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  1.. highlightlang:: c
  2
  3.. _unicodeobjects:
  4
  5Unicode Objects and Codecs
  6--------------------------
  7
  8.. sectionauthor:: Marc-Andre Lemburg <mal@lemburg.com>
  9
 10Unicode Objects
 11^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 12
 13
 14These are the basic Unicode object types used for the Unicode implementation in
 15Python:
 16
 17.. % --- Unicode Type -------------------------------------------------------
 18
 19
 20.. ctype:: Py_UNICODE
 21
 22   This type represents the storage type which is used by Python internally as
 23   basis for holding Unicode ordinals.  Python's default builds use a 16-bit type
 24   for :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` and store Unicode values internally as UCS2. It is also
 25   possible to build a UCS4 version of Python (most recent Linux distributions come
 26   with UCS4 builds of Python). These builds then use a 32-bit type for
 27   :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` and store Unicode data internally as UCS4. On platforms
 28   where :ctype:`wchar_t` is available and compatible with the chosen Python
 29   Unicode build variant, :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` is a typedef alias for
 30   :ctype:`wchar_t` to enhance native platform compatibility. On all other
 31   platforms, :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` is a typedef alias for either :ctype:`unsigned
 32   short` (UCS2) or :ctype:`unsigned long` (UCS4).
 33
 34Note that UCS2 and UCS4 Python builds are not binary compatible. Please keep
 35this in mind when writing extensions or interfaces.
 36
 37
 38.. ctype:: PyUnicodeObject
 39
 40   This subtype of :ctype:`PyObject` represents a Python Unicode object.
 41
 42
 43.. cvar:: PyTypeObject PyUnicode_Type
 44
 45   This instance of :ctype:`PyTypeObject` represents the Python Unicode type.  It
 46   is exposed to Python code as ``unicode`` and ``types.UnicodeType``.
 47
 48The following APIs are really C macros and can be used to do fast checks and to
 49access internal read-only data of Unicode objects:
 50
 51
 52.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_Check(PyObject *o)
 53
 54   Return true if the object *o* is a Unicode object or an instance of a Unicode
 55   subtype.
 56
 57   .. versionchanged:: 2.2
 58      Allowed subtypes to be accepted.
 59
 60
 61.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_CheckExact(PyObject *o)
 62
 63   Return true if the object *o* is a Unicode object, but not an instance of a
 64   subtype.
 65
 66   .. versionadded:: 2.2
 67
 68
 69.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_GET_SIZE(PyObject *o)
 70
 71   Return the size of the object.  *o* has to be a :ctype:`PyUnicodeObject` (not
 72   checked).
 73
 74   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
 75      This function returned an :ctype:`int` type. This might require changes
 76      in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
 77
 78
 79.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_GET_DATA_SIZE(PyObject *o)
 80
 81   Return the size of the object's internal buffer in bytes.  *o* has to be a
 82   :ctype:`PyUnicodeObject` (not checked).
 83
 84   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
 85      This function returned an :ctype:`int` type. This might require changes
 86      in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
 87
 88
 89.. cfunction:: Py_UNICODE* PyUnicode_AS_UNICODE(PyObject *o)
 90
 91   Return a pointer to the internal :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the object.  *o*
 92   has to be a :ctype:`PyUnicodeObject` (not checked).
 93
 94
 95.. cfunction:: const char* PyUnicode_AS_DATA(PyObject *o)
 96
 97   Return a pointer to the internal buffer of the object. *o* has to be a
 98   :ctype:`PyUnicodeObject` (not checked).
 99
100
101.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_ClearFreeList(void)
102
103   Clear the free list. Return the total number of freed items.
104
105   .. versionadded:: 2.6
106
107Unicode provides many different character properties. The most often needed ones
108are available through these macros which are mapped to C functions depending on
109the Python configuration.
110
111.. % --- Unicode character properties ---------------------------------------
112
113
114.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISSPACE(Py_UNICODE ch)
115
116   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a whitespace character.
117
118
119.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISLOWER(Py_UNICODE ch)
120
121   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a lowercase character.
122
123
124.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISUPPER(Py_UNICODE ch)
125
126   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is an uppercase character.
127
128
129.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISTITLE(Py_UNICODE ch)
130
131   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a titlecase character.
132
133
134.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISLINEBREAK(Py_UNICODE ch)
135
136   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a linebreak character.
137
138
139.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISDECIMAL(Py_UNICODE ch)
140
141   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a decimal character.
142
143
144.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISDIGIT(Py_UNICODE ch)
145
146   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a digit character.
147
148
149.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISNUMERIC(Py_UNICODE ch)
150
151   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is a numeric character.
152
153
154.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISALPHA(Py_UNICODE ch)
155
156   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is an alphabetic character.
157
158
159.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_ISALNUM(Py_UNICODE ch)
160
161   Return 1 or 0 depending on whether *ch* is an alphanumeric character.
162
163These APIs can be used for fast direct character conversions:
164
165
166.. cfunction:: Py_UNICODE Py_UNICODE_TOLOWER(Py_UNICODE ch)
167
168   Return the character *ch* converted to lower case.
169
170
171.. cfunction:: Py_UNICODE Py_UNICODE_TOUPPER(Py_UNICODE ch)
172
173   Return the character *ch* converted to upper case.
174
175
176.. cfunction:: Py_UNICODE Py_UNICODE_TOTITLE(Py_UNICODE ch)
177
178   Return the character *ch* converted to title case.
179
180
181.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_TODECIMAL(Py_UNICODE ch)
182
183   Return the character *ch* converted to a decimal positive integer.  Return
184   ``-1`` if this is not possible.  This macro does not raise exceptions.
185
186
187.. cfunction:: int Py_UNICODE_TODIGIT(Py_UNICODE ch)
188
189   Return the character *ch* converted to a single digit integer. Return ``-1`` if
190   this is not possible.  This macro does not raise exceptions.
191
192
193.. cfunction:: double Py_UNICODE_TONUMERIC(Py_UNICODE ch)
194
195   Return the character *ch* converted to a double. Return ``-1.0`` if this is not
196   possible.  This macro does not raise exceptions.
197
198To create Unicode objects and access their basic sequence properties, use these
199APIs:
200
201.. % --- Plain Py_UNICODE ---------------------------------------------------
202
203
204.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_FromUnicode(const Py_UNICODE *u, Py_ssize_t size)
205
206   Create a Unicode Object from the Py_UNICODE buffer *u* of the given size. *u*
207   may be *NULL* which causes the contents to be undefined. It is the user's
208   responsibility to fill in the needed data.  The buffer is copied into the new
209   object. If the buffer is not *NULL*, the return value might be a shared object.
210   Therefore, modification of the resulting Unicode object is only allowed when *u*
211   is *NULL*.
212
213   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
214      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
215      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
216
217
218.. cfunction:: Py_UNICODE* PyUnicode_AsUnicode(PyObject *unicode)
219
220   Return a read-only pointer to the Unicode object's internal :ctype:`Py_UNICODE`
221   buffer, *NULL* if *unicode* is not a Unicode object.
222
223
224.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_GetSize(PyObject *unicode)
225
226   Return the length of the Unicode object.
227
228   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
229      This function returned an :ctype:`int` type. This might require changes
230      in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
231
232
233.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_FromEncodedObject(PyObject *obj, const char *encoding, const char *errors)
234
235   Coerce an encoded object *obj* to an Unicode object and return a reference with
236   incremented refcount.
237
238   String and other char buffer compatible objects are decoded according to the
239   given encoding and using the error handling defined by errors.  Both can be
240   *NULL* to have the interface use the default values (see the next section for
241   details).
242
243   All other objects, including Unicode objects, cause a :exc:`TypeError` to be
244   set.
245
246   The API returns *NULL* if there was an error.  The caller is responsible for
247   decref'ing the returned objects.
248
249
250.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_FromObject(PyObject *obj)
251
252   Shortcut for ``PyUnicode_FromEncodedObject(obj, NULL, "strict")`` which is used
253   throughout the interpreter whenever coercion to Unicode is needed.
254
255If the platform supports :ctype:`wchar_t` and provides a header file wchar.h,
256Python can interface directly to this type using the following functions.
257Support is optimized if Python's own :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` type is identical to
258the system's :ctype:`wchar_t`.
259
260.. % --- wchar_t support for platforms which support it ---------------------
261
262
263.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_FromWideChar(const wchar_t *w, Py_ssize_t size)
264
265   Create a Unicode object from the :ctype:`wchar_t` buffer *w* of the given size.
266   Return *NULL* on failure.
267
268   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
269      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
270      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
271
272
273.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_AsWideChar(PyUnicodeObject *unicode, wchar_t *w, Py_ssize_t size)
274
275   Copy the Unicode object contents into the :ctype:`wchar_t` buffer *w*.  At most
276   *size* :ctype:`wchar_t` characters are copied (excluding a possibly trailing
277   0-termination character).  Return the number of :ctype:`wchar_t` characters
278   copied or -1 in case of an error.  Note that the resulting :ctype:`wchar_t`
279   string may or may not be 0-terminated.  It is the responsibility of the caller
280   to make sure that the :ctype:`wchar_t` string is 0-terminated in case this is
281   required by the application.
282
283   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
284      This function returned an :ctype:`int` type and used an :ctype:`int`
285      type for *size*. This might require changes in your code for properly
286      supporting 64-bit systems.
287
288
289.. _builtincodecs:
290
291Built-in Codecs
292^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
293
294Python provides a set of builtin codecs which are written in C for speed. All of
295these codecs are directly usable via the following functions.
296
297Many of the following APIs take two arguments encoding and errors. These
298parameters encoding and errors have the same semantics as the ones of the
299builtin unicode() Unicode object constructor.
300
301Setting encoding to *NULL* causes the default encoding to be used which is
302ASCII.  The file system calls should use :cdata:`Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding`
303as the encoding for file names. This variable should be treated as read-only: On
304some systems, it will be a pointer to a static string, on others, it will change
305at run-time (such as when the application invokes setlocale).
306
307Error handling is set by errors which may also be set to *NULL* meaning to use
308the default handling defined for the codec.  Default error handling for all
309builtin codecs is "strict" (:exc:`ValueError` is raised).
310
311The codecs all use a similar interface.  Only deviation from the following
312generic ones are documented for simplicity.
313
314These are the generic codec APIs:
315
316.. % --- Generic Codecs -----------------------------------------------------
317
318
319.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Decode(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *encoding, const char *errors)
320
321   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the encoded string *s*.
322   *encoding* and *errors* have the same meaning as the parameters of the same name
323   in the :func:`unicode` builtin function.  The codec to be used is looked up
324   using the Python codec registry.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by
325   the codec.
326
327   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
328      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
329      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
330
331
332.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Encode(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *encoding, const char *errors)
333
334   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size and return a Python
335   string object.  *encoding* and *errors* have the same meaning as the parameters
336   of the same name in the Unicode :meth:`encode` method.  The codec to be used is
337   looked up using the Python codec registry.  Return *NULL* if an exception was
338   raised by the codec.
339
340   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
341      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
342      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
343
344
345.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsEncodedString(PyObject *unicode, const char *encoding, const char *errors)
346
347   Encode a Unicode object and return the result as Python string object.
348   *encoding* and *errors* have the same meaning as the parameters of the same name
349   in the Unicode :meth:`encode` method. The codec to be used is looked up using
350   the Python codec registry. Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the
351   codec.
352
353These are the UTF-8 codec APIs:
354
355.. % --- UTF-8 Codecs -------------------------------------------------------
356
357
358.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF8(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
359
360   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the UTF-8 encoded string
361   *s*. Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
362
363   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
364      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
365      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
366
367
368.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF8Stateful(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, Py_ssize_t *consumed)
369
370   If *consumed* is *NULL*, behave like :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeUTF8`. If
371   *consumed* is not *NULL*, trailing incomplete UTF-8 byte sequences will not be
372   treated as an error. Those bytes will not be decoded and the number of bytes
373   that have been decoded will be stored in *consumed*.
374
375   .. versionadded:: 2.4
376
377   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
378      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
379      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
380
381
382.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeUTF8(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
383
384   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using UTF-8 and return a
385   Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
386
387   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
388      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
389      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
390
391
392.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsUTF8String(PyObject *unicode)
393
394   Encode a Unicode object using UTF-8 and return the result as Python string
395   object.  Error handling is "strict".  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised
396   by the codec.
397
398These are the UTF-32 codec APIs:
399
400.. % --- UTF-32 Codecs ------------------------------------------------------ */
401
402
403.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF32(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int *byteorder)
404
405   Decode *length* bytes from a UTF-32 encoded buffer string and return the
406   corresponding Unicode object.  *errors* (if non-*NULL*) defines the error
407   handling. It defaults to "strict".
408
409   If *byteorder* is non-*NULL*, the decoder starts decoding using the given byte
410   order::
411
412      *byteorder == -1: little endian
413      *byteorder == 0:  native order
414      *byteorder == 1:  big endian
415
416   and then switches if the first four bytes of the input data are a byte order mark
417   (BOM) and the specified byte order is native order.  This BOM is not copied into
418   the resulting Unicode string.  After completion, *\*byteorder* is set to the
419   current byte order at the end of input data.
420
421   In a narrow build codepoints outside the BMP will be decoded as surrogate pairs.
422
423   If *byteorder* is *NULL*, the codec starts in native order mode.
424
425   Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
426
427   .. versionadded:: 2.6
428
429
430.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF32Stateful(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int *byteorder, Py_ssize_t *consumed)
431
432   If *consumed* is *NULL*, behave like :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeUTF32`. If
433   *consumed* is not *NULL*, :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeUTF32Stateful` will not treat
434   trailing incomplete UTF-32 byte sequences (such as a number of bytes not divisible
435   by four) as an error. Those bytes will not be decoded and the number of bytes
436   that have been decoded will be stored in *consumed*.
437
438   .. versionadded:: 2.6
439
440
441.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeUTF32(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int byteorder)
442
443   Return a Python bytes object holding the UTF-32 encoded value of the Unicode
444   data in *s*.  If *byteorder* is not ``0``, output is written according to the
445   following byte order::
446
447      byteorder == -1: little endian
448      byteorder == 0:  native byte order (writes a BOM mark)
449      byteorder == 1:  big endian
450
451   If byteorder is ``0``, the output string will always start with the Unicode BOM
452   mark (U+FEFF). In the other two modes, no BOM mark is prepended.
453
454   If *Py_UNICODE_WIDE* is not defined, surrogate pairs will be output
455   as a single codepoint.
456
457   Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
458
459   .. versionadded:: 2.6
460
461
462.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsUTF32String(PyObject *unicode)
463
464   Return a Python string using the UTF-32 encoding in native byte order. The
465   string always starts with a BOM mark.  Error handling is "strict".  Return
466   *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
467
468   .. versionadded:: 2.6
469
470
471These are the UTF-16 codec APIs:
472
473.. % --- UTF-16 Codecs ------------------------------------------------------ */
474
475
476.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int *byteorder)
477
478   Decode *length* bytes from a UTF-16 encoded buffer string and return the
479   corresponding Unicode object.  *errors* (if non-*NULL*) defines the error
480   handling. It defaults to "strict".
481
482   If *byteorder* is non-*NULL*, the decoder starts decoding using the given byte
483   order::
484
485      *byteorder == -1: little endian
486      *byteorder == 0:  native order
487      *byteorder == 1:  big endian
488
489   and then switches if the first two bytes of the input data are a byte order mark
490   (BOM) and the specified byte order is native order.  This BOM is not copied into
491   the resulting Unicode string.  After completion, *\*byteorder* is set to the
492   current byte order at the.
493
494   If *byteorder* is *NULL*, the codec starts in native order mode.
495
496   Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
497
498   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
499      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
500      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
501
502
503.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16Stateful(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int *byteorder, Py_ssize_t *consumed)
504
505   If *consumed* is *NULL*, behave like :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16`. If
506   *consumed* is not *NULL*, :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16Stateful` will not treat
507   trailing incomplete UTF-16 byte sequences (such as an odd number of bytes or a
508   split surrogate pair) as an error. Those bytes will not be decoded and the
509   number of bytes that have been decoded will be stored in *consumed*.
510
511   .. versionadded:: 2.4
512
513   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
514      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size* and an :ctype:`int *`
515      type for *consumed*. This might require changes in your code for
516      properly supporting 64-bit systems.
517
518
519.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeUTF16(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors, int byteorder)
520
521   Return a Python string object holding the UTF-16 encoded value of the Unicode
522   data in *s*.  If *byteorder* is not ``0``, output is written according to the
523   following byte order::
524
525      byteorder == -1: little endian
526      byteorder == 0:  native byte order (writes a BOM mark)
527      byteorder == 1:  big endian
528
529   If byteorder is ``0``, the output string will always start with the Unicode BOM
530   mark (U+FEFF). In the other two modes, no BOM mark is prepended.
531
532   If *Py_UNICODE_WIDE* is defined, a single :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` value may get
533   represented as a surrogate pair. If it is not defined, each :ctype:`Py_UNICODE`
534   values is interpreted as an UCS-2 character.
535
536   Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
537
538   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
539      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
540      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
541
542
543.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsUTF16String(PyObject *unicode)
544
545   Return a Python string using the UTF-16 encoding in native byte order. The
546   string always starts with a BOM mark.  Error handling is "strict".  Return
547   *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
548
549These are the "Unicode Escape" codec APIs:
550
551.. % --- Unicode-Escape Codecs ----------------------------------------------
552
553
554.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeUnicodeEscape(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
555
556   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the Unicode-Escape encoded
557   string *s*.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
558
559   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
560      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
561      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
562
563
564.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeUnicodeEscape(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size)
565
566   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using Unicode-Escape and
567   return a Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the
568   codec.
569
570   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
571      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
572      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
573
574
575.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsUnicodeEscapeString(PyObject *unicode)
576
577   Encode a Unicode object using Unicode-Escape and return the result as Python
578   string object.  Error handling is "strict". Return *NULL* if an exception was
579   raised by the codec.
580
581These are the "Raw Unicode Escape" codec APIs:
582
583.. % --- Raw-Unicode-Escape Codecs ------------------------------------------
584
585
586.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeRawUnicodeEscape(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
587
588   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the Raw-Unicode-Escape
589   encoded string *s*.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
590
591   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
592      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
593      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
594
595
596.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeRawUnicodeEscape(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
597
598   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using Raw-Unicode-Escape
599   and return a Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by
600   the codec.
601
602   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
603      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
604      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
605
606
607.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsRawUnicodeEscapeString(PyObject *unicode)
608
609   Encode a Unicode object using Raw-Unicode-Escape and return the result as
610   Python string object. Error handling is "strict". Return *NULL* if an exception
611   was raised by the codec.
612
613These are the Latin-1 codec APIs: Latin-1 corresponds to the first 256 Unicode
614ordinals and only these are accepted by the codecs during encoding.
615
616.. % --- Latin-1 Codecs -----------------------------------------------------
617
618
619.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeLatin1(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
620
621   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the Latin-1 encoded string
622   *s*.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
623
624   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
625      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
626      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
627
628
629.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeLatin1(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
630
631   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using Latin-1 and return
632   a Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
633
634   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
635      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
636      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
637
638
639.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsLatin1String(PyObject *unicode)
640
641   Encode a Unicode object using Latin-1 and return the result as Python string
642   object.  Error handling is "strict".  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised
643   by the codec.
644
645These are the ASCII codec APIs.  Only 7-bit ASCII data is accepted. All other
646codes generate errors.
647
648.. % --- ASCII Codecs -------------------------------------------------------
649
650
651.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeASCII(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
652
653   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the ASCII encoded string
654   *s*.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
655
656   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
657      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
658      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
659
660
661.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeASCII(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
662
663   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using ASCII and return a
664   Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
665
666   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
667      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
668      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
669
670
671.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsASCIIString(PyObject *unicode)
672
673   Encode a Unicode object using ASCII and return the result as Python string
674   object.  Error handling is "strict".  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised
675   by the codec.
676
677These are the mapping codec APIs:
678
679.. % --- Character Map Codecs -----------------------------------------------
680
681This codec is special in that it can be used to implement many different codecs
682(and this is in fact what was done to obtain most of the standard codecs
683included in the :mod:`encodings` package). The codec uses mapping to encode and
684decode characters.
685
686Decoding mappings must map single string characters to single Unicode
687characters, integers (which are then interpreted as Unicode ordinals) or None
688(meaning "undefined mapping" and causing an error).
689
690Encoding mappings must map single Unicode characters to single string
691characters, integers (which are then interpreted as Latin-1 ordinals) or None
692(meaning "undefined mapping" and causing an error).
693
694The mapping objects provided must only support the __getitem__ mapping
695interface.
696
697If a character lookup fails with a LookupError, the character is copied as-is
698meaning that its ordinal value will be interpreted as Unicode or Latin-1 ordinal
699resp. Because of this, mappings only need to contain those mappings which map
700characters to different code points.
701
702
703.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeCharmap(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, PyObject *mapping, const char *errors)
704
705   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the encoded string *s* using
706   the given *mapping* object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the
707   codec. If *mapping* is *NULL* latin-1 decoding will be done. Else it can be a
708   dictionary mapping byte or a unicode string, which is treated as a lookup table.
709   Byte values greater that the length of the string and U+FFFE "characters" are
710   treated as "undefined mapping".
711
712   .. versionchanged:: 2.4
713      Allowed unicode string as mapping argument.
714
715   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
716      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
717      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
718
719
720.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeCharmap(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, PyObject *mapping, const char *errors)
721
722   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using the given
723   *mapping* object and return a Python string object. Return *NULL* if an
724   exception was raised by the codec.
725
726   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
727      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
728      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
729
730
731.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsCharmapString(PyObject *unicode, PyObject *mapping)
732
733   Encode a Unicode object using the given *mapping* object and return the result
734   as Python string object.  Error handling is "strict".  Return *NULL* if an
735   exception was raised by the codec.
736
737The following codec API is special in that maps Unicode to Unicode.
738
739
740.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_TranslateCharmap(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, PyObject *table, const char *errors)
741
742   Translate a :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given length by applying a
743   character mapping *table* to it and return the resulting Unicode object.  Return
744   *NULL* when an exception was raised by the codec.
745
746   The *mapping* table must map Unicode ordinal integers to Unicode ordinal
747   integers or None (causing deletion of the character).
748
749   Mapping tables need only provide the :meth:`__getitem__` interface; dictionaries
750   and sequences work well.  Unmapped character ordinals (ones which cause a
751   :exc:`LookupError`) are left untouched and are copied as-is.
752
753   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
754      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
755      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
756
757These are the MBCS codec APIs. They are currently only available on Windows and
758use the Win32 MBCS converters to implement the conversions.  Note that MBCS (or
759DBCS) is a class of encodings, not just one.  The target encoding is defined by
760the user settings on the machine running the codec.
761
762.. % --- MBCS codecs for Windows --------------------------------------------
763
764
765.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeMBCS(const char *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
766
767   Create a Unicode object by decoding *size* bytes of the MBCS encoded string *s*.
768   Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
769
770   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
771      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
772      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
773
774
775.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_DecodeMBCSStateful(const char *s, int size, const char *errors, int *consumed)
776
777   If *consumed* is *NULL*, behave like :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeMBCS`. If
778   *consumed* is not *NULL*, :cfunc:`PyUnicode_DecodeMBCSStateful` will not decode
779   trailing lead byte and the number of bytes that have been decoded will be stored
780   in *consumed*.
781
782   .. versionadded:: 2.5
783
784
785.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_EncodeMBCS(const Py_UNICODE *s, Py_ssize_t size, const char *errors)
786
787   Encode the :ctype:`Py_UNICODE` buffer of the given size using MBCS and return a
788   Python string object.  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised by the codec.
789
790   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
791      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *size*. This might require
792      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
793
794
795.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_AsMBCSString(PyObject *unicode)
796
797   Encode a Unicode object using MBCS and return the result as Python string
798   object.  Error handling is "strict".  Return *NULL* if an exception was raised
799   by the codec.
800
801.. % --- Methods & Slots ----------------------------------------------------
802
803
804.. _unicodemethodsandslots:
805
806Methods and Slot Functions
807^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
808
809The following APIs are capable of handling Unicode objects and strings on input
810(we refer to them as strings in the descriptions) and return Unicode objects or
811integers as appropriate.
812
813They all return *NULL* or ``-1`` if an exception occurs.
814
815
816.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Concat(PyObject *left, PyObject *right)
817
818   Concat two strings giving a new Unicode string.
819
820
821.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Split(PyObject *s, PyObject *sep, Py_ssize_t maxsplit)
822
823   Split a string giving a list of Unicode strings.  If sep is *NULL*, splitting
824   will be done at all whitespace substrings.  Otherwise, splits occur at the given
825   separator.  At most *maxsplit* splits will be done.  If negative, no limit is
826   set.  Separators are not included in the resulting list.
827
828   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
829      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *maxsplit*. This might require
830      changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
831
832
833.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Splitlines(PyObject *s, int keepend)
834
835   Split a Unicode string at line breaks, returning a list of Unicode strings.
836   CRLF is considered to be one line break.  If *keepend* is 0, the Line break
837   characters are not included in the resulting strings.
838
839
840.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Translate(PyObject *str, PyObject *table, const char *errors)
841
842   Translate a string by applying a character mapping table to it and return the
843   resulting Unicode object.
844
845   The mapping table must map Unicode ordinal integers to Unicode ordinal integers
846   or None (causing deletion of the character).
847
848   Mapping tables need only provide the :meth:`__getitem__` interface; dictionaries
849   and sequences work well.  Unmapped character ordinals (ones which cause a
850   :exc:`LookupError`) are left untouched and are copied as-is.
851
852   *errors* has the usual meaning for codecs. It may be *NULL* which indicates to
853   use the default error handling.
854
855
856.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Join(PyObject *separator, PyObject *seq)
857
858   Join a sequence of strings using the given separator and return the resulting
859   Unicode string.
860
861
862.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_Tailmatch(PyObject *str, PyObject *substr, Py_ssize_t start, Py_ssize_t end, int direction)
863
864   Return 1 if *substr* matches *str*[*start*:*end*] at the given tail end
865   (*direction* == -1 means to do a prefix match, *direction* == 1 a suffix match),
866   0 otherwise. Return ``-1`` if an error occurred.
867
868   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
869      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *start* and *end*. This
870      might require changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit
871      systems.
872
873
874.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_Find(PyObject *str, PyObject *substr, Py_ssize_t start, Py_ssize_t end, int direction)
875
876   Return the first position of *substr* in *str*[*start*:*end*] using the given
877   *direction* (*direction* == 1 means to do a forward search, *direction* == -1 a
878   backward search).  The return value is the index of the first match; a value of
879   ``-1`` indicates that no match was found, and ``-2`` indicates that an error
880   occurred and an exception has been set.
881
882   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
883      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *start* and *end*. This
884      might require changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit
885      systems.
886
887
888.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyUnicode_Count(PyObject *str, PyObject *substr, Py_ssize_t start, Py_ssize_t end)
889
890   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of *substr* in
891   ``str[start:end]``.  Return ``-1`` if an error occurred.
892
893   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
894      This function returned an :ctype:`int` type and used an :ctype:`int`
895      type for *start* and *end*. This might require changes in your code for
896      properly supporting 64-bit systems.
897
898
899.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Replace(PyObject *str, PyObject *substr, PyObject *replstr, Py_ssize_t maxcount)
900
901   Replace at most *maxcount* occurrences of *substr* in *str* with *replstr* and
902   return the resulting Unicode object. *maxcount* == -1 means replace all
903   occurrences.
904
905   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
906      This function used an :ctype:`int` type for *maxcount*. This might
907      require changes in your code for properly supporting 64-bit systems.
908
909
910.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_Compare(PyObject *left, PyObject *right)
911
912   Compare two strings and return -1, 0, 1 for less than, equal, and greater than,
913   respectively.
914
915
916.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_RichCompare(PyObject *left,  PyObject *right,  int op)
917
918   Rich compare two unicode strings and return one of the following:
919
920   * ``NULL`` in case an exception was raised
921   * :const:`Py_True` or :const:`Py_False` for successful comparisons
922   * :const:`Py_NotImplemented` in case the type combination is unknown
923
924   Note that :const:`Py_EQ` and :const:`Py_NE` comparisons can cause a
925   :exc:`UnicodeWarning` in case the conversion of the arguments to Unicode fails
926   with a :exc:`UnicodeDecodeError`.
927
928   Possible values for *op* are :const:`Py_GT`, :const:`Py_GE`, :const:`Py_EQ`,
929   :const:`Py_NE`, :const:`Py_LT`, and :const:`Py_LE`.
930
931
932.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyUnicode_Format(PyObject *format, PyObject *args)
933
934   Return a new string object from *format* and *args*; this is analogous to
935   ``format % args``.  The *args* argument must be a tuple.
936
937
938.. cfunction:: int PyUnicode_Contains(PyObject *container, PyObject *element)
939
940   Check whether *element* is contained in *container* and return true or false
941   accordingly.
942
943   *element* has to coerce to a one element Unicode string. ``-1`` is returned if
944   there was an error.