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/Parser/pgen.c

http://unladen-swallow.googlecode.com/
C | 708 lines | 565 code | 86 blank | 57 comment | 97 complexity | 6d3d4f50b524e71cd7ad318e6b387db3 MD5 | raw file
  1/* Parser generator */
  2
  3/* For a description, see the comments at end of this file */
  4
  5#include "Python.h"
  6#include "pgenheaders.h"
  7#include "token.h"
  8#include "node.h"
  9#include "grammar.h"
 10#include "metagrammar.h"
 11#include "pgen.h"
 12
 13extern int Py_DebugFlag;
 14extern int Py_IgnoreEnvironmentFlag; /* needed by Py_GETENV */
 15
 16
 17/* PART ONE -- CONSTRUCT NFA -- Cf. Algorithm 3.2 from [Aho&Ullman 77] */
 18
 19typedef struct _nfaarc {
 20	int	ar_label;
 21	int	ar_arrow;
 22} nfaarc;
 23
 24typedef struct _nfastate {
 25	int	st_narcs;
 26	nfaarc	*st_arc;
 27} nfastate;
 28
 29typedef struct _nfa {
 30	int		nf_type;
 31	char		*nf_name;
 32	int		nf_nstates;
 33	nfastate	*nf_state;
 34	int		nf_start, nf_finish;
 35} nfa;
 36
 37/* Forward */
 38static void compile_rhs(labellist *ll,
 39			nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb);
 40static void compile_alt(labellist *ll,
 41			nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb);
 42static void compile_item(labellist *ll,
 43			 nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb);
 44static void compile_atom(labellist *ll,
 45			 nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb);
 46
 47static int
 48addnfastate(nfa *nf)
 49{
 50	nfastate *st;
 51	
 52	nf->nf_state = (nfastate *)PyObject_REALLOC(nf->nf_state, 
 53                                    sizeof(nfastate) * (nf->nf_nstates + 1));
 54	if (nf->nf_state == NULL)
 55		Py_FatalError("out of mem");
 56	st = &nf->nf_state[nf->nf_nstates++];
 57	st->st_narcs = 0;
 58	st->st_arc = NULL;
 59	return st - nf->nf_state;
 60}
 61
 62static void
 63addnfaarc(nfa *nf, int from, int to, int lbl)
 64{
 65	nfastate *st;
 66	nfaarc *ar;
 67	
 68	st = &nf->nf_state[from];
 69	st->st_arc = (nfaarc *)PyObject_REALLOC(st->st_arc,
 70				      sizeof(nfaarc) * (st->st_narcs + 1));
 71	if (st->st_arc == NULL)
 72		Py_FatalError("out of mem");
 73	ar = &st->st_arc[st->st_narcs++];
 74	ar->ar_label = lbl;
 75	ar->ar_arrow = to;
 76}
 77
 78static nfa *
 79newnfa(char *name)
 80{
 81	nfa *nf;
 82	static int type = NT_OFFSET; /* All types will be disjunct */
 83	
 84	nf = (nfa *)PyObject_MALLOC(sizeof(nfa));
 85	if (nf == NULL)
 86		Py_FatalError("no mem for new nfa");
 87	nf->nf_type = type++;
 88	nf->nf_name = name; /* XXX strdup(name) ??? */
 89	nf->nf_nstates = 0;
 90	nf->nf_state = NULL;
 91	nf->nf_start = nf->nf_finish = -1;
 92	return nf;
 93}
 94
 95typedef struct _nfagrammar {
 96	int		gr_nnfas;
 97	nfa		**gr_nfa;
 98	labellist	gr_ll;
 99} nfagrammar;
100
101/* Forward */
102static void compile_rule(nfagrammar *gr, node *n);
103
104static nfagrammar *
105newnfagrammar(void)
106{
107	nfagrammar *gr;
108	
109	gr = (nfagrammar *)PyObject_MALLOC(sizeof(nfagrammar));
110	if (gr == NULL)
111		Py_FatalError("no mem for new nfa grammar");
112	gr->gr_nnfas = 0;
113	gr->gr_nfa = NULL;
114	gr->gr_ll.ll_nlabels = 0;
115	gr->gr_ll.ll_label = NULL;
116	addlabel(&gr->gr_ll, ENDMARKER, "EMPTY");
117	return gr;
118}
119
120static nfa *
121addnfa(nfagrammar *gr, char *name)
122{
123	nfa *nf;
124	
125	nf = newnfa(name);
126	gr->gr_nfa = (nfa **)PyObject_REALLOC(gr->gr_nfa,
127				      sizeof(nfa*) * (gr->gr_nnfas + 1));
128	if (gr->gr_nfa == NULL)
129		Py_FatalError("out of mem");
130	gr->gr_nfa[gr->gr_nnfas++] = nf;
131	addlabel(&gr->gr_ll, NAME, nf->nf_name);
132	return nf;
133}
134
135#ifdef Py_DEBUG
136
137static char REQNFMT[] = "metacompile: less than %d children\n";
138
139#define REQN(i, count) \
140 	if (i < count) { \
141		fprintf(stderr, REQNFMT, count); \
142		Py_FatalError("REQN"); \
143	} else
144
145#else
146#define REQN(i, count)	/* empty */
147#endif
148
149static nfagrammar *
150metacompile(node *n)
151{
152	nfagrammar *gr;
153	int i;
154
155	if (Py_DebugFlag)
156		printf("Compiling (meta-) parse tree into NFA grammar\n");
157	gr = newnfagrammar();
158	REQ(n, MSTART);
159	i = n->n_nchildren - 1; /* Last child is ENDMARKER */
160	n = n->n_child;
161	for (; --i >= 0; n++) {
162		if (n->n_type != NEWLINE)
163			compile_rule(gr, n);
164	}
165	return gr;
166}
167
168static void
169compile_rule(nfagrammar *gr, node *n)
170{
171	nfa *nf;
172	
173	REQ(n, RULE);
174	REQN(n->n_nchildren, 4);
175	n = n->n_child;
176	REQ(n, NAME);
177	nf = addnfa(gr, n->n_str);
178	n++;
179	REQ(n, COLON);
180	n++;
181	REQ(n, RHS);
182	compile_rhs(&gr->gr_ll, nf, n, &nf->nf_start, &nf->nf_finish);
183	n++;
184	REQ(n, NEWLINE);
185}
186
187static void
188compile_rhs(labellist *ll, nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb)
189{
190	int i;
191	int a, b;
192	
193	REQ(n, RHS);
194	i = n->n_nchildren;
195	REQN(i, 1);
196	n = n->n_child;
197	REQ(n, ALT);
198	compile_alt(ll, nf, n, pa, pb);
199	if (--i <= 0)
200		return;
201	n++;
202	a = *pa;
203	b = *pb;
204	*pa = addnfastate(nf);
205	*pb = addnfastate(nf);
206	addnfaarc(nf, *pa, a, EMPTY);
207	addnfaarc(nf, b, *pb, EMPTY);
208	for (; --i >= 0; n++) {
209		REQ(n, VBAR);
210		REQN(i, 1);
211		--i;
212		n++;
213		REQ(n, ALT);
214		compile_alt(ll, nf, n, &a, &b);
215		addnfaarc(nf, *pa, a, EMPTY);
216		addnfaarc(nf, b, *pb, EMPTY);
217	}
218}
219
220static void
221compile_alt(labellist *ll, nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb)
222{
223	int i;
224	int a, b;
225	
226	REQ(n, ALT);
227	i = n->n_nchildren;
228	REQN(i, 1);
229	n = n->n_child;
230	REQ(n, ITEM);
231	compile_item(ll, nf, n, pa, pb);
232	--i;
233	n++;
234	for (; --i >= 0; n++) {
235		REQ(n, ITEM);
236		compile_item(ll, nf, n, &a, &b);
237		addnfaarc(nf, *pb, a, EMPTY);
238		*pb = b;
239	}
240}
241
242static void
243compile_item(labellist *ll, nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb)
244{
245	int i;
246	int a, b;
247	
248	REQ(n, ITEM);
249	i = n->n_nchildren;
250	REQN(i, 1);
251	n = n->n_child;
252	if (n->n_type == LSQB) {
253		REQN(i, 3);
254		n++;
255		REQ(n, RHS);
256		*pa = addnfastate(nf);
257		*pb = addnfastate(nf);
258		addnfaarc(nf, *pa, *pb, EMPTY);
259		compile_rhs(ll, nf, n, &a, &b);
260		addnfaarc(nf, *pa, a, EMPTY);
261		addnfaarc(nf, b, *pb, EMPTY);
262		REQN(i, 1);
263		n++;
264		REQ(n, RSQB);
265	}
266	else {
267		compile_atom(ll, nf, n, pa, pb);
268		if (--i <= 0)
269			return;
270		n++;
271		addnfaarc(nf, *pb, *pa, EMPTY);
272		if (n->n_type == STAR)
273			*pb = *pa;
274		else
275			REQ(n, PLUS);
276	}
277}
278
279static void
280compile_atom(labellist *ll, nfa *nf, node *n, int *pa, int *pb)
281{
282	int i;
283	
284	REQ(n, ATOM);
285	i = n->n_nchildren;
286	REQN(i, 1);
287	n = n->n_child;
288	if (n->n_type == LPAR) {
289		REQN(i, 3);
290		n++;
291		REQ(n, RHS);
292		compile_rhs(ll, nf, n, pa, pb);
293		n++;
294		REQ(n, RPAR);
295	}
296	else if (n->n_type == NAME || n->n_type == STRING) {
297		*pa = addnfastate(nf);
298		*pb = addnfastate(nf);
299		addnfaarc(nf, *pa, *pb, addlabel(ll, n->n_type, n->n_str));
300	}
301	else
302		REQ(n, NAME);
303}
304
305static void
306dumpstate(labellist *ll, nfa *nf, int istate)
307{
308	nfastate *st;
309	int i;
310	nfaarc *ar;
311	
312	printf("%c%2d%c",
313		istate == nf->nf_start ? '*' : ' ',
314		istate,
315		istate == nf->nf_finish ? '.' : ' ');
316	st = &nf->nf_state[istate];
317	ar = st->st_arc;
318	for (i = 0; i < st->st_narcs; i++) {
319		if (i > 0)
320			printf("\n    ");
321		printf("-> %2d  %s", ar->ar_arrow,
322			PyGrammar_LabelRepr(&ll->ll_label[ar->ar_label]));
323		ar++;
324	}
325	printf("\n");
326}
327
328static void
329dumpnfa(labellist *ll, nfa *nf)
330{
331	int i;
332	
333	printf("NFA '%s' has %d states; start %d, finish %d\n",
334		nf->nf_name, nf->nf_nstates, nf->nf_start, nf->nf_finish);
335	for (i = 0; i < nf->nf_nstates; i++)
336		dumpstate(ll, nf, i);
337}
338
339
340/* PART TWO -- CONSTRUCT DFA -- Algorithm 3.1 from [Aho&Ullman 77] */
341
342static void
343addclosure(bitset ss, nfa *nf, int istate)
344{
345	if (addbit(ss, istate)) {
346		nfastate *st = &nf->nf_state[istate];
347		nfaarc *ar = st->st_arc;
348		int i;
349		
350		for (i = st->st_narcs; --i >= 0; ) {
351			if (ar->ar_label == EMPTY)
352				addclosure(ss, nf, ar->ar_arrow);
353			ar++;
354		}
355	}
356}
357
358typedef struct _ss_arc {
359	bitset	sa_bitset;
360	int	sa_arrow;
361	int	sa_label;
362} ss_arc;
363
364typedef struct _ss_state {
365	bitset	ss_ss;
366	int	ss_narcs;
367	struct _ss_arc	*ss_arc;
368	int	ss_deleted;
369	int	ss_finish;
370	int	ss_rename;
371} ss_state;
372
373typedef struct _ss_dfa {
374	int	sd_nstates;
375	ss_state *sd_state;
376} ss_dfa;
377
378/* Forward */
379static void printssdfa(int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state, int nbits,
380		       labellist *ll, char *msg);
381static void simplify(int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state);
382static void convert(dfa *d, int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state);
383
384static void
385makedfa(nfagrammar *gr, nfa *nf, dfa *d)
386{
387	int nbits = nf->nf_nstates;
388	bitset ss;
389	int xx_nstates;
390	ss_state *xx_state, *yy;
391	ss_arc *zz;
392	int istate, jstate, iarc, jarc, ibit;
393	nfastate *st;
394	nfaarc *ar;
395	
396	ss = newbitset(nbits);
397	addclosure(ss, nf, nf->nf_start);
398	xx_state = (ss_state *)PyObject_MALLOC(sizeof(ss_state));
399	if (xx_state == NULL)
400		Py_FatalError("no mem for xx_state in makedfa");
401	xx_nstates = 1;
402	yy = &xx_state[0];
403	yy->ss_ss = ss;
404	yy->ss_narcs = 0;
405	yy->ss_arc = NULL;
406	yy->ss_deleted = 0;
407	yy->ss_finish = testbit(ss, nf->nf_finish);
408	if (yy->ss_finish)
409		printf("Error: nonterminal '%s' may produce empty.\n",
410			nf->nf_name);
411	
412	/* This algorithm is from a book written before
413	   the invention of structured programming... */
414
415	/* For each unmarked state... */
416	for (istate = 0; istate < xx_nstates; ++istate) {
417		size_t size;
418		yy = &xx_state[istate];
419		ss = yy->ss_ss;
420		/* For all its states... */
421		for (ibit = 0; ibit < nf->nf_nstates; ++ibit) {
422			if (!testbit(ss, ibit))
423				continue;
424			st = &nf->nf_state[ibit];
425			/* For all non-empty arcs from this state... */
426			for (iarc = 0; iarc < st->st_narcs; iarc++) {
427				ar = &st->st_arc[iarc];
428				if (ar->ar_label == EMPTY)
429					continue;
430				/* Look up in list of arcs from this state */
431				for (jarc = 0; jarc < yy->ss_narcs; ++jarc) {
432					zz = &yy->ss_arc[jarc];
433					if (ar->ar_label == zz->sa_label)
434						goto found;
435				}
436				/* Add new arc for this state */
437				size = sizeof(ss_arc) * (yy->ss_narcs + 1);
438				yy->ss_arc = (ss_arc *)PyObject_REALLOC(
439                                                            yy->ss_arc, size);
440				if (yy->ss_arc == NULL)
441					Py_FatalError("out of mem");
442				zz = &yy->ss_arc[yy->ss_narcs++];
443				zz->sa_label = ar->ar_label;
444				zz->sa_bitset = newbitset(nbits);
445				zz->sa_arrow = -1;
446			 found:	;
447				/* Add destination */
448				addclosure(zz->sa_bitset, nf, ar->ar_arrow);
449			}
450		}
451		/* Now look up all the arrow states */
452		for (jarc = 0; jarc < xx_state[istate].ss_narcs; jarc++) {
453			zz = &xx_state[istate].ss_arc[jarc];
454			for (jstate = 0; jstate < xx_nstates; jstate++) {
455				if (samebitset(zz->sa_bitset,
456					xx_state[jstate].ss_ss, nbits)) {
457					zz->sa_arrow = jstate;
458					goto done;
459				}
460			}
461			size = sizeof(ss_state) * (xx_nstates + 1);
462			xx_state = (ss_state *)PyObject_REALLOC(xx_state, 
463                                                                    size);
464			if (xx_state == NULL)
465				Py_FatalError("out of mem");
466			zz->sa_arrow = xx_nstates;
467			yy = &xx_state[xx_nstates++];
468			yy->ss_ss = zz->sa_bitset;
469			yy->ss_narcs = 0;
470			yy->ss_arc = NULL;
471			yy->ss_deleted = 0;
472			yy->ss_finish = testbit(yy->ss_ss, nf->nf_finish);
473		 done:	;
474		}
475	}
476	
477	if (Py_DebugFlag)
478		printssdfa(xx_nstates, xx_state, nbits, &gr->gr_ll,
479						"before minimizing");
480	
481	simplify(xx_nstates, xx_state);
482	
483	if (Py_DebugFlag)
484		printssdfa(xx_nstates, xx_state, nbits, &gr->gr_ll,
485						"after minimizing");
486	
487	convert(d, xx_nstates, xx_state);
488	
489	/* XXX cleanup */
490	PyObject_FREE(xx_state);
491}
492
493static void
494printssdfa(int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state, int nbits,
495	   labellist *ll, char *msg)
496{
497	int i, ibit, iarc;
498	ss_state *yy;
499	ss_arc *zz;
500	
501	printf("Subset DFA %s\n", msg);
502	for (i = 0; i < xx_nstates; i++) {
503		yy = &xx_state[i];
504		if (yy->ss_deleted)
505			continue;
506		printf(" Subset %d", i);
507		if (yy->ss_finish)
508			printf(" (finish)");
509		printf(" { ");
510		for (ibit = 0; ibit < nbits; ibit++) {
511			if (testbit(yy->ss_ss, ibit))
512				printf("%d ", ibit);
513		}
514		printf("}\n");
515		for (iarc = 0; iarc < yy->ss_narcs; iarc++) {
516			zz = &yy->ss_arc[iarc];
517			printf("  Arc to state %d, label %s\n",
518				zz->sa_arrow,
519				PyGrammar_LabelRepr(
520					&ll->ll_label[zz->sa_label]));
521		}
522	}
523}
524
525
526/* PART THREE -- SIMPLIFY DFA */
527
528/* Simplify the DFA by repeatedly eliminating states that are
529   equivalent to another oner.  This is NOT Algorithm 3.3 from
530   [Aho&Ullman 77].  It does not always finds the minimal DFA,
531   but it does usually make a much smaller one...  (For an example
532   of sub-optimal behavior, try S: x a b+ | y a b+.)
533*/
534
535static int
536samestate(ss_state *s1, ss_state *s2)
537{
538	int i;
539	
540	if (s1->ss_narcs != s2->ss_narcs || s1->ss_finish != s2->ss_finish)
541		return 0;
542	for (i = 0; i < s1->ss_narcs; i++) {
543		if (s1->ss_arc[i].sa_arrow != s2->ss_arc[i].sa_arrow ||
544			s1->ss_arc[i].sa_label != s2->ss_arc[i].sa_label)
545			return 0;
546	}
547	return 1;
548}
549
550static void
551renamestates(int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state, int from, int to)
552{
553	int i, j;
554	
555	if (Py_DebugFlag)
556		printf("Rename state %d to %d.\n", from, to);
557	for (i = 0; i < xx_nstates; i++) {
558		if (xx_state[i].ss_deleted)
559			continue;
560		for (j = 0; j < xx_state[i].ss_narcs; j++) {
561			if (xx_state[i].ss_arc[j].sa_arrow == from)
562				xx_state[i].ss_arc[j].sa_arrow = to;
563		}
564	}
565}
566
567static void
568simplify(int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state)
569{
570	int changes;
571	int i, j;
572	
573	do {
574		changes = 0;
575		for (i = 1; i < xx_nstates; i++) {
576			if (xx_state[i].ss_deleted)
577				continue;
578			for (j = 0; j < i; j++) {
579				if (xx_state[j].ss_deleted)
580					continue;
581				if (samestate(&xx_state[i], &xx_state[j])) {
582					xx_state[i].ss_deleted++;
583					renamestates(xx_nstates, xx_state,
584						     i, j);
585					changes++;
586					break;
587				}
588			}
589		}
590	} while (changes);
591}
592
593
594/* PART FOUR -- GENERATE PARSING TABLES */
595
596/* Convert the DFA into a grammar that can be used by our parser */
597
598static void
599convert(dfa *d, int xx_nstates, ss_state *xx_state)
600{
601	int i, j;
602	ss_state *yy;
603	ss_arc *zz;
604	
605	for (i = 0; i < xx_nstates; i++) {
606		yy = &xx_state[i];
607		if (yy->ss_deleted)
608			continue;
609		yy->ss_rename = addstate(d);
610	}
611	
612	for (i = 0; i < xx_nstates; i++) {
613		yy = &xx_state[i];
614		if (yy->ss_deleted)
615			continue;
616		for (j = 0; j < yy->ss_narcs; j++) {
617			zz = &yy->ss_arc[j];
618			addarc(d, yy->ss_rename,
619				xx_state[zz->sa_arrow].ss_rename,
620				zz->sa_label);
621		}
622		if (yy->ss_finish)
623			addarc(d, yy->ss_rename, yy->ss_rename, 0);
624	}
625	
626	d->d_initial = 0;
627}
628
629
630/* PART FIVE -- GLUE IT ALL TOGETHER */
631
632static grammar *
633maketables(nfagrammar *gr)
634{
635	int i;
636	nfa *nf;
637	dfa *d;
638	grammar *g;
639	
640	if (gr->gr_nnfas == 0)
641		return NULL;
642	g = newgrammar(gr->gr_nfa[0]->nf_type);
643			/* XXX first rule must be start rule */
644	g->g_ll = gr->gr_ll;
645	
646	for (i = 0; i < gr->gr_nnfas; i++) {
647		nf = gr->gr_nfa[i];
648		if (Py_DebugFlag) {
649			printf("Dump of NFA for '%s' ...\n", nf->nf_name);
650			dumpnfa(&gr->gr_ll, nf);
651			printf("Making DFA for '%s' ...\n", nf->nf_name);
652		}
653		d = adddfa(g, nf->nf_type, nf->nf_name);
654		makedfa(gr, gr->gr_nfa[i], d);
655	}
656	
657	return g;
658}
659
660grammar *
661pgen(node *n)
662{
663	nfagrammar *gr;
664	grammar *g;
665	
666	gr = metacompile(n);
667	g = maketables(gr);
668	translatelabels(g);
669	addfirstsets(g);
670	PyObject_FREE(gr);
671	return g;
672}
673
674grammar *
675Py_pgen(node *n)
676{
677  return pgen(n);
678}
679
680/*
681
682Description
683-----------
684
685Input is a grammar in extended BNF (using * for repetition, + for
686at-least-once repetition, [] for optional parts, | for alternatives and
687() for grouping).  This has already been parsed and turned into a parse
688tree.
689
690Each rule is considered as a regular expression in its own right.
691It is turned into a Non-deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), which
692is then turned into a Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA), which is then
693optimized to reduce the number of states.  See [Aho&Ullman 77] chapter 3,
694or similar compiler books (this technique is more often used for lexical
695analyzers).
696
697The DFA's are used by the parser as parsing tables in a special way
698that's probably unique.  Before they are usable, the FIRST sets of all
699non-terminals are computed.
700
701Reference
702---------
703
704[Aho&Ullman 77]
705	Aho&Ullman, Principles of Compiler Design, Addison-Wesley 1977
706	(first edition)
707
708*/