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  1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
  2see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
  3specially designed to be readable as is.
  4
  5=head1 NAME
  6
  7README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin
  8
  9=head1 SYNOPSIS
 10
 11This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl
 12on Cygwin.  This document also describes features of Cygwin that will
 13affect how Perl behaves at runtime.
 14
 15B<NOTE:> There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a
 16version of Perl is provided on the Cygwin CD.  If you do not need to
 17customize the configuration, consider using one of these packages:
 18
 19  http://cygutils.netpedia.net/
 20
 21=head1 PREREQUISITES
 22
 23=head2 Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
 24
 25The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32
 26platforms.  They run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX
 27system calls and environment these programs expect.  More information
 28about this project can be found at:
 29
 30  http://www.cygwin.com/
 31
 32A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.
 33
 34At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.1.5 was current.
 35
 36B<NOTE:> At this point, minimal effort has been made to provide
 37compatibility with old (beta) Cygwin releases.  The focus has been to
 38provide a high quality release and not worry about working around old
 39bugs.  If you wish to use Perl with Cygwin B20.1 or earlier, consider
 40using perl5.005_03, which is available in source and binary form at
 41C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.  If there is significant demand,
 42a patch kit can be developed to port back to earlier Cygwin versions.
 43
 44=head2 Cygwin Configuration
 45
 46While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so
 47that Perl builds cleanly.  These changes are B<not> required for normal
 48Perl usage.
 49
 50B<NOTE:> The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.
 51They do not depend on your host system (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K)
 52or your Cygwin configuration (I<ntea>, I<ntsec>, binary/text mounts).
 53The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like C</usr/local>.
 54However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's
 55runtime behavior (see L</"TEST">).
 56
 57=over 4
 58
 59=item * C<PATH>
 60
 61Set the C<PATH> environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin
 62versions of programs.  Any Windows directories should be removed or
 63moved to the end of your C<PATH>.
 64
 65=item * I<nroff>
 66
 67If you do not have I<nroff> (which is part of the I<groff> package),
 68Configure will B<not> prompt you to install I<man> pages.
 69
 70=item * Permissions
 71
 72On WinNT with either the I<ntea> or I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> settings, directory
 73and file permissions may not be set correctly.  Since the build process
 74creates directories and files, to be safe you may want to run a `C<chmod
 75-R +w *>' on the entire Perl source tree.
 76
 77Also, it is a well known WinNT "feature" that files created by a login
 78that is a member of the I<Administrators> group will be owned by the
 79I<Administrators> group.  Depending on your umask, you may find that you
 80can not write to files that you just created (because you are no longer
 81the owner).  When using the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, this is not an
 82issue because it "corrects" the ownership to what you would expect on
 83a UNIX system.
 84
 85=back
 86
 87=head1 CONFIGURE
 88
 89The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of
 90F<hints/cygwin.sh> will build a Perl that supports dynamic loading
 91(which requires a shared F<libperl.dll>).
 92
 93This will run Configure and keep a record:
 94
 95  ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure
 96
 97If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with B<-de>.
 98However, several useful customizations are available.
 99
100=head2 Strip Binaries
101
102It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.
103The resulting binaries will be significantly smaller.  If you want the
104binaries to be stripped, you can either add a B<-s> option when Configure
105prompts you,
106
107  Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
108  Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
109  Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
110  [none] -s
111
112or you can edit F<hints/cygwin.sh> and uncomment the relevant variables
113near the end of the file.
114
115=head2 Optional Libraries
116
117Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of
118some optional libraries.  Configure will find them if they are
119installed in one of the directories listed as being used for library
120searches.  Pre-built packages for most of these are available at
121C<http://cygutils.netpedia.net/>.
122
123=over 4
124
125=item * C<-lcrypt>
126
127The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit
128DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.
129
130Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.
131
132The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey Truhan:
133
134  ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/cw32crypt-dist-0.tgz
135
136NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES implementations,
137see the glibc README for more details.
138
139The MD5 port was done by Andy Piper:
140
141  ftp://ftp.franken.de/pub/win32/develop/gnuwin32/cygwin/porters/Okhapkin_Sergey/libcrypt.tgz
142
143=item * C<-lgdbm> (C<use GDBM_File>)
144
145GDBM is available for Cygwin.  GDBM's ndbm/dbm compatibility feature
146also makes C<NDBM_File> and C<ODBM_File> possible (although they add
147little extra value).
148
149NOTE: The ndbm/dbm emulations only completely work on NTFS partitions.
150
151=item * C<-ldb> (C<use DB_File>)
152
153BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin.  Some details can be found in
154F<ext/DB_File/DB_File.pm>.
155
156NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.
157
158=item * C<-lcygipc> (C<use IPC::SysV>)
159
160A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.
161
162NOTE: This has B<not> been extensively tested.  In particular,
163C<d_semctl_semun> is undefined because it fails a Configure test
164and on Win9x the I<shm*()> functions seem to hang.  It also creates
165a compile time dependency because F<perl.h> includes F<<sys/ipc.h>>
166and F<<sys/sem.h>> (which will be required in the future when compiling
167CPAN modules).
168
169=back
170
171=head2 Configure-time Options
172
173The F<INSTALL> document describes several Configure-time options.  Some of
174these will work with Cygwin, others are not yet possible.  Also, some of
175these are experimental.  You can either select an option when Configure
176prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.
177
178=over 4
179
180=item * C<-Uusedl>
181
182Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.
183
184=item * C<-Uusemymalloc>
185
186By default Perl uses the malloc() included with the Perl source.  If you
187want to force Perl to build with the system malloc() undefine this symbol.
188
189=item * C<-Dusemultiplicity>
190
191Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using
192more than one interpreter instance.  This works with the Cygwin port.
193
194=item * C<-Duseperlio>
195
196The PerlIO abstraction works with the Cygwin port.
197
198=item * C<-Duse64bitint>
199
200I<gcc> supports 64-bit integers.  However, several additional long long
201functions are necessary to use them within Perl (I<{strtol,strtoul}l>).
202These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
203
204=item * C<-Duselongdouble>
205
206I<gcc> supports long doubles (12 bytes).  However, several additional
207long double math functions are necessary to use them within Perl
208(I<{atan2,cos,exp,floor,fmod,frexp,isnan,log,modf,pow,sin,sqrt}l,strtold>).
209These are B<not> yet available with Cygwin.
210
211=item * C<-Dusethreads>
212
213POSIX threads are B<not> yet implemented in Cygwin.
214
215=item * C<-Duselargefiles>
216
217Although Win32 supports large files, Cygwin currently uses 32-bit integers
218for internal size and position calculations.
219
220=back
221
222=head2 Suspicious Warnings
223
224You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.
225
226=over 4
227
228=item * I<dlsym()>
229
230I<ld2> is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does not exist
231when dlsym() checking occurs (it is not created until `C<make>' runs).
232You will see the following message:
233
234  Checking whether your dlsym() needs a leading underscore ...
235  ld2: not found
236  I can't compile and run the test program.
237  I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.
238
239Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.
240
241=item * Win9x and C<d_eofnblk>
242
243Win9x does not correctly report C<EOF> with a non-blocking read on a
244closed pipe.  You will see the following messages:
245
246  But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
247  WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!
248
249  *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
250      The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
251      Keep the recommended value? [y]
252
253At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended
254value.
255
256=item * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
257
258The following error occurs because of the Cygwin C<#define> of
259C<_LONG_DOUBLE>:
260
261  Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
262  try.c:<line#>: parse error
263
264This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
265
266=back
267
268=head1 MAKE
269
270Simply run I<make> and wait:
271
272  make 2>&1 | tee log.make
273
274=head2 Warnings
275
276Warnings like these are normal:
277
278  warning: overriding commands for target <file>
279  warning: ignoring old commands for target <file>
280
281  dllwrap: no export definition file provided
282  dllwrap: creating one, but that may not be what you want
283
284=head2 ld2
285
286During `C<make>', I<ld2> will be created and installed in your $installbin
287directory (where you said to put public executables).  It does not
288wait until the `C<make install>' process to install the I<ld2> script,
289this is because the remainder of the `C<make>' refers to I<ld2> without
290fully specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirectories.
291The assumption is that $installbin is in your current C<PATH>.  If this
292is not the case `C<make>' will fail at some point.  If this happens,
293just manually copy I<ld2> from the source directory to somewhere in
294your C<PATH>.
295
296=head1 TEST
297
298There are two steps to running the test suite:
299
300  make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test
301
302  cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness
303
304The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when
305running as `C<./perl harness>'.
306
307Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin
308configuration.  If a test can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always
309attempted and explainable test failures are documented.  It is possible
310for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that some tests
311will fail for one of the reasons listed below.
312
313=head2 File Permissions
314
315UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
316{read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}.  By default Cygwin
317only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute represented as the UNIX file
318user write bit (files are always readable, files are executable if they
319have a F<.{com,bat,exe}> extension or begin with C<#!>, directories are
320always readable and executable).  On WinNT with the I<ntea> C<CYGWIN>
321setting, the additional mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.
322On WinNT with the I<ntsec> C<CYGWIN> setting, permissions use the standard
323WinNT security descriptors and access control lists.  Without one of
324these options, these tests will fail:
325
326  Failed Test           List of failed
327  ------------------------------------
328  io/fs.t               5, 7, 9-10
329  lib/anydbm.t          2
330  lib/db-btree.t        20
331  lib/db-hash.t         16
332  lib/db-recno.t        18
333  lib/gdbm.t            2
334  lib/ndbm.t            2
335  lib/odbm.t            2
336  lib/sdbm.t            2
337  op/stat.t             9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)
338
339=head2 Hard Links
340
341FAT partitions do not support hard links (whereas NTFS does), in which
342case Cygwin implements link() by copying the file.  On remote (network)
343drives Cygwin's stat() always sets C<st_nlink> to 1, so the link count
344for remote directories and files is not available.  In either case,
345these tests will fail:
346
347  Failed Test           List of failed
348  ------------------------------------
349  io/fs.t               4
350  op/stat.t             3
351
352=head2 Filetime Granularity
353
354On FAT partitions the filetime granularity is 2 seconds.  The following
355test will fail:
356
357  Failed Test           List of failed
358  ------------------------------------
359  io/fs.t               18
360
361=head2 Tainting Checks
362
363When Perl is running in taint mode, C<$ENV{PATH}> is considered tainted
364and not used, so DLLs not in the default system directories will not
365be found.  While the tests are running you will see warnings popup from
366the system with messages like:
367
368  Win9x
369    Error Starting Program
370    A required .DLL file, CYGWIN1.DLL, was not found
371
372  WinNT
373    perl.exe - Unable to Locate DLL
374    The dynamic link library cygwin1.dll could not be found in the
375      specified path ...
376
377Just click OK and ignore them.  When running `C<make test>', 2 popups
378occur.  During `C<./perl harness>', 4 popups occur.  Also, these tests
379will fail:
380
381  Failed Test           List of failed
382  ------------------------------------
383  op/taint.t            1, 3, 31, 37
384
385Alternatively, you can copy F<cygwin1.dll> into the directory where the
386tests run:
387
388  cp /bin/cygwin1.dll t
389
390or one of the Windows system directories (although, this is B<not>
391recommended).
392
393=head2 /etc/group
394
395Cygwin does not require F</etc/group>, in which case the F<op/grent.t>
396test will be skipped.  The check performed by F<op/grent.t> expects to
397see entries that use the members field, otherwise this test will fail:
398
399  Failed Test           List of failed
400  ------------------------------------
401  op/grent.t            1
402
403=head2 Script Portability
404
405Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of
406Win32 systems.  However, in addition to the items noted above, there are
407some differences that you should know about.  This is a very brief guide
408to portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin documentation.
409
410=over 4
411
412=item * Pathnames
413
414Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (F</>) or backward (F<\>)
415slashes.  They may also begin with drive letters (F<C:>) or Universal
416Naming Codes (F<//UNC>).  DOS device names (F<aux>, F<con>, F<prn>,
417F<com*>, F<lpt?>, F<nul>) are invalid as base filenames.  However, they
418can be used in extensions (e.g., F<hello.aux>).  Names may contain all
419printable characters except these:
420
421  : * ? " < > |
422
423File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.  A pathname that
424contains a backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname (and not subject
425to the translations applied to POSIX style pathnames).
426
427=item * Text/Binary
428
429When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode.  In text mode
430a file is subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations.  With Cygwin, the default
431mode for an open() is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies
432the file.  Perl provides a binmode() function to set binary mode on files
433that otherwise would be treated as text.  sysopen() with the C<O_TEXT>
434flag sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:
435
436    sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)
437
438lseek(), tell() and sysseek() only work with files opened in binary mode.
439
440The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.
441
442=item * F<.exe>
443
444The Cygwin stat(), lstat() and readlink() functions make the F<.exe>
445extension transparent by looking for F<foo.exe> when you ask for F<foo>
446(unless a F<foo> also exists).  Cygwin does not require a F<.exe>
447extension, but I<gcc> adds it automatically when building a program.
448However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., I<cp>
449in a makefile) the F<.exe> is not transparent.  The I<install> included
450with Cygwin automatically appends a F<.exe> when necessary.
451
452=item * chown()
453
454On WinNT chown() can change a file's user and group IDs.  On Win9x chown()
455is a no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.
456
457=item * Miscellaneous
458
459File locking using the C<F_GETLK> command to fcntl() is a stub that
460returns C<ENOSYS>.
461
462Win9x can not rename() an open file (although WinNT can).
463
464The Cygwin chroot() implementation has holes (it can not restrict file
465access by native Win32 programs).
466
467=back
468
469=head1 INSTALL
470
471This will install Perl, including I<man> pages.
472
473  make install | tee log.make-install
474
475NOTE: If C<STDERR> is redirected `C<make install>' will B<not> prompt
476you to install I<perl> into F</usr/bin>.
477
478You may need to be I<Administrator> to run `C<make install>'.  If you
479are not, you must have write access to the directories in question.
480
481Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be
482found in the F<INSTALL> document.
483
484=head1 MANIFEST
485
486These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.
487These very brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional
488code.  Hopefully, keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to
489be kept as clean as possible.
490
491=over 4
492
493=item Documentation
494
495  INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
496  Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
497  pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
498  pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
499  pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod pod/buildtoc.PL pod/perltoc.pod
500
501=item Build, Configure, Make, Install
502
503  cygwin/Makefile.SHs
504  cygwin/ld2.in
505  cygwin/perlld.in
506  ext/IPC/SysV/hints/cygwin.pl
507  ext/NDBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
508  ext/ODBM_File/hints/cygwin.pl
509  hints/cygwin.sh
510  Configure             - help finding hints from uname,
511                          shared libperl required for dynamic loading
512  Makefile.SH           - linklibperl
513  Porting/patchls       - cygwin in port list
514  installman            - man pages with :: translated to .
515  installperl           - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
516  makedepend.SH         - uwinfix
517
518=item Tests
519
520  t/io/tell.t           - binmode
521  t/lib/b.t             - ignore Cwd from os_extras
522  t/lib/glob-basic.t    - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
523  t/op/magic.t          - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
524  t/op/stat.t           - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
525                          (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
526                          previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
527
528=item Compiled Perl Source
529
530  EXTERN.h              - __declspec(dllimport)
531  XSUB.h                - __declspec(dllexport)
532  cygwin/cygwin.c       - os_extras (getcwd, spawn)
533  perl.c                - os_extras
534  perl.h                - binmode
535  doio.c                - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
536  pp_sys.c              - do not define h_errno, pp_system with spawn
537  util.c                - use setenv
538
539=item Compiled Module Source
540
541  ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs    - tzname defined externally
542  ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/pair.c
543                        - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
544  ext/SDBM_File/sdbm/sdbm.c
545                        - binary open
546
547=item Perl Modules/Scripts
548
549  lib/Cwd.pm            - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
550  lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm
551                        - require MM_Cygwin.pm
552  lib/ExtUtils/MM_Cygwin.pm
553                        - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
554  lib/File/Find.pm      - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
555  lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
556  lib/File/Temp.pm      - no directory sticky bit
557  lib/perl5db.pl        - use stdin not /dev/tty
558  utils/perldoc.PL      - version comment
559
560=back
561
562=head1 BUGS
563
564When I<make> starts, it warns about overriding commands for F<perlmain.o>.
565
566`C<make clean>' does not remove library F<.def> or F<.exe.stackdump>
567files.
568
569The I<ld2> script contains references to the source directory.  You should
570change these to $installbin after `C<make install>'.
571
572Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.
573On WinNT Cygwin provides setuid(), seteuid(), setgid() and setegid().
574However, additional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
575and security contexts are required.
576
577When building DLLs, `C<dllwrap --export-all-symbols>' is used to export
578global symbols.  It might be better to generate an explicit F<.def> file
579(see F<makedef.pl>).  Also, DLLs can now be build with `C<gcc -shared>'.
580
581=head1 AUTHORS
582
583Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>,
584Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>,
585alexander smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>,
586Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
587Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>,
588Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>.
589
590=head1 HISTORY
591
592Last updated: 9 November 2000