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1Building Python using VC++ 9.0 2------------------------------ 3 4This directory is used to build Python for Win32 and x64 platforms, e.g. 5Windows 2000, XP, Vista and Windows Server 2008. In order to build 32-bit 6debug and release executables, Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition is 7required at the very least. In order to build 64-bit debug and release 8executables, Visual Studio 2008 Standard Edition is required at the very 9least. In order to build all of the above, as well as generate release builds 10that make use of Profile Guided Optimisation (PG0), Visual Studio 2008 11Professional Edition is required at the very least. The official Python 12releases are built with this version of Visual Studio. 13 14For other Windows platforms and compilers, see ../PC/readme.txt. 15 16All you need to do is open the workspace "pcbuild.sln" in Visual Studio, 17select the desired combination of configuration and platform and eventually 18build the solution. Unless you are going to debug a problem in the core or 19you are going to create an optimized build you want to select "Release" as 20configuration. 21 22The PCbuild directory is compatible with all versions of Visual Studio from 23VS C++ Express Edition over the standard edition up to the professional 24edition. However the express edition does not support features like solution 25folders or profile guided optimization (PGO). The missing bits and pieces 26won't stop you from building Python. 27 28The solution is configured to build the projects in the correct order. "Build 29Solution" or F7 takes care of dependencies except for x64 builds. To make 30cross compiling x64 builds on a 32bit OS possible the x64 builds require a 3132bit version of Python. 32 33NOTE: 34 You probably don't want to build most of the other subprojects, unless 35 you're building an entire Python distribution from scratch, or 36 specifically making changes to the subsystems they implement, or are 37 running a Python core buildbot test slave; see SUBPROJECTS below) 38 39When using the Debug setting, the output files have a _d added to 40their name: python30_d.dll, python_d.exe, parser_d.pyd, and so on. Both 41the build and rt batch files accept a -d option for debug builds. 42 43The 32bit builds end up in the solution folder PCbuild while the x64 builds 44land in the amd64 subfolder. The PGI and PGO builds for profile guided 45optimization end up in their own folders, too. 46 47Legacy support 48-------------- 49 50You can find build directories for older versions of Visual Studio and 51Visual C++ in the PC directory. The legacy build directories are no longer 52actively maintained and may not work out of the box. 53 54PC/VC6/ 55 Visual C++ 6.0 56PC/VS7.1/ 57 Visual Studio 2003 (7.1) 58PCbuild8/ 59 Visual Studio 2005 (8.0) 60 61 62C RUNTIME 63--------- 64 65Visual Studio 2008 uses version 9 of the C runtime (MSVCRT9). The executables 66are linked to a CRT "side by side" assembly which must be present on the target 67machine. This is avalible under the VC/Redist folder of your visual studio 68distribution. On XP and later operating systems that support 69side-by-side assemblies it is not enough to have the msvcrt90.dll present, 70it has to be there as a whole assembly, that is, a folder with the .dll 71and a .manifest. Also, a check is made for the correct version. 72Therefore, one should distribute this assembly with the dlls, and keep 73it in the same directory. For compatibility with older systems, one should 74also set the PATH to this directory so that the dll can be found. 75For more info, see the Readme in the VC/Redist folder. 76 77SUBPROJECTS 78----------- 79These subprojects should build out of the box. Subprojects other than the 80main ones (pythoncore, python, pythonw) generally build a DLL (renamed to 81.pyd) from a specific module so that users don't have to load the code 82supporting that module unless they import the module. 83 84pythoncore 85 .dll and .lib 86python 87 .exe 88pythonw 89 pythonw.exe, a variant of python.exe that doesn't pop up a DOS box 90_socket 91 socketmodule.c 92_testcapi 93 tests of the Python C API, run via Lib/test/test_capi.py, and 94 implemented by module Modules/_testcapimodule.c 95pyexpat 96 Python wrapper for accelerated XML parsing, which incorporates stable 97 code from the Expat project: http://sourceforge.net/projects/expat/ 98select 99 selectmodule.c 100unicodedata 101 large tables of Unicode data 102winsound 103 play sounds (typically .wav files) under Windows 104 105Python-controlled subprojects that wrap external projects: 106_bsddb 107 Wraps Berkeley DB 4.7.25, which is currently built by _bsddb.vcproj. 108 project (see below). 109_sqlite3 110 Wraps SQLite 3.5.9, which is currently built by sqlite3.vcproj (see below). 111_tkinter 112 Wraps the Tk windowing system. Unlike _bsddb and _sqlite3, there's no 113 corresponding tcltk.vcproj-type project that builds Tcl/Tk from vcproj's 114 within our pcbuild.sln, which means this module expects to find a 115 pre-built Tcl/Tk in either ..\..\tcltk for 32-bit or ..\..\tcltk64 for 116 64-bit (relative to this directory). See below for instructions to build 117 Tcl/Tk. 118bz2 119 Python wrapper for the libbz2 compression library. Homepage 120 http://sources.redhat.com/bzip2/ 121 Download the source from the python.org copy into the dist 122 directory: 123 124 svn export http://svn.python.org/projects/external/bzip2-1.0.5 125 126 ** NOTE: if you use the Tools\buildbot\external(-amd64).bat approach for 127 obtaining external sources then you don't need to manually get the source 128 above via subversion. ** 129 130 A custom pre-link step in the bz2 project settings should manage to 131 build bzip2-1.0.5\libbz2.lib by magic before bz2.pyd (or bz2_d.pyd) is 132 linked in PCbuild\. 133 However, the bz2 project is not smart enough to remove anything under 134 bzip2-1.0.5\ when you do a clean, so if you want to rebuild bzip2.lib 135 you need to clean up bzip2-1.0.5\ by hand. 136 137 All of this managed to build libbz2.lib in 138 bzip2-1.0.5\$platform-$configuration\, which the Python project links in. 139 140_ssl 141 Python wrapper for the secure sockets library. 142 143 Get the source code through 144 145 svn export http://svn.python.org/projects/external/openssl-0.9.8g 146 147 ** NOTE: if you use the Tools\buildbot\external(-amd64).bat approach for 148 obtaining external sources then you don't need to manually get the source 149 above via subversion. ** 150 151 Alternatively, get the latest version from http://www.openssl.org. 152 You can (theoretically) use any version of OpenSSL you like - the 153 build process will automatically select the latest version. 154 155 You must install the NASM assembler from 156 http://nasm.sf.net 157 for x86 builds. Put nasmw.exe anywhere in your PATH. 158 159 You can also install ActivePerl from 160 http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/ 161 if you like to use the official sources instead of the files from 162 python's subversion repository. The svn version contains pre-build 163 makefiles and assembly files. 164 165 The build process makes sure that no patented algorithms are included. 166 For now RC5, MDC2 and IDEA are excluded from the build. You may have 167 to manually remove $(OBJ_D)\i_*.obj from ms\nt.mak if the build process 168 complains about missing files or forbidden IDEA. Again the files provided 169 in the subversion repository are already fixed. 170 171 The MSVC project simply invokes PCBuild/build_ssl.py to perform 172 the build. This Python script locates and builds your OpenSSL 173 installation, then invokes a simple makefile to build the final .pyd. 174 175 build_ssl.py attempts to catch the most common errors (such as not 176 being able to find OpenSSL sources, or not being able to find a Perl 177 that works with OpenSSL) and give a reasonable error message. 178 If you have a problem that doesn't seem to be handled correctly 179 (eg, you know you have ActivePerl but we can't find it), please take 180 a peek at build_ssl.py and suggest patches. Note that build_ssl.py 181 should be able to be run directly from the command-line. 182 183 build_ssl.py/MSVC isn't clever enough to clean OpenSSL - you must do 184 this by hand. 185 186The subprojects above wrap external projects Python doesn't control, and as 187such, a little more work is required in order to download the relevant source 188files for each project before they can be built. The buildbots do this each 189time they're built, so the easiest approach is to run either external.bat or 190external-amd64.bat in the ..\Tools\buildbot directory from ..\, i.e.: 191 192 C:\..\svn.python.org\projects\python\trunk\PCbuild>cd .. 193 C:\..\svn.python.org\projects\python\trunk>Tools\buildbot\external.bat 194 195This extracts all the external subprojects from http://svn.python.org/external 196via Subversion (so you'll need an svn.exe on your PATH) and places them in 197..\.. (relative to this directory). The external(-amd64).bat scripts will 198also build a debug build of Tcl/Tk; there aren't any equivalent batch files 199for building release versions of Tcl/Tk lying around in the Tools\buildbot 200directory. If you need to build a release version of Tcl/Tk it isn't hard 201though, take a look at the relevant external(-amd64).bat file and find the 202two nmake lines, then call each one without the 'DEBUG=1' parameter, i.e.: 203 204The external-amd64.bat file contains this for tcl: 205 nmake -f makefile.vc COMPILERFLAGS=-DWINVER=0x0500 DEBUG=1 MACHINE=AMD64 INSTALLDIR=..\..\tcltk64 clean all install 206 207So for a release build, you'd call it as: 208 nmake -f makefile.vc COMPILERFLAGS=-DWINVER=0x0500 MACHINE=AMD64 INSTALLDIR=..\..\tcltk64 clean all install 209 210 XXX Should we compile with OPTS=threads? 211 XXX Our installer copies a lot of stuff out of the Tcl/Tk install 212 XXX directory. Is all of that really needed for Python use of Tcl/Tk? 213 214This will be cleaned up in the future; ideally Tcl/Tk will be brought into our 215pcbuild.sln as custom .vcproj files, just as we've recently done with the 216_bsddb.vcproj and sqlite3.vcproj files, which will remove the need for 217Tcl/Tk to be built separately via a batch file. 218 219XXX trent.nelson 02-Apr-08: 220 Having the external subprojects in ..\.. relative to this directory is a 221 bit of a nuisance when you're working on py3k and trunk in parallel and 222 your directory layout mimics that of Python's subversion layout, e.g.: 223 224 C:\..\svn.python.org\projects\python\trunk 225 C:\..\svn.python.org\projects\python\branches\py3k 226 C:\..\svn.python.org\projects\python\branches\release25-maint 227 228 I'd like to change things so that external subprojects are fetched from 229 ..\external instead of ..\.., then provide some helper scripts or batch 230 files that would set up a new ..\external directory with svn checkouts of 231 the relevant branches in http://svn.python.org/projects/external/, or 232 alternatively, use junctions to link ..\external with a pre-existing 233 externals directory being used by another branch. i.e. if I'm usually 234 working on trunk (and have previously created trunk\external via the 235 provided batch file), and want to do some work on py3k, I'd set up a 236 junction as follows (using the directory structure above as an example): 237 238 C:\..\python\trunk\external <- already exists and has built versions 239 of the external subprojects 240 241 C:\..\python\branches\py3k>linkd.exe external ..\..\trunk\external 242 Link created at: external 243 244 Only a slight tweak would be needed to the buildbots such that bots 245 building trunk and py3k could make use of the same facility. (2.5.x 246 builds need to be kept separate as they're using Visual Studio 7.1.) 247/XXX trent.nelson 02-Apr-08 248 249Building for Itanium 250-------------------- 251 252NOTE: 253Official support for Itanium builds have been dropped from the build. Please 254contact us and provide patches if you are interested in Itanium builds. 255 256The project files support a ReleaseItanium configuration which creates 257Win64/Itanium binaries. For this to work, you need to install the Platform 258SDK, in particular the 64-bit support. This includes an Itanium compiler 259(future releases of the SDK likely include an AMD64 compiler as well). 260In addition, you need the Visual Studio plugin for external C compilers, 261from http://sf.net/projects/vsextcomp. The plugin will wrap cl.exe, to 262locate the proper target compiler, and convert compiler options 263accordingly. The project files require atleast version 0.9. 264 265Building for AMD64 266------------------ 267 268The build process for AMD64 / x64 is very similar to standard builds. You just 269have to set x64 as platform. In addition, the HOST_PYTHON environment variable 270must point to a Python interpreter (at least 2.4), to support cross-compilation. 271 272Building Python Using the free MS Toolkit Compiler 273-------------------------------------------------- 274 275Microsoft has withdrawn the free MS Toolkit Compiler, so this can no longer 276be considered a supported option. Instead you can use the free VS C++ Express 277Edition. 278 279Profile Guided Optimization 280--------------------------- 281 282The solution has two configurations for PGO. The PGInstrument 283configuration must be build first. The PGInstrument binaries are 284lniked against a profiling library and contain extra debug 285information. The PGUpdate configuration takes the profiling data and 286generates optimized binaries. 287 288The build_pgo.bat script automates the creation of optimized binaries. It 289creates the PGI files, runs the unit test suite or PyBench with the PGI 290python and finally creates the optimized files. 291 292http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/e7k32f4k(VS.90).aspx 293 294Static library 295-------------- 296 297The solution has no configuration for static libraries. However it is easy 298it build a static library instead of a DLL. You simply have to set the 299"Configuration Type" to "Static Library (.lib)" and alter the preprocessor 300macro "Py_ENABLE_SHARED" to "Py_NO_ENABLE_SHARED". You may also have to 301change the "Runtime Library" from "Multi-threaded DLL (/MD)" to 302"Multi-threaded (/MT)". 303 304Visual Studio properties 305------------------------ 306 307The PCbuild solution makes heavy use of Visual Studio property files 308(*.vsprops). The properties can be viewed and altered in the Property 309Manager (View -> Other Windows -> Property Manager). 310 311 * debug (debug macro: _DEBUG) 312 * pginstrument (PGO) 313 * pgupdate (PGO) 314 +-- pginstrument 315 * pyd (python extension, release build) 316 +-- release 317 +-- pyproject 318 * pyd_d (python extension, debug build) 319 +-- debug 320 +-- pyproject 321 * pyproject (base settings for all projects, user macros like PyDllName) 322 * release (release macro: NDEBUG) 323 * x64 (AMD64 / x64 platform specific settings) 324 325The pyproject propertyfile defines _WIN32 and x64 defines _WIN64 and _M_X64 326although the macros are set by the compiler, too. The GUI doesn't always know 327about the macros and confuse the user with false information. 328 329YOUR OWN EXTENSION DLLs 330----------------------- 331 332If you want to create your own extension module DLL, there's an example 333with easy-to-follow instructions in ../PC/example/; read the file 334readme.txt there first.