/syslinux or /syslinux directories (searched in that
117order.)  If that is the case, then all filenames are assumed to be
118relative to that same directory, unless preceded with a slash or
119backslash.
120
121The configuration file is a text file in either UNIX or DOS format,
122containing one or more of the following items, each on its own line with
123optional leading whitespace.  Case is insensitive for keywords; upper
124case is used here to indicate that a word should be typed verbatim.
125
126#comment
127	A comment line.
128
129INCLUDE filename
130	Inserts the contents of another file at this point in the
131	configuration file. Files can currently be nested up to 16
132	levels deep, but it is not guaranteed that more than 8 levels
133	will be supported in the future.
134
135DEFAULT kernel options...
136        Sets the default command line.  If Syslinux boots automatically,
137        it will act just as if the entries after DEFAULT had been typed
138        in at the "boot:" prompt.
139
140	If no configuration file is present, or no DEFAULT entry is
141        present in the config file, an error message is displayed and
142	the boot: prompt is shown.
143
144UI module options...
145	Selects a specific user interface module (typically menu.c32
146	or vesamenu.c32).  The command-line interface treats this as a
147	directive that overrides the DEFAULT and PROMPT directives.
148
149APPEND options...
150        Add one or more options to the kernel command line.  These are
151        added both for automatic and manual boots.  The options are
152        added at the very beginning of the kernel command line,
153        usually permitting explicitly entered kernel options to override
154        them.  This is the equivalent of the LILO "append" option.
155
156IPAPPEND flag_val			[PXELINUX only]
157	The IPAPPEND option is available only on PXELINUX.  The
158	flag_val is an OR of the following options:
159
160	1: indicates that an option of the following format
161	should be generated and added to the kernel command line:
162
163		ip=<client-ip>:<boot-server-ip>:<gw-ip>:<netmask>
164
165	... based on the input from the DHCP/BOOTP or PXE boot server.
166
167	NOTE: The use of this option is no substitute for running a
168	DHCP client in the booted system.  Without regular renewals,
169	the lease acquired by the PXE BIOS will expire, making the
170	IP address available for reuse by the DHCP server.
171
172	2: indicates that an option of the following format
173	should be generated and added to the kernel command line:
174
175		BOOTIF=<hardware-address-of-boot-interface>
176
177	... in dash-separated hexadecimal with leading hardware type
178	(same as for the configuration file; see pxelinux.txt.)
179
180	This allows an initrd program to determine from which
181	interface the system booted.
182
183	4: indicates that an option of the following format
184	should be generated and added to the kernel command line:
185
186		SYSUUID=<system uuid>
187
188	... in lower case hexadecimal in the format normally used for
189	UUIDs (same as for the configuration file; see pxelinux.txt.)
190
191LABEL label
192    KERNEL image
193    APPEND options...
194    IPAPPEND flag_val			[PXELINUX only]
195	Indicates that if "label" is entered as the kernel to boot,
196        Syslinux should instead boot "image", and the specified APPEND
197	and IPAPPEND options should be used instead of the ones
198        specified in the global section of the file (before the first
199        LABEL command.)  The default for "image" is the same as
200        "label", and if no APPEND is given the default is to use the
201        global entry (if any).
202
203	Starting with version 3.62, the number of LABEL statements is
204	virtually unlimited.
205
206        Note that LILO uses the syntax:
207        image = mykernel
208          label = mylabel
209          append = "myoptions"
210
211        ... whereas Syslinux uses the syntax:
212        label mylabel
213          kernel mykernel
214          append myoptions
215
216	Note: The "kernel" doesn't have to be a Linux kernel; it can
217	      be a boot sector or a COMBOOT file (see below.)
218
219	Since version 3.32 label names are no longer mangled into DOS
220	format (for SYSLINUX.)
221
222    The following commands are available after a LABEL statement:
223
224    LINUX image			- Linux kernel image (default)
225    BOOT image			- Bootstrap program (.bs, .bin)
226    BSS image			- BSS image (.bss)
227    PXE image			- PXE Network Bootstrap Program (.0)
228    FDIMAGE image		- Floppy disk image (.img)
229    COMBOOT image		- COMBOOT program (.com, .cbt)
230    COM32 image			- COM32 program (.c32)
231    CONFIG image		- New configuration file
232	Using one of these keywords instead of KERNEL forces the
233	filetype, regardless of the filename.
234
235	CONFIG means restart the boot loader using a different
236	configuration file.
237
238    APPEND -
239        Append nothing.  APPEND with a single hyphen as argument in a
240        LABEL section can be used to override a global APPEND.
241
242    LOCALBOOT type			[ISOLINUX, PXELINUX]
243	On PXELINUX, specifying "LOCALBOOT 0" instead of a "KERNEL"
244	option means invoking this particular label will cause a local
245	disk boot instead of booting a kernel.
246
247	The argument 0 means perform a normal boot.  The argument 4
248	will perform a local boot with the Universal Network Driver
249	Interface (UNDI) driver still resident in memory.  Finally,
250	the argument 5 will perform a local boot with the entire PXE
251	stack, including the UNDI driver, still resident in memory.
252	All other values are undefined.  If you don't know what the
253	UNDI or PXE stacks are, don't worry -- you don't want them,
254	just specify 0.
255
256	On ISOLINUX, the "type" specifies the local drive number to
257	boot from; 0x00 is the primary floppy drive and 0x80 is the
258	primary hard drive.  The special value -1 causes ISOLINUX to
259	report failure to the BIOS, which, on recent BIOSes, should
260	mean that the next boot device in the boot sequence should be
261	activated.
262
263    INITRD initrd_file
264	Starting with version 3.71, an initrd can be specified in a
265	separate statement (INITRD) instead of as part of the APPEND
266	statement; this functionally appends "initrd=initrd_file" to
267	the kernel command line.
268
269	It supports multiple filenames separated by commas.
270	This is mostly useful for initramfs, which can be composed of
271	multiple separate cpio or cpio.gz archives.
272	Note: all files except the last one are zero-padded to a
273	4K page boundary.  This should not affect initramfs.
274
275IMPLICIT flag_val
276        If flag_val is 0, do not load a kernel image unless it has been
277        explicitly named in a LABEL statement.  The default is 1.
278
279ALLOWOPTIONS flag_val
280	If flag_val is 0, the user is not allowed to specify any
281	arguments on the kernel command line.  The only options
282	recognized are those specified in an APPEND statement.  The
283	default is 1.
284
285TIMEOUT timeout
286        Indicates how long to wait at the boot: prompt until booting
287        automatically, in units of 1/10 s.  The timeout is cancelled as
288        soon as the user types anything on the keyboard, the assumption
289        being that the user will complete the command line already
290        begun.  A timeout of zero will disable the timeout completely,
291        this is also the default.
292
293TOTALTIMEOUT timeout
294        Indicates how long to wait until booting automatically, in
295	units of 1/10 s.  This timeout is *not* cancelled by user
296	input, and can thus be used to deal with serial port glitches
297	or "the user walked away" type situations.  A timeout of zero
298	will disable the timeout completely, this is also the default.
299
300	Both TIMEOUT and TOTALTIMEOUT can be used together, for
301	example:
302
303		# Wait 5 seconds unless the user types something, but
304		# always boot after 15 minutes.
305		TIMEOUT 50
306		TOTALTIMEOUT 9000
307
308ONTIMEOUT kernel options...
309	Sets the command line invoked on a timeout.  Normally this is
310	the same thing as invoked by "DEFAULT".  If this is specified,
311	then "DEFAULT" is used only if the user presses <Enter> to
312	boot.
313
314ONERROR kernel options...
315	If a kernel image is not found (either due to it not existing,
316	or because IMPLICIT is set), run the specified command.  The
317	faulty command line is appended to the specified options, so
318	if the ONERROR directive reads as:
319
320		ONERROR xyzzy plugh
321
322	... and the command line as entered by the user is:
323
324		foo bar baz
325
326	... Syslinux will execute the following as if entered by the
327	user:
328
329		xyzzy plugh foo bar baz
330
331SERIAL port [[baudrate] flowcontrol]
332	Enables a serial port to act as the console.  "port" is a
333	number (0 = /dev/ttyS0 = COM1, etc.) or an I/O port address
334	(e.g. 0x3F8); if "baudrate" is omitted, the baud rate defaults
335	to 9600 bps.  The serial parameters are hardcoded to be 8
336	bits, no parity, 1 stop bit.
337
338	"flowcontrol" is a combination of the following bits:
339	0x001 - Assert DTR
340	0x002 - Assert RTS
341	0x008 - Enable interrupts
342	0x010 - Wait for CTS assertion
343	0x020 - Wait for DSR assertion
344	0x040 - Wait for RI assertion
345	0x080 - Wait for DCD assertion
346	0x100 - Ignore input unless CTS asserted
347	0x200 - Ignore input unless DSR asserted
348	0x400 - Ignore input unless RI asserted
349	0x800 - Ignore input unless DCD asserted
350
351	All other bits are reserved.
352
353	Typical values are:
354
355	    0 - No flow control (default)
356	0x303 - Null modem cable detect
357	0x013 - RTS/CTS flow control
358	0x813 - RTS/CTS flow control, modem input
359	0x023 - DTR/DSR flow control
360	0x083 - DTR/DCD flow control
361
362	For the SERIAL directive to be guaranteed to work properly, it
363	should be the first directive in the configuration file.
364
365	NOTE: "port" values from 0 to 3 means the first four serial
366	ports detected by the BIOS.  They may or may not correspond to
367	the legacy port values 0x3F8, 0x2F8, 0x3E8, 0x2E8.
368
369	Enabling interrupts (setting the 0x008 bit) may give better
370	responsiveness without setting the NOHALT option, but could
371	potentially cause problems with buggy BIOSes.
372
373NOHALT flag_val
374	If flag_val is 1, don't halt the processor while idle.
375	Halting the processor while idle significantly reduces the
376	power consumption, but can cause poor responsiveness to the
377	serial console, especially when using scripts to drive the
378	serial console, as opposed to human interaction.
379
380CONSOLE flag_val
381	If flag_val is 0, disable output to the normal video console.
382	If flag_val is 1, enable output to the video console (this is
383	the default.)
384
385	Some BIOSes try to forward this to the serial console and
386	sometimes make a total mess thereof, so this option lets you
387	disable the video console on these systems.
388
389FONT filename
390	Load a font in .psf format before displaying any output
391	(except the copyright line, which is output as ldlinux.sys
392	itself is loaded.)  Syslinux only loads the font onto the
393	video card; if the .psf file contains a Unicode table it is
394	ignored.  This only works on EGA and VGA cards; hopefully it
395	should do nothing on others.
396
397KBDMAP keymap
398	Install a simple keyboard map.  The keyboard remapper used is
399	*very* simplistic (it simply remaps the keycodes received from
400	the BIOS, which means that only the key combinations relevant
401	in the default layout -- usually U.S. English -- can be
402	mapped) but should at least help people with AZERTY keyboard
403	layout and the locations of = and , (two special characters
404	used heavily on the Linux kernel command line.)
405
406	The included program keytab-lilo.pl from the LILO distribution
407	can be used to create such keymaps.  The file keytab-lilo.txt
408	contains the documentation for this program.
409
410DISPLAY filename
411	Displays the indicated file on the screen at boot time (before
412        the boot: prompt, if displayed).  Please see the section below
413        on DISPLAY files.
414
415        NOTE: If the file is missing, this option is simply ignored.
416
417SAY message
418	Prints the message on the screen.
419
420PROMPT flag_val
421        If flag_val is 0, display the boot: prompt only if the Shift or Alt
422        key is pressed, or Caps Lock or Scroll lock is set (this is the
423        default).  If flag_val is 1, always display the boot: prompt.
424
425NOESCAPE flag_val
426	If flag_val is set to 1, ignore the Shift/Alt/Caps Lock/Scroll
427	Lock escapes.  Use this (together with PROMPT 0) to force the
428	default boot alternative.
429
430NOCOMPLETE flag_val
431	If flag_val is set to 1, the Tab key does not display labels
432	at the boot: prompt.
433
434F1 filename
435F2 filename
436   ...etc...
437F9 filename
438F10 filename
439F11 filename
440F12 filename
441        Displays the indicated file on the screen when a function key is
442        pressed at the boot: prompt.  This can be used to implement
443        pre-boot online help (presumably for the kernel command line
444        options.)  Please see the section below on DISPLAY files.
445
446	When using the serial console, press <Ctrl-F><digit> to get to
447	the help screens, e.g. <Ctrl-F><2> to get to the F2 screen.
448	For F10-F12, hit <Ctrl-F><A>, <Ctrl-F>B, <Ctrl-F>C.  For
449	compatibility with earlier versions, F10 can also be entered as
450	<Ctrl-F>0.
451
452Blank lines are ignored.
453
454Note that the configuration file is not completely decoded.  Syntax
455different from the one described above may still work correctly in this
456version of Syslinux, but may break in a future one.
457
458
459   ++++ DISPLAY FILE FORMAT ++++
460
461DISPLAY and function-key help files are text files in either DOS or UNIX
462format (with or without <CR>).  In addition, the following special codes
463are interpreted:
464
465<FF>                                    <FF> = <Ctrl-L> = ASCII 12
466        Clear the screen, home the cursor.  Note that the screen is
467        filled with the current display color.
468
469<SI><bg><fg>                            <SI> = <Ctrl-O> = ASCII 15
470        Set the display colors to the specified background and
471        foreground colors, where <bg> and <fg> are hex digits,
472        corresponding to the standard PC display attributes:
473
474        0 = black               8 = dark grey
475        1 = dark blue           9 = bright blue
476        2 = dark green          a = bright green
477        3 = dark cyan           b = bright cyan
478        4 = dark red            c = bright red
479        5 = dark purple         d = bright purple
480        6 = brown               e = yellow
481        7 = light grey          f = white
482
483        Picking a bright color (8-f) for the background results in the
484        corresponding dark color (0-7), with the foreground flashing.
485
486	Colors are not visible over the serial console.
487
488<CAN>filename<newline>			<CAN> = <Ctrl-X> = ASCII 24
489	If a VGA display is present, enter graphics mode and display
490	the graphic included in the specified file.  The file format
491	is an ad hoc format called LSS16; the included Perl program
492	"ppmtolss16" can be used to produce these images.  This Perl
493	program also includes the file format specification.
494
495	The image is displayed in 640x480 16-color mode.  Once in
496	graphics mode, the display attributes (set by <SI> code
497	sequences) work slightly differently: the background color is
498	ignored, and the foreground colors are the 16 colors specified
499	in the image file.  For that reason, ppmtolss16 allows you to
500	specify that certain colors should be assigned to specific
501	color indicies.
502
503	Color indicies 0 and 7, in particular, should be chosen with
504	care: 0 is the background color, and 7 is the color used for
505	the text printed by Syslinux itself.
506
507<EM>					<EM> = <Ctrl-Y> = ASCII 25
508	If we are currently in graphics mode, return to text mode.
509
510<DLE>..<ETB>				<Ctrl-P>..<Ctrl-W> = ASCII 16-23
511	These codes can be used to select which modes to print a
512	certain part of the message file in.  Each of these control
513	characters select a specific set of modes (text screen,
514	graphics screen, serial port) for which the output is actually
515	displayed:
516
517	Character			Text	Graph	Serial
518	------------------------------------------------------
519	<DLE> = <Ctrl-P> = ASCII 16	No	No	No
520	<DC1> = <Ctrl-Q> = ASCII 17	Yes	No	No
521	<DC2> = <Ctrl-R> = ASCII 18	No	Yes	No
522	<DC3> = <Ctrl-S> = ASCII 19	Yes	Yes	No
523	<DC4> = <Ctrl-T> = ASCII 20	No	No	Yes
524	<NAK> = <Ctrl-U> = ASCII 21	Yes	No	Yes
525	<SYN> = <Ctrl-V> = ASCII 22	No	Yes	Yes
526	<ETB> = <Ctrl-W> = ASCII 23	Yes	Yes	Yes
527
528	For example:
529
530	<DC1>Text mode<DC2>Graphics mode<DC4>Serial port<ETB>
531
532	... will actually print out which mode the console is in!
533
534<SUB>                                   <SUB> = <Ctrl-Z> = ASCII 26
535        End of file (DOS convention).
536
537<BEL>					<BEL> = <Ctrl-G> = ASCII 7
538	Beep the speaker.
539
540
541   ++++ COMMAND LINE KEYSTROKES ++++
542
543The command line prompt supports the following keystrokes:
544
545<Enter>		boot specified command line
546<BackSpace>	erase one character
547<Ctrl-U>	erase the whole line
548<Ctrl-V>	display the current Syslinux version
549<Ctrl-W>	erase one word
550<Ctrl-X>	force text mode
551<Tab>		list matching labels
552<F1>..<F12>	help screens (if configured)
553<Ctrl-F><digit>	equivalent to F1..F10
554<Ctrl-C>	interrupt boot in progress
555<Esc>		interrupt boot in progress
556<Ctrl-N>	display network information (PXELINUX only)
557
558
559   ++++ COMBOOT IMAGES AND OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS ++++
560
561This version of Syslinux supports chain loading of other operating
562systems (such as MS-DOS and its derivatives, including Windows 95/98),
563as well as COMBOOT-style standalone executables (a subset of DOS .COM
564files; see separate section below.)
565
566Chain loading requires the boot sector of the foreign operating system
567to be stored in a file in the root directory of the filesystem.
568Because neither Linux kernels, boot sector images, nor COMBOOT files
569have reliable magic numbers, Syslinux will look at the file extension.
570The following extensions are recognized (case insensitive):
571
572  none or other	Linux kernel image
573  .0		PXE bootstrap program (NBP) [PXELINUX only]
574  .bin		"CD boot sector" [ISOLINUX only]
575  .bs		Boot sector [SYSLINUX only]
576  .bss		Boot sector, DOS superblock will be patched in [SYSLINUX only]
577  .c32		COM32 image (32-bit COMBOOT)
578  .cbt		COMBOOT image (not runnable from DOS)
579  .com		COMBOOT image (runnable from DOS)
580  .img		Disk image [ISOLINUX only]
581
582For filenames given on the command line, Syslinux will search for the
583file by adding extensions in the order listed above if the plain
584filename is not found.  Filenames in KERNEL statements must be fully
585qualified.
586
587If this is specified with one of the keywords LINUX, BOOT, BSS,
588FDIMAGE, COMBOOT, COM32, or CONFIG instead of KERNEL, the filetype is
589considered to be the one specified regardless of the filename.
590
591
592      ++++ BOOTING DOS (OR OTHER SIMILAR OPERATING SYSTEMS) ++++
593
594This section applies to SYSLINUX only, not to PXELINUX or ISOLINUX.
595See isolinux.txt for an equivalent procedure for ISOLINUX.
596
597This is the recommended procedure for creating a SYSLINUX disk that
598can boot either DOS or Linux.  This example assumes the drive is A: in
599DOS and /dev/fd0 in Linux; for other drives, substitute the
600appropriate drive designator.
601
602   ---- Linux procedure ----
603
6041. Make a DOS bootable disk.  This can be done either by specifying
605   the /s option when formatting the disk in DOS, or by running the
606   DOS command SYS (this can be done under DOSEMU if DOSEMU has
607   direct device access to the relevant drive):
608
609	format a: /s
610   or
611	sys a:
612
6132. Boot Linux.  Copy the DOS boot sector from the disk into a file:
614
615	dd if=/dev/fd0 of=dos.bss bs=512 count=1
616
6173. Run SYSLINUX on the disk:
618
619	syslinux /dev/fd0
620
6214. Mount the disk and copy the DOS boot sector file to it.  The file
622   *must* have extension .bss:
623
624	mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt
625	cp dos.bss /mnt
626
6275. Copy the Linux kernel image(s), initrd(s), etc to the disk, and
628   create/edit syslinux.cfg and help files if desired:
629
630	cp vmlinux /mnt
631	cp initrd.gz /mnt
632
6336. Unmount the disk (if applicable.)
634
635	umount /mnt
636
637   ---- DOS/Windows procedure ----
638
639To make this installation in DOS only, you need the utility copybs.com
640(included with Syslinux) as well as the syslinux.com installer.  If
641you are on an WinNT-based system (WinNT, Win2k, WinXP or later), use
642syslinux.exe instead.
643
6441. Make a DOS bootable disk.  This can be done either by specifying
645   the /s option when formatting the disk in DOS, or by running the
646   DOS command SYS:
647
648	format a: /s
649   or
650	sys a:
651
6522. Copy the DOS boot sector from the disk into a file.  The file
653   *must* have extension .bss:
654
655	copybs a: a:dos.bss
656
6573. Run SYSLINUX on the disk:
658
659	syslinux a:
660
6614. Copy the Linux kernel image(s), initrd(s), etc to the disk, and
662   create/edit syslinux.cfg and help files if desired:
663
664	copy vmlinux a:
665	copy initrd.gz a:
666
667
668   ++++ COMBOOT EXECUTABLES ++++
669
670Syslinux supports simple standalone programs, using a file format
671similar to DOS ".com" files.  A 32-bit version, called COM32, is also
672provided.  A simple API provides access to a limited set of filesystem
673and console functions.
674
675See the file comboot.txt for more information on COMBOOT and COM32
676programs.
677
678
679   ++++ NOVICE PROTECTION ++++
680
681Syslinux will attempt to detect booting on a machine with too little
682memory, which means the Linux boot sequence cannot complete.  If so, a
683message is displayed and the boot sequence aborted.  Holding down the
684Ctrl key while booting disables this feature.
685
686Any file that SYSLINUX uses can be marked hidden, system or readonly
687if so is convenient; SYSLINUX ignores all file attributes.  The
688SYSLINUX installed automatically sets the readonly/hidden/system
689attributes on LDLINUX.SYS.
690
691
692   ++++ NOTES ON BOOTABLE CD-ROMS ++++
693
694SYSLINUX can be used to create bootdisk images for El
695Torito-compatible bootable CD-ROMs.  However, it appears that many
696BIOSes are very buggy when it comes to booting CD-ROMs.  Some users
697have reported that the following steps are helpful in making a CD-ROM
698that is bootable on the largest possible number of machines:
699
700	a) Use the -s (safe, slow and stupid) option to SYSLINUX;
701	b) Put the boot image as close to the beginning of the
702	   ISO 9660 filesystem as possible.
703
704A CD-ROM is so much faster than a floppy that the -s option shouldn't
705matter from a speed perspective.
706
707Of course, you probably want to use ISOLINUX instead.  See isolinux.txt.
708
709
710   ++++ BOOTING FROM A FAT FILESYSTEM PARTITION ON A HARD DISK ++++
711
712SYSLINUX can boot from a FAT filesystem partition on a hard disk
713(including FAT32).  The installation procedure is identical to the
714procedure for installing it on a floppy, and should work under either
715DOS or Linux.  To boot from a partition, SYSLINUX needs to be launched
716from a Master Boot Record or another boot loader, just like DOS itself
717would.
718
719Under DOS, you can install a standard simple MBR on the primary hard
720disk by running the command:
721
722	FDISK /MBR
723
724Then use the FDISK command to mark the appropriate partition active.
725
726A simple MBR, roughly on par with the one installed by DOS (but
727unencumbered), is included in the SYSLINUX distribution.  To install
728it under Linux, simply type:
729
730	cat mbr.bin > /dev/XXX
731
732... where /dev/XXX is the device you wish to install it on.
733
734Under DOS or Win32, you can install the SYSLINUX MBR with the -m
735option to the SYSLINUX installer, and use the -a option to mark the
736current partition active:
737
738	syslinux -ma c:
739
740Note that this will also install SYSLINUX on the specified partition.
741
742
743   ++++ HARDWARE INFORMATION +++
744
745I have started to maintain a web page of hardware with known
746problems.  There are, unfortunately, lots of broken hardware out
747there; especially early PXE stacks (for PXELINUX) have lots of
748problems.
749
750A list of problems, and workarounds (if known), is maintained at:
751
752	http://syslinux.zytor.com/hardware.php
753
754
755   ++++ BOOT LOADER IDS USED ++++
756
757The Linux boot protocol supports a "boot loader ID", a single byte
758where the upper nybble specifies a boot loader family (3 = Syslinux)
759and the lower nybble is version or, in the case of Syslinux, media:
760
761	0x31 (49) = SYSLINUX
762	0x32 (50) = PXELINUX
763	0x33 (51) = ISOLINUX
764	0x34 (52) = EXTLINUX
765
766In recent versions of Linux, this ID is available as
767/proc/sys/kernel/bootloader_type.
768
769
770   ++++ BUG REPORTS ++++
771
772I would appreciate hearing of any problems you have with Syslinux.  I
773would also like to hear from you if you have successfully used Syslinux,
774*especially* if you are using it for a distribution.
775
776If you are reporting problems, please include all possible information
777about your system and your BIOS; the vast majority of all problems
778reported turn out to be BIOS or hardware bugs, and I need as much
779information as possible in order to diagnose the problems.
780
781There is a mailing list for discussion among Syslinux users and for
782announcements of new and test versions.  To join, or to browse the
783archive, go to:
784
785   http://www.zytor.com/mailman/listinfo/syslinux
786
787Please DO NOT send HTML messages or attachments to the mailing list
788(including multipart/alternative or similar.)  All such messages will
789be bounced.