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/Unittests/googletest/src/gtest-death-test.cc

http://unladen-swallow.googlecode.com/
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   1// Copyright 2005, Google Inc.
   2// All rights reserved.
   3//
   4// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   5// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
   6// met:
   7//
   8//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   9// notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  10//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
  11// copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
  12// in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
  13// distribution.
  14//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
  15// contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from
  16// this software without specific prior written permission.
  17//
  18// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
  19// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  20// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
  21// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
  22// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
  23// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
  24// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
  25// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
  26// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
  27// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
  28// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  29//
  30// Author: wan@google.com (Zhanyong Wan), vladl@google.com (Vlad Losev)
  31//
  32// This file implements death tests.
  33
  34#include <gtest/gtest-death-test.h>
  35#include <gtest/internal/gtest-port.h>
  36
  37#if GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
  38
  39#if GTEST_OS_MAC
  40#include <crt_externs.h>
  41#endif  // GTEST_OS_MAC
  42
  43#include <errno.h>
  44#include <fcntl.h>
  45#include <limits.h>
  46#include <stdarg.h>
  47
  48#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
  49#include <windows.h>
  50#else
  51#include <sys/mman.h>
  52#include <sys/wait.h>
  53#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
  54
  55#endif  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
  56
  57#include <gtest/gtest-message.h>
  58#include <gtest/internal/gtest-string.h>
  59
  60// Indicates that this translation unit is part of Google Test's
  61// implementation.  It must come before gtest-internal-inl.h is
  62// included, or there will be a compiler error.  This trick is to
  63// prevent a user from accidentally including gtest-internal-inl.h in
  64// his code.
  65#define GTEST_IMPLEMENTATION_ 1
  66#include "src/gtest-internal-inl.h"
  67#undef GTEST_IMPLEMENTATION_
  68
  69namespace testing {
  70
  71// Constants.
  72
  73// The default death test style.
  74static const char kDefaultDeathTestStyle[] = "fast";
  75
  76GTEST_DEFINE_string_(
  77    death_test_style,
  78    internal::StringFromGTestEnv("death_test_style", kDefaultDeathTestStyle),
  79    "Indicates how to run a death test in a forked child process: "
  80    "\"threadsafe\" (child process re-executes the test binary "
  81    "from the beginning, running only the specific death test) or "
  82    "\"fast\" (child process runs the death test immediately "
  83    "after forking).");
  84
  85GTEST_DEFINE_bool_(
  86    death_test_use_fork,
  87    internal::BoolFromGTestEnv("death_test_use_fork", false),
  88    "Instructs to use fork()/_exit() instead of clone() in death tests. "
  89    "Ignored and always uses fork() on POSIX systems where clone() is not "
  90    "implemented. Useful when running under valgrind or similar tools if "
  91    "those do not support clone(). Valgrind 3.3.1 will just fail if "
  92    "it sees an unsupported combination of clone() flags. "
  93    "It is not recommended to use this flag w/o valgrind though it will "
  94    "work in 99% of the cases. Once valgrind is fixed, this flag will "
  95    "most likely be removed.");
  96
  97namespace internal {
  98GTEST_DEFINE_string_(
  99    internal_run_death_test, "",
 100    "Indicates the file, line number, temporal index of "
 101    "the single death test to run, and a file descriptor to "
 102    "which a success code may be sent, all separated by "
 103    "colons.  This flag is specified if and only if the current "
 104    "process is a sub-process launched for running a thread-safe "
 105    "death test.  FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.");
 106}  // namespace internal
 107
 108#if GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
 109
 110// ExitedWithCode constructor.
 111ExitedWithCode::ExitedWithCode(int exit_code) : exit_code_(exit_code) {
 112}
 113
 114// ExitedWithCode function-call operator.
 115bool ExitedWithCode::operator()(int exit_status) const {
 116#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 117  return exit_status == exit_code_;
 118#else
 119  return WIFEXITED(exit_status) && WEXITSTATUS(exit_status) == exit_code_;
 120#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 121}
 122
 123#if !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 124// KilledBySignal constructor.
 125KilledBySignal::KilledBySignal(int signum) : signum_(signum) {
 126}
 127
 128// KilledBySignal function-call operator.
 129bool KilledBySignal::operator()(int exit_status) const {
 130  return WIFSIGNALED(exit_status) && WTERMSIG(exit_status) == signum_;
 131}
 132#endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 133
 134namespace internal {
 135
 136// Utilities needed for death tests.
 137
 138// Generates a textual description of a given exit code, in the format
 139// specified by wait(2).
 140static String ExitSummary(int exit_code) {
 141  Message m;
 142#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 143  m << "Exited with exit status " << exit_code;
 144#else
 145  if (WIFEXITED(exit_code)) {
 146    m << "Exited with exit status " << WEXITSTATUS(exit_code);
 147  } else if (WIFSIGNALED(exit_code)) {
 148    m << "Terminated by signal " << WTERMSIG(exit_code);
 149  }
 150#ifdef WCOREDUMP
 151  if (WCOREDUMP(exit_code)) {
 152    m << " (core dumped)";
 153  }
 154#endif
 155#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 156  return m.GetString();
 157}
 158
 159// Returns true if exit_status describes a process that was terminated
 160// by a signal, or exited normally with a nonzero exit code.
 161bool ExitedUnsuccessfully(int exit_status) {
 162  return !ExitedWithCode(0)(exit_status);
 163}
 164
 165#if !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 166// Generates a textual failure message when a death test finds more than
 167// one thread running, or cannot determine the number of threads, prior
 168// to executing the given statement.  It is the responsibility of the
 169// caller not to pass a thread_count of 1.
 170static String DeathTestThreadWarning(size_t thread_count) {
 171  Message msg;
 172  msg << "Death tests use fork(), which is unsafe particularly"
 173      << " in a threaded context. For this test, " << GTEST_NAME_ << " ";
 174  if (thread_count == 0)
 175    msg << "couldn't detect the number of threads.";
 176  else
 177    msg << "detected " << thread_count << " threads.";
 178  return msg.GetString();
 179}
 180#endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 181
 182// Flag characters for reporting a death test that did not die.
 183static const char kDeathTestLived = 'L';
 184static const char kDeathTestReturned = 'R';
 185static const char kDeathTestInternalError = 'I';
 186
 187// An enumeration describing all of the possible ways that a death test
 188// can conclude.  DIED means that the process died while executing the
 189// test code; LIVED means that process lived beyond the end of the test
 190// code; and RETURNED means that the test statement attempted a "return,"
 191// which is not allowed.  IN_PROGRESS means the test has not yet
 192// concluded.
 193enum DeathTestOutcome { IN_PROGRESS, DIED, LIVED, RETURNED };
 194
 195// Routine for aborting the program which is safe to call from an
 196// exec-style death test child process, in which case the error
 197// message is propagated back to the parent process.  Otherwise, the
 198// message is simply printed to stderr.  In either case, the program
 199// then exits with status 1.
 200void DeathTestAbort(const String& message) {
 201  // On a POSIX system, this function may be called from a threadsafe-style
 202  // death test child process, which operates on a very small stack.  Use
 203  // the heap for any additional non-minuscule memory requirements.
 204  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
 205      GetUnitTestImpl()->internal_run_death_test_flag();
 206  if (flag != NULL) {
 207    FILE* parent = posix::FDOpen(flag->write_fd(), "w");
 208    fputc(kDeathTestInternalError, parent);
 209    fprintf(parent, "%s", message.c_str());
 210    fflush(parent);
 211    _exit(1);
 212  } else {
 213    fprintf(stderr, "%s", message.c_str());
 214    fflush(stderr);
 215    abort();
 216  }
 217}
 218
 219// A replacement for CHECK that calls DeathTestAbort if the assertion
 220// fails.
 221#define GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(expression) \
 222  do { \
 223    if (!::testing::internal::IsTrue(expression)) { \
 224      DeathTestAbort(::testing::internal::String::Format( \
 225          "CHECK failed: File %s, line %d: %s", \
 226          __FILE__, __LINE__, #expression)); \
 227    } \
 228  } while (::testing::internal::AlwaysFalse())
 229
 230// This macro is similar to GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_, but it is meant for
 231// evaluating any system call that fulfills two conditions: it must return
 232// -1 on failure, and set errno to EINTR when it is interrupted and
 233// should be tried again.  The macro expands to a loop that repeatedly
 234// evaluates the expression as long as it evaluates to -1 and sets
 235// errno to EINTR.  If the expression evaluates to -1 but errno is
 236// something other than EINTR, DeathTestAbort is called.
 237#define GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(expression) \
 238  do { \
 239    int gtest_retval; \
 240    do { \
 241      gtest_retval = (expression); \
 242    } while (gtest_retval == -1 && errno == EINTR); \
 243    if (gtest_retval == -1) { \
 244      DeathTestAbort(::testing::internal::String::Format( \
 245          "CHECK failed: File %s, line %d: %s != -1", \
 246          __FILE__, __LINE__, #expression)); \
 247    } \
 248  } while (::testing::internal::AlwaysFalse())
 249
 250// Returns the message describing the last system error in errno.
 251String GetLastErrnoDescription() {
 252    return String(errno == 0 ? "" : posix::StrError(errno));
 253}
 254
 255// This is called from a death test parent process to read a failure
 256// message from the death test child process and log it with the FATAL
 257// severity. On Windows, the message is read from a pipe handle. On other
 258// platforms, it is read from a file descriptor.
 259static void FailFromInternalError(int fd) {
 260  Message error;
 261  char buffer[256];
 262  int num_read;
 263
 264  do {
 265    while ((num_read = posix::Read(fd, buffer, 255)) > 0) {
 266      buffer[num_read] = '\0';
 267      error << buffer;
 268    }
 269  } while (num_read == -1 && errno == EINTR);
 270
 271  if (num_read == 0) {
 272    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << error.GetString();
 273  } else {
 274    const int last_error = errno;
 275    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Error while reading death test internal: "
 276                      << GetLastErrnoDescription() << " [" << last_error << "]";
 277  }
 278}
 279
 280// Death test constructor.  Increments the running death test count
 281// for the current test.
 282DeathTest::DeathTest() {
 283  TestInfo* const info = GetUnitTestImpl()->current_test_info();
 284  if (info == NULL) {
 285    DeathTestAbort("Cannot run a death test outside of a TEST or "
 286                   "TEST_F construct");
 287  }
 288}
 289
 290// Creates and returns a death test by dispatching to the current
 291// death test factory.
 292bool DeathTest::Create(const char* statement, const RE* regex,
 293                       const char* file, int line, DeathTest** test) {
 294  return GetUnitTestImpl()->death_test_factory()->Create(
 295      statement, regex, file, line, test);
 296}
 297
 298const char* DeathTest::LastMessage() {
 299  return last_death_test_message_.c_str();
 300}
 301
 302void DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(const String& message) {
 303  last_death_test_message_ = message;
 304}
 305
 306String DeathTest::last_death_test_message_;
 307
 308// Provides cross platform implementation for some death functionality.
 309class DeathTestImpl : public DeathTest {
 310 protected:
 311  DeathTestImpl(const char* statement, const RE* regex)
 312      : statement_(statement),
 313        regex_(regex),
 314        spawned_(false),
 315        status_(-1),
 316        outcome_(IN_PROGRESS),
 317        read_fd_(-1),
 318        write_fd_(-1) {}
 319
 320  // read_fd_ is expected to be closed and cleared by a derived class.
 321  ~DeathTestImpl() { GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(read_fd_ == -1); }
 322
 323  void Abort(AbortReason reason);
 324  virtual bool Passed(bool status_ok);
 325
 326  const char* statement() const { return statement_; }
 327  const RE* regex() const { return regex_; }
 328  bool spawned() const { return spawned_; }
 329  void set_spawned(bool spawned) { spawned_ = spawned; }
 330  int status() const { return status_; }
 331  void set_status(int status) { status_ = status; }
 332  DeathTestOutcome outcome() const { return outcome_; }
 333  void set_outcome(DeathTestOutcome outcome) { outcome_ = outcome; }
 334  int read_fd() const { return read_fd_; }
 335  void set_read_fd(int fd) { read_fd_ = fd; }
 336  int write_fd() const { return write_fd_; }
 337  void set_write_fd(int fd) { write_fd_ = fd; }
 338
 339  // Called in the parent process only. Reads the result code of the death
 340  // test child process via a pipe, interprets it to set the outcome_
 341  // member, and closes read_fd_.  Outputs diagnostics and terminates in
 342  // case of unexpected codes.
 343  void ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
 344
 345 private:
 346  // The textual content of the code this object is testing.  This class
 347  // doesn't own this string and should not attempt to delete it.
 348  const char* const statement_;
 349  // The regular expression which test output must match.  DeathTestImpl
 350  // doesn't own this object and should not attempt to delete it.
 351  const RE* const regex_;
 352  // True if the death test child process has been successfully spawned.
 353  bool spawned_;
 354  // The exit status of the child process.
 355  int status_;
 356  // How the death test concluded.
 357  DeathTestOutcome outcome_;
 358  // Descriptor to the read end of the pipe to the child process.  It is
 359  // always -1 in the child process.  The child keeps its write end of the
 360  // pipe in write_fd_.
 361  int read_fd_;
 362  // Descriptor to the child's write end of the pipe to the parent process.
 363  // It is always -1 in the parent process.  The parent keeps its end of the
 364  // pipe in read_fd_.
 365  int write_fd_;
 366};
 367
 368// Called in the parent process only. Reads the result code of the death
 369// test child process via a pipe, interprets it to set the outcome_
 370// member, and closes read_fd_.  Outputs diagnostics and terminates in
 371// case of unexpected codes.
 372void DeathTestImpl::ReadAndInterpretStatusByte() {
 373  char flag;
 374  int bytes_read;
 375
 376  // The read() here blocks until data is available (signifying the
 377  // failure of the death test) or until the pipe is closed (signifying
 378  // its success), so it's okay to call this in the parent before
 379  // the child process has exited.
 380  do {
 381    bytes_read = posix::Read(read_fd(), &flag, 1);
 382  } while (bytes_read == -1 && errno == EINTR);
 383
 384  if (bytes_read == 0) {
 385    set_outcome(DIED);
 386  } else if (bytes_read == 1) {
 387    switch (flag) {
 388      case kDeathTestReturned:
 389        set_outcome(RETURNED);
 390        break;
 391      case kDeathTestLived:
 392        set_outcome(LIVED);
 393        break;
 394      case kDeathTestInternalError:
 395        FailFromInternalError(read_fd());  // Does not return.
 396        break;
 397      default:
 398        GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Death test child process reported "
 399                          << "unexpected status byte ("
 400                          << static_cast<unsigned int>(flag) << ")";
 401    }
 402  } else {
 403    GTEST_LOG_(FATAL) << "Read from death test child process failed: "
 404                      << GetLastErrnoDescription();
 405  }
 406  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(posix::Close(read_fd()));
 407  set_read_fd(-1);
 408}
 409
 410// Signals that the death test code which should have exited, didn't.
 411// Should be called only in a death test child process.
 412// Writes a status byte to the child's status file descriptor, then
 413// calls _exit(1).
 414void DeathTestImpl::Abort(AbortReason reason) {
 415  // The parent process considers the death test to be a failure if
 416  // it finds any data in our pipe.  So, here we write a single flag byte
 417  // to the pipe, then exit.
 418  const char status_ch =
 419      reason == TEST_DID_NOT_DIE ? kDeathTestLived : kDeathTestReturned;
 420  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(posix::Write(write_fd(), &status_ch, 1));
 421  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(posix::Close(write_fd()));
 422  _exit(1);  // Exits w/o any normal exit hooks (we were supposed to crash)
 423}
 424
 425// Assesses the success or failure of a death test, using both private
 426// members which have previously been set, and one argument:
 427//
 428// Private data members:
 429//   outcome:  An enumeration describing how the death test
 430//             concluded: DIED, LIVED, or RETURNED.  The death test fails
 431//             in the latter two cases.
 432//   status:   The exit status of the child process. On *nix, it is in the
 433//             in the format specified by wait(2). On Windows, this is the
 434//             value supplied to the ExitProcess() API or a numeric code
 435//             of the exception that terminated the program.
 436//   regex:    A regular expression object to be applied to
 437//             the test's captured standard error output; the death test
 438//             fails if it does not match.
 439//
 440// Argument:
 441//   status_ok: true if exit_status is acceptable in the context of
 442//              this particular death test, which fails if it is false
 443//
 444// Returns true iff all of the above conditions are met.  Otherwise, the
 445// first failing condition, in the order given above, is the one that is
 446// reported. Also sets the last death test message string.
 447bool DeathTestImpl::Passed(bool status_ok) {
 448  if (!spawned())
 449    return false;
 450
 451  const String error_message = GetCapturedStderr();
 452
 453  bool success = false;
 454  Message buffer;
 455
 456  buffer << "Death test: " << statement() << "\n";
 457  switch (outcome()) {
 458    case LIVED:
 459      buffer << "    Result: failed to die.\n"
 460             << " Error msg: " << error_message;
 461      break;
 462    case RETURNED:
 463      buffer << "    Result: illegal return in test statement.\n"
 464             << " Error msg: " << error_message;
 465      break;
 466    case DIED:
 467      if (status_ok) {
 468        const bool matched = RE::PartialMatch(error_message.c_str(), *regex());
 469        if (matched) {
 470          success = true;
 471        } else {
 472          buffer << "    Result: died but not with expected error.\n"
 473                 << "  Expected: " << regex()->pattern() << "\n"
 474                 << "Actual msg: " << error_message;
 475        }
 476      } else {
 477        buffer << "    Result: died but not with expected exit code:\n"
 478               << "            " << ExitSummary(status()) << "\n";
 479      }
 480      break;
 481    case IN_PROGRESS:
 482    default:
 483      GTEST_LOG_(FATAL)
 484          << "DeathTest::Passed somehow called before conclusion of test";
 485  }
 486
 487  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(buffer.GetString());
 488  return success;
 489}
 490
 491#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 492// WindowsDeathTest implements death tests on Windows. Due to the
 493// specifics of starting new processes on Windows, death tests there are
 494// always threadsafe, and Google Test considers the
 495// --gtest_death_test_style=fast setting to be equivalent to
 496// --gtest_death_test_style=threadsafe there.
 497//
 498// A few implementation notes:  Like the Linux version, the Windows
 499// implementation uses pipes for child-to-parent communication. But due to
 500// the specifics of pipes on Windows, some extra steps are required:
 501//
 502// 1. The parent creates a communication pipe and stores handles to both
 503//    ends of it.
 504// 2. The parent starts the child and provides it with the information
 505//    necessary to acquire the handle to the write end of the pipe.
 506// 3. The child acquires the write end of the pipe and signals the parent
 507//    using a Windows event.
 508// 4. Now the parent can release the write end of the pipe on its side. If
 509//    this is done before step 3, the object's reference count goes down to
 510//    0 and it is destroyed, preventing the child from acquiring it. The
 511//    parent now has to release it, or read operations on the read end of
 512//    the pipe will not return when the child terminates.
 513// 5. The parent reads child's output through the pipe (outcome code and
 514//    any possible error messages) from the pipe, and its stderr and then
 515//    determines whether to fail the test.
 516//
 517// Note: to distinguish Win32 API calls from the local method and function
 518// calls, the former are explicitly resolved in the global namespace.
 519//
 520class WindowsDeathTest : public DeathTestImpl {
 521 public:
 522  WindowsDeathTest(const char* statement,
 523                   const RE* regex,
 524                   const char* file,
 525                   int line)
 526      : DeathTestImpl(statement, regex), file_(file), line_(line) {}
 527
 528  // All of these virtual functions are inherited from DeathTest.
 529  virtual int Wait();
 530  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
 531
 532 private:
 533  // The name of the file in which the death test is located.
 534  const char* const file_;
 535  // The line number on which the death test is located.
 536  const int line_;
 537  // Handle to the write end of the pipe to the child process.
 538  AutoHandle write_handle_;
 539  // Child process handle.
 540  AutoHandle child_handle_;
 541  // Event the child process uses to signal the parent that it has
 542  // acquired the handle to the write end of the pipe. After seeing this
 543  // event the parent can release its own handles to make sure its
 544  // ReadFile() calls return when the child terminates.
 545  AutoHandle event_handle_;
 546};
 547
 548// Waits for the child in a death test to exit, returning its exit
 549// status, or 0 if no child process exists.  As a side effect, sets the
 550// outcome data member.
 551int WindowsDeathTest::Wait() {
 552  if (!spawned())
 553    return 0;
 554
 555  // Wait until the child either signals that it has acquired the write end
 556  // of the pipe or it dies.
 557  const HANDLE wait_handles[2] = { child_handle_.Get(), event_handle_.Get() };
 558  switch (::WaitForMultipleObjects(2,
 559                                   wait_handles,
 560                                   FALSE,  // Waits for any of the handles.
 561                                   INFINITE)) {
 562    case WAIT_OBJECT_0:
 563    case WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 1:
 564      break;
 565    default:
 566      GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(false);  // Should not get here.
 567  }
 568
 569  // The child has acquired the write end of the pipe or exited.
 570  // We release the handle on our side and continue.
 571  write_handle_.Reset();
 572  event_handle_.Reset();
 573
 574  ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
 575
 576  // Waits for the child process to exit if it haven't already. This
 577  // returns immediately if the child has already exited, regardless of
 578  // whether previous calls to WaitForMultipleObjects synchronized on this
 579  // handle or not.
 580  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
 581      WAIT_OBJECT_0 == ::WaitForSingleObject(child_handle_.Get(),
 582                                             INFINITE));
 583  DWORD status;
 584  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(::GetExitCodeProcess(child_handle_.Get(), &status)
 585                          != FALSE);
 586  child_handle_.Reset();
 587  set_status(static_cast<int>(status));
 588  return this->status();
 589}
 590
 591// The AssumeRole process for a Windows death test.  It creates a child
 592// process with the same executable as the current process to run the
 593// death test.  The child process is given the --gtest_filter and
 594// --gtest_internal_run_death_test flags such that it knows to run the
 595// current death test only.
 596DeathTest::TestRole WindowsDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
 597  const UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
 598  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
 599      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
 600  const TestInfo* const info = impl->current_test_info();
 601  const int death_test_index = info->result()->death_test_count();
 602
 603  if (flag != NULL) {
 604    // ParseInternalRunDeathTestFlag() has performed all the necessary
 605    // processing.
 606    set_write_fd(flag->write_fd());
 607    return EXECUTE_TEST;
 608  }
 609
 610  // WindowsDeathTest uses an anonymous pipe to communicate results of
 611  // a death test.
 612  SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES handles_are_inheritable = {
 613    sizeof(SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES), NULL, TRUE };
 614  HANDLE read_handle, write_handle;
 615  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
 616      ::CreatePipe(&read_handle, &write_handle, &handles_are_inheritable,
 617                   0)  // Default buffer size.
 618      != FALSE);
 619  set_read_fd(::_open_osfhandle(reinterpret_cast<intptr_t>(read_handle),
 620                                O_RDONLY));
 621  write_handle_.Reset(write_handle);
 622  event_handle_.Reset(::CreateEvent(
 623      &handles_are_inheritable,
 624      TRUE,    // The event will automatically reset to non-signaled state.
 625      FALSE,   // The initial state is non-signalled.
 626      NULL));  // The even is unnamed.
 627  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(event_handle_.Get() != NULL);
 628  const String filter_flag = String::Format("--%s%s=%s.%s",
 629                                            GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_, kFilterFlag,
 630                                            info->test_case_name(),
 631                                            info->name());
 632  const String internal_flag = String::Format(
 633    "--%s%s=%s|%d|%d|%u|%Iu|%Iu",
 634      GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_,
 635      kInternalRunDeathTestFlag,
 636      file_, line_,
 637      death_test_index,
 638      static_cast<unsigned int>(::GetCurrentProcessId()),
 639      // size_t has the same with as pointers on both 32-bit and 64-bit
 640      // Windows platforms.
 641      // See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/tcxf1dw6.aspx.
 642      reinterpret_cast<size_t>(write_handle),
 643      reinterpret_cast<size_t>(event_handle_.Get()));
 644
 645  char executable_path[_MAX_PATH + 1];  // NOLINT
 646  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(
 647      _MAX_PATH + 1 != ::GetModuleFileNameA(NULL,
 648                                            executable_path,
 649                                            _MAX_PATH));
 650
 651  String command_line = String::Format("%s %s \"%s\"",
 652                                       ::GetCommandLineA(),
 653                                       filter_flag.c_str(),
 654                                       internal_flag.c_str());
 655
 656  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
 657
 658  CaptureStderr();
 659  // Flush the log buffers since the log streams are shared with the child.
 660  FlushInfoLog();
 661
 662  // The child process will share the standard handles with the parent.
 663  STARTUPINFOA startup_info;
 664  memset(&startup_info, 0, sizeof(STARTUPINFO));
 665  startup_info.dwFlags = STARTF_USESTDHANDLES;
 666  startup_info.hStdInput = ::GetStdHandle(STD_INPUT_HANDLE);
 667  startup_info.hStdOutput = ::GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);
 668  startup_info.hStdError = ::GetStdHandle(STD_ERROR_HANDLE);
 669
 670  PROCESS_INFORMATION process_info;
 671  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(::CreateProcessA(
 672      executable_path,
 673      const_cast<char*>(command_line.c_str()),
 674      NULL,   // Retuned process handle is not inheritable.
 675      NULL,   // Retuned thread handle is not inheritable.
 676      TRUE,   // Child inherits all inheritable handles (for write_handle_).
 677      0x0,    // Default creation flags.
 678      NULL,   // Inherit the parent's environment.
 679      UnitTest::GetInstance()->original_working_dir(),
 680      &startup_info,
 681      &process_info) != FALSE);
 682  child_handle_.Reset(process_info.hProcess);
 683  ::CloseHandle(process_info.hThread);
 684  set_spawned(true);
 685  return OVERSEE_TEST;
 686}
 687#else  // We are not on Windows.
 688
 689// ForkingDeathTest provides implementations for most of the abstract
 690// methods of the DeathTest interface.  Only the AssumeRole method is
 691// left undefined.
 692class ForkingDeathTest : public DeathTestImpl {
 693 public:
 694  ForkingDeathTest(const char* statement, const RE* regex);
 695
 696  // All of these virtual functions are inherited from DeathTest.
 697  virtual int Wait();
 698
 699 protected:
 700  void set_child_pid(pid_t child_pid) { child_pid_ = child_pid; }
 701
 702 private:
 703  // PID of child process during death test; 0 in the child process itself.
 704  pid_t child_pid_;
 705};
 706
 707// Constructs a ForkingDeathTest.
 708ForkingDeathTest::ForkingDeathTest(const char* statement, const RE* regex)
 709    : DeathTestImpl(statement, regex),
 710      child_pid_(-1) {}
 711
 712// Waits for the child in a death test to exit, returning its exit
 713// status, or 0 if no child process exists.  As a side effect, sets the
 714// outcome data member.
 715int ForkingDeathTest::Wait() {
 716  if (!spawned())
 717    return 0;
 718
 719  ReadAndInterpretStatusByte();
 720
 721  int status;
 722  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(waitpid(child_pid_, &status, 0));
 723  set_status(status);
 724  return status;
 725}
 726
 727// A concrete death test class that forks, then immediately runs the test
 728// in the child process.
 729class NoExecDeathTest : public ForkingDeathTest {
 730 public:
 731  NoExecDeathTest(const char* statement, const RE* regex) :
 732      ForkingDeathTest(statement, regex) { }
 733  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
 734};
 735
 736// The AssumeRole process for a fork-and-run death test.  It implements a
 737// straightforward fork, with a simple pipe to transmit the status byte.
 738DeathTest::TestRole NoExecDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
 739  const size_t thread_count = GetThreadCount();
 740  if (thread_count != 1) {
 741    GTEST_LOG_(WARNING) << DeathTestThreadWarning(thread_count);
 742  }
 743
 744  int pipe_fd[2];
 745  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(pipe(pipe_fd) != -1);
 746
 747  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
 748  CaptureStderr();
 749  // When we fork the process below, the log file buffers are copied, but the
 750  // file descriptors are shared.  We flush all log files here so that closing
 751  // the file descriptors in the child process doesn't throw off the
 752  // synchronization between descriptors and buffers in the parent process.
 753  // This is as close to the fork as possible to avoid a race condition in case
 754  // there are multiple threads running before the death test, and another
 755  // thread writes to the log file.
 756  FlushInfoLog();
 757
 758  const pid_t child_pid = fork();
 759  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(child_pid != -1);
 760  set_child_pid(child_pid);
 761  if (child_pid == 0) {
 762    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[0]));
 763    set_write_fd(pipe_fd[1]);
 764    // Redirects all logging to stderr in the child process to prevent
 765    // concurrent writes to the log files.  We capture stderr in the parent
 766    // process and append the child process' output to a log.
 767    LogToStderr();
 768    // Event forwarding to the listeners of event listener API mush be shut
 769    // down in death test subprocesses.
 770    GetUnitTestImpl()->listeners()->SuppressEventForwarding();
 771    return EXECUTE_TEST;
 772  } else {
 773    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[1]));
 774    set_read_fd(pipe_fd[0]);
 775    set_spawned(true);
 776    return OVERSEE_TEST;
 777  }
 778}
 779
 780// A concrete death test class that forks and re-executes the main
 781// program from the beginning, with command-line flags set that cause
 782// only this specific death test to be run.
 783class ExecDeathTest : public ForkingDeathTest {
 784 public:
 785  ExecDeathTest(const char* statement, const RE* regex,
 786                const char* file, int line) :
 787      ForkingDeathTest(statement, regex), file_(file), line_(line) { }
 788  virtual TestRole AssumeRole();
 789 private:
 790  // The name of the file in which the death test is located.
 791  const char* const file_;
 792  // The line number on which the death test is located.
 793  const int line_;
 794};
 795
 796// Utility class for accumulating command-line arguments.
 797class Arguments {
 798 public:
 799  Arguments() {
 800    args_.push_back(NULL);
 801  }
 802
 803  ~Arguments() {
 804    for (std::vector<char*>::iterator i = args_.begin(); i != args_.end();
 805         ++i) {
 806      free(*i);
 807    }
 808  }
 809  void AddArgument(const char* argument) {
 810    args_.insert(args_.end() - 1, posix::StrDup(argument));
 811  }
 812
 813  template <typename Str>
 814  void AddArguments(const ::std::vector<Str>& arguments) {
 815    for (typename ::std::vector<Str>::const_iterator i = arguments.begin();
 816         i != arguments.end();
 817         ++i) {
 818      args_.insert(args_.end() - 1, posix::StrDup(i->c_str()));
 819    }
 820  }
 821  char* const* Argv() {
 822    return &args_[0];
 823  }
 824 private:
 825  std::vector<char*> args_;
 826};
 827
 828// A struct that encompasses the arguments to the child process of a
 829// threadsafe-style death test process.
 830struct ExecDeathTestArgs {
 831  char* const* argv;  // Command-line arguments for the child's call to exec
 832  int close_fd;       // File descriptor to close; the read end of a pipe
 833};
 834
 835#if GTEST_OS_MAC
 836inline char** GetEnviron() {
 837  // When Google Test is built as a framework on MacOS X, the environ variable
 838  // is unavailable. Apple's documentation (man environ) recommends using
 839  // _NSGetEnviron() instead.
 840  return *_NSGetEnviron();
 841}
 842#else
 843// Some POSIX platforms expect you to declare environ. extern "C" makes
 844// it reside in the global namespace.
 845extern "C" char** environ;
 846inline char** GetEnviron() { return environ; }
 847#endif  // GTEST_OS_MAC
 848
 849// The main function for a threadsafe-style death test child process.
 850// This function is called in a clone()-ed process and thus must avoid
 851// any potentially unsafe operations like malloc or libc functions.
 852static int ExecDeathTestChildMain(void* child_arg) {
 853  ExecDeathTestArgs* const args = static_cast<ExecDeathTestArgs*>(child_arg);
 854  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(args->close_fd));
 855
 856  // We need to execute the test program in the same environment where
 857  // it was originally invoked.  Therefore we change to the original
 858  // working directory first.
 859  const char* const original_dir =
 860      UnitTest::GetInstance()->original_working_dir();
 861  // We can safely call chdir() as it's a direct system call.
 862  if (chdir(original_dir) != 0) {
 863    DeathTestAbort(String::Format("chdir(\"%s\") failed: %s",
 864                                  original_dir,
 865                                  GetLastErrnoDescription().c_str()));
 866    return EXIT_FAILURE;
 867  }
 868
 869  // We can safely call execve() as it's a direct system call.  We
 870  // cannot use execvp() as it's a libc function and thus potentially
 871  // unsafe.  Since execve() doesn't search the PATH, the user must
 872  // invoke the test program via a valid path that contains at least
 873  // one path separator.
 874  execve(args->argv[0], args->argv, GetEnviron());
 875  DeathTestAbort(String::Format("execve(%s, ...) in %s failed: %s",
 876                                args->argv[0],
 877                                original_dir,
 878                                GetLastErrnoDescription().c_str()));
 879  return EXIT_FAILURE;
 880}
 881
 882// Two utility routines that together determine the direction the stack
 883// grows.
 884// This could be accomplished more elegantly by a single recursive
 885// function, but we want to guard against the unlikely possibility of
 886// a smart compiler optimizing the recursion away.
 887bool StackLowerThanAddress(const void* ptr) {
 888  int dummy;
 889  return &dummy < ptr;
 890}
 891
 892bool StackGrowsDown() {
 893  int dummy;
 894  return StackLowerThanAddress(&dummy);
 895}
 896
 897// A threadsafe implementation of fork(2) for threadsafe-style death tests
 898// that uses clone(2).  It dies with an error message if anything goes
 899// wrong.
 900static pid_t ExecDeathTestFork(char* const* argv, int close_fd) {
 901  ExecDeathTestArgs args = { argv, close_fd };
 902  pid_t child_pid = -1;
 903
 904#if GTEST_HAS_CLONE
 905  const bool use_fork = GTEST_FLAG(death_test_use_fork);
 906
 907  if (!use_fork) {
 908    static const bool stack_grows_down = StackGrowsDown();
 909    const size_t stack_size = getpagesize();
 910    // MMAP_ANONYMOUS is not defined on Mac, so we use MAP_ANON instead.
 911    void* const stack = mmap(NULL, stack_size, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE,
 912                             MAP_ANON | MAP_PRIVATE, -1, 0);
 913    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(stack != MAP_FAILED);
 914    void* const stack_top =
 915        static_cast<char*>(stack) + (stack_grows_down ? stack_size : 0);
 916
 917    child_pid = clone(&ExecDeathTestChildMain, stack_top, SIGCHLD, &args);
 918
 919    GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(munmap(stack, stack_size) != -1);
 920  }
 921#else
 922  const bool use_fork = true;
 923#endif  // GTEST_HAS_CLONE
 924
 925  if (use_fork && (child_pid = fork()) == 0) {
 926      ExecDeathTestChildMain(&args);
 927      _exit(0);
 928  }
 929
 930  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(child_pid != -1);
 931  return child_pid;
 932}
 933
 934// The AssumeRole process for a fork-and-exec death test.  It re-executes the
 935// main program from the beginning, setting the --gtest_filter
 936// and --gtest_internal_run_death_test flags to cause only the current
 937// death test to be re-run.
 938DeathTest::TestRole ExecDeathTest::AssumeRole() {
 939  const UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
 940  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
 941      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
 942  const TestInfo* const info = impl->current_test_info();
 943  const int death_test_index = info->result()->death_test_count();
 944
 945  if (flag != NULL) {
 946    set_write_fd(flag->write_fd());
 947    return EXECUTE_TEST;
 948  }
 949
 950  int pipe_fd[2];
 951  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(pipe(pipe_fd) != -1);
 952  // Clear the close-on-exec flag on the write end of the pipe, lest
 953  // it be closed when the child process does an exec:
 954  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_(fcntl(pipe_fd[1], F_SETFD, 0) != -1);
 955
 956  const String filter_flag =
 957      String::Format("--%s%s=%s.%s",
 958                     GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_, kFilterFlag,
 959                     info->test_case_name(), info->name());
 960  const String internal_flag =
 961      String::Format("--%s%s=%s|%d|%d|%d",
 962                     GTEST_FLAG_PREFIX_, kInternalRunDeathTestFlag,
 963                     file_, line_, death_test_index, pipe_fd[1]);
 964  Arguments args;
 965  args.AddArguments(GetArgvs());
 966  args.AddArgument(filter_flag.c_str());
 967  args.AddArgument(internal_flag.c_str());
 968
 969  DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message("");
 970
 971  CaptureStderr();
 972  // See the comment in NoExecDeathTest::AssumeRole for why the next line
 973  // is necessary.
 974  FlushInfoLog();
 975
 976  const pid_t child_pid = ExecDeathTestFork(args.Argv(), pipe_fd[0]);
 977  GTEST_DEATH_TEST_CHECK_SYSCALL_(close(pipe_fd[1]));
 978  set_child_pid(child_pid);
 979  set_read_fd(pipe_fd[0]);
 980  set_spawned(true);
 981  return OVERSEE_TEST;
 982}
 983
 984#endif  // !GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
 985
 986// Creates a concrete DeathTest-derived class that depends on the
 987// --gtest_death_test_style flag, and sets the pointer pointed to
 988// by the "test" argument to its address.  If the test should be
 989// skipped, sets that pointer to NULL.  Returns true, unless the
 990// flag is set to an invalid value.
 991bool DefaultDeathTestFactory::Create(const char* statement, const RE* regex,
 992                                     const char* file, int line,
 993                                     DeathTest** test) {
 994  UnitTestImpl* const impl = GetUnitTestImpl();
 995  const InternalRunDeathTestFlag* const flag =
 996      impl->internal_run_death_test_flag();
 997  const int death_test_index = impl->current_test_info()
 998      ->increment_death_test_count();
 999
1000  if (flag != NULL) {
1001    if (death_test_index > flag->index()) {
1002      DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(String::Format(
1003          "Death test count (%d) somehow exceeded expected maximum (%d)",
1004          death_test_index, flag->index()));
1005      return false;
1006    }
1007
1008    if (!(flag->file() == file && flag->line() == line &&
1009          flag->index() == death_test_index)) {
1010      *test = NULL;
1011      return true;
1012    }
1013  }
1014
1015#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1016  if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "threadsafe" ||
1017      GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "fast") {
1018    *test = new WindowsDeathTest(statement, regex, file, line);
1019  }
1020#else
1021  if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "threadsafe") {
1022    *test = new ExecDeathTest(statement, regex, file, line);
1023  } else if (GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style) == "fast") {
1024    *test = new NoExecDeathTest(statement, regex);
1025  }
1026#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1027  else {  // NOLINT - this is more readable than unbalanced brackets inside #if.
1028    DeathTest::set_last_death_test_message(String::Format(
1029        "Unknown death test style \"%s\" encountered",
1030        GTEST_FLAG(death_test_style).c_str()));
1031    return false;
1032  }
1033
1034  return true;
1035}
1036
1037// Splits a given string on a given delimiter, populating a given
1038// vector with the fields.  GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST implies that we have
1039// ::std::string, so we can use it here.
1040// TODO(vladl@google.com): Get rid of std::vector to be able to build on
1041// Visual C++ 7.1 with exceptions disabled.
1042static void SplitString(const ::std::string& str, char delimiter,
1043                        ::std::vector< ::std::string>* dest) {
1044  ::std::vector< ::std::string> parsed;
1045  ::std::string::size_type pos = 0;
1046  while (::testing::internal::AlwaysTrue()) {
1047    const ::std::string::size_type colon = str.find(delimiter, pos);
1048    if (colon == ::std::string::npos) {
1049      parsed.push_back(str.substr(pos));
1050      break;
1051    } else {
1052      parsed.push_back(str.substr(pos, colon - pos));
1053      pos = colon + 1;
1054    }
1055  }
1056  dest->swap(parsed);
1057}
1058
1059#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1060// Recreates the pipe and event handles from the provided parameters,
1061// signals the event, and returns a file descriptor wrapped around the pipe
1062// handle. This function is called in the child process only.
1063int GetStatusFileDescriptor(unsigned int parent_process_id,
1064                            size_t write_handle_as_size_t,
1065                            size_t event_handle_as_size_t) {
1066  AutoHandle parent_process_handle(::OpenProcess(PROCESS_DUP_HANDLE,
1067                                                   FALSE,  // Non-inheritable.
1068                                                   parent_process_id));
1069  if (parent_process_handle.Get() == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
1070    DeathTestAbort(String::Format("Unable to open parent process %u",
1071                                  parent_process_id));
1072  }
1073
1074  // TODO(vladl@google.com): Replace the following check with a
1075  // compile-time assertion when available.
1076  GTEST_CHECK_(sizeof(HANDLE) <= sizeof(size_t));
1077
1078  const HANDLE write_handle =
1079      reinterpret_cast<HANDLE>(write_handle_as_size_t);
1080  HANDLE dup_write_handle;
1081
1082  // The newly initialized handle is accessible only in in the parent
1083  // process. To obtain one accessible within the child, we need to use
1084  // DuplicateHandle.
1085  if (!::DuplicateHandle(parent_process_handle.Get(), write_handle,
1086                         ::GetCurrentProcess(), &dup_write_handle,
1087                         0x0,    // Requested privileges ignored since
1088                                 // DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS is used.
1089                         FALSE,  // Request non-inheritable handler.
1090                         DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS)) {
1091    DeathTestAbort(String::Format(
1092        "Unable to duplicate the pipe handle %Iu from the parent process %u",
1093        write_handle_as_size_t, parent_process_id));
1094  }
1095
1096  const HANDLE event_handle = reinterpret_cast<HANDLE>(event_handle_as_size_t);
1097  HANDLE dup_event_handle;
1098
1099  if (!::DuplicateHandle(parent_process_handle.Get(), event_handle,
1100                         ::GetCurrentProcess(), &dup_event_handle,
1101                         0x0,
1102                         FALSE,
1103                         DUPLICATE_SAME_ACCESS)) {
1104    DeathTestAbort(String::Format(
1105        "Unable to duplicate the event handle %Iu from the parent process %u",
1106        event_handle_as_size_t, parent_process_id));
1107  }
1108
1109  const int write_fd =
1110      ::_open_osfhandle(reinterpret_cast<intptr_t>(dup_write_handle), O_APPEND);
1111  if (write_fd == -1) {
1112    DeathTestAbort(String::Format(
1113        "Unable to convert pipe handle %Iu to a file descriptor",
1114        write_handle_as_size_t));
1115  }
1116
1117  // Signals the parent that the write end of the pipe has been acquired
1118  // so the parent can release its own write end.
1119  ::SetEvent(dup_event_handle);
1120
1121  return write_fd;
1122}
1123#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1124
1125// Returns a newly created InternalRunDeathTestFlag object with fields
1126// initialized from the GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test) flag if
1127// the flag is specified; otherwise returns NULL.
1128InternalRunDeathTestFlag* ParseInternalRunDeathTestFlag() {
1129  if (GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test) == "") return NULL;
1130
1131  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST implies that we have ::std::string, so we
1132  // can use it here.
1133  int line = -1;
1134  int index = -1;
1135  ::std::vector< ::std::string> fields;
1136  SplitString(GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).c_str(), '|', &fields);
1137  int write_fd = -1;
1138
1139#if GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1140  unsigned int parent_process_id = 0;
1141  size_t write_handle_as_size_t = 0;
1142  size_t event_handle_as_size_t = 0;
1143
1144  if (fields.size() != 6
1145      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[1], &line)
1146      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[2], &index)
1147      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[3], &parent_process_id)
1148      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[4], &write_handle_as_size_t)
1149      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[5], &event_handle_as_size_t)) {
1150    DeathTestAbort(String::Format(
1151        "Bad --gtest_internal_run_death_test flag: %s",
1152        GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).c_str()));
1153  }
1154  write_fd = GetStatusFileDescriptor(parent_process_id,
1155                                     write_handle_as_size_t,
1156                                     event_handle_as_size_t);
1157#else
1158  if (fields.size() != 4
1159      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[1], &line)
1160      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[2], &index)
1161      || !ParseNaturalNumber(fields[3], &write_fd)) {
1162    DeathTestAbort(String::Format(
1163        "Bad --gtest_internal_run_death_test flag: %s",
1164        GTEST_FLAG(internal_run_death_test).c_str()));
1165  }
1166#endif  // GTEST_OS_WINDOWS
1167  return new InternalRunDeathTestFlag(fields[0], line, index, write_fd);
1168}
1169
1170}  // namespace internal
1171
1172#endif  // GTEST_HAS_DEATH_TEST
1173
1174}  // namespace testing