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  1
  2:mod:`zlib` --- Compression compatible with :program:`gzip`
  3===========================================================
  4
  5.. module:: zlib
  6   :synopsis: Low-level interface to compression and decompression routines compatible with
  7              gzip.
  8
  9
 10For applications that require data compression, the functions in this module
 11allow compression and decompression, using the zlib library. The zlib library
 12has its own home page at http://www.zlib.net.   There are known
 13incompatibilities between the Python module and versions of the zlib library
 14earlier than 1.1.3; 1.1.3 has a security vulnerability, so we recommend using
 151.1.4 or later.
 16
 17zlib's functions have many options and often need to be used in a particular
 18order.  This documentation doesn't attempt to cover all of the permutations;
 19consult the zlib manual at http://www.zlib.net/manual.html for authoritative
 20information.
 21
 22For reading and writing ``.gz`` files see the :mod:`gzip` module. For
 23other archive formats, see the :mod:`bz2`, :mod:`zipfile`, and
 24:mod:`tarfile` modules.
 25
 26The available exception and functions in this module are:
 27
 28
 29.. exception:: error
 30
 31   Exception raised on compression and decompression errors.
 32
 33
 34.. function:: adler32(data[, value])
 35
 36   Computes a Adler-32 checksum of *data*.  (An Adler-32 checksum is almost as
 37   reliable as a CRC32 but can be computed much more quickly.)  If *value* is
 38   present, it is used as the starting value of the checksum; otherwise, a fixed
 39   default value is used.  This allows computing a running checksum over the
 40   concatenation of several inputs.  The algorithm is not cryptographically
 41   strong, and should not be used for authentication or digital signatures.  Since
 42   the algorithm is designed for use as a checksum algorithm, it is not suitable
 43   for use as a general hash algorithm.
 44
 45   This function always returns an integer object.
 46
 47.. note::
 48   To generate the same numeric value across all Python versions and
 49   platforms use adler32(data) & 0xffffffff.  If you are only using
 50   the checksum in packed binary format this is not necessary as the
 51   return value is the correct 32bit binary representation
 52   regardless of sign.
 53
 54.. versionchanged:: 2.6
 55   The return value is in the range [-2**31, 2**31-1]
 56   regardless of platform.  In older versions the value is
 57   signed on some platforms and unsigned on others.
 58
 59.. versionchanged:: 3.0
 60   The return value is unsigned and in the range [0, 2**32-1]
 61   regardless of platform.
 62
 63
 64.. function:: compress(string[, level])
 65
 66   Compresses the data in *string*, returning a string contained compressed data.
 67   *level* is an integer from ``1`` to ``9`` controlling the level of compression;
 68   ``1`` is fastest and produces the least compression, ``9`` is slowest and
 69   produces the most.  The default value is ``6``.  Raises the :exc:`error`
 70   exception if any error occurs.
 71
 72
 73.. function:: compressobj([level])
 74
 75   Returns a compression object, to be used for compressing data streams that won't
 76   fit into memory at once.  *level* is an integer from ``1`` to ``9`` controlling
 77   the level of compression; ``1`` is fastest and produces the least compression,
 78   ``9`` is slowest and produces the most.  The default value is ``6``.
 79
 80
 81.. function:: crc32(data[, value])
 82
 83   .. index::
 84      single: Cyclic Redundancy Check
 85      single: checksum; Cyclic Redundancy Check
 86
 87   Computes a CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)  checksum of *data*. If *value* is
 88   present, it is used as the starting value of the checksum; otherwise, a fixed
 89   default value is used.  This allows computing a running checksum over the
 90   concatenation of several inputs.  The algorithm is not cryptographically
 91   strong, and should not be used for authentication or digital signatures.  Since
 92   the algorithm is designed for use as a checksum algorithm, it is not suitable
 93   for use as a general hash algorithm.
 94
 95   This function always returns an integer object.
 96
 97.. note::
 98   To generate the same numeric value across all Python versions and
 99   platforms use crc32(data) & 0xffffffff.  If you are only using
100   the checksum in packed binary format this is not necessary as the
101   return value is the correct 32bit binary representation
102   regardless of sign.
103
104.. versionchanged:: 2.6
105   The return value is in the range [-2**31, 2**31-1]
106   regardless of platform.  In older versions the value would be
107   signed on some platforms and unsigned on others.
108
109.. versionchanged:: 3.0
110   The return value is unsigned and in the range [0, 2**32-1]
111   regardless of platform.
112
113
114.. function:: decompress(string[, wbits[, bufsize]])
115
116   Decompresses the data in *string*, returning a string containing the
117   uncompressed data.  The *wbits* parameter controls the size of the window
118   buffer.  If *bufsize* is given, it is used as the initial size of the output
119   buffer.  Raises the :exc:`error` exception if any error occurs.
120
121   The absolute value of *wbits* is the base two logarithm of the size of the
122   history buffer (the "window size") used when compressing data.  Its absolute
123   value should be between 8 and 15 for the most recent versions of the zlib
124   library, larger values resulting in better compression at the expense of greater
125   memory usage.  The default value is 15.  When *wbits* is negative, the standard
126   :program:`gzip` header is suppressed; this is an undocumented feature of the
127   zlib library, used for compatibility with :program:`unzip`'s compression file
128   format.
129
130   *bufsize* is the initial size of the buffer used to hold decompressed data.  If
131   more space is required, the buffer size will be increased as needed, so you
132   don't have to get this value exactly right; tuning it will only save a few calls
133   to :cfunc:`malloc`.  The default size is 16384.
134
135
136.. function:: decompressobj([wbits])
137
138   Returns a decompression object, to be used for decompressing data streams that
139   won't fit into memory at once.  The *wbits* parameter controls the size of the
140   window buffer.
141
142Compression objects support the following methods:
143
144
145.. method:: Compress.compress(string)
146
147   Compress *string*, returning a string containing compressed data for at least
148   part of the data in *string*.  This data should be concatenated to the output
149   produced by any preceding calls to the :meth:`compress` method.  Some input may
150   be kept in internal buffers for later processing.
151
152
153.. method:: Compress.flush([mode])
154
155   All pending input is processed, and a string containing the remaining compressed
156   output is returned.  *mode* can be selected from the constants
157   :const:`Z_SYNC_FLUSH`,  :const:`Z_FULL_FLUSH`,  or  :const:`Z_FINISH`,
158   defaulting to :const:`Z_FINISH`.  :const:`Z_SYNC_FLUSH` and
159   :const:`Z_FULL_FLUSH` allow compressing further strings of data, while
160   :const:`Z_FINISH` finishes the compressed stream and  prevents compressing any
161   more data.  After calling :meth:`flush` with *mode* set to :const:`Z_FINISH`,
162   the :meth:`compress` method cannot be called again; the only realistic action is
163   to delete the object.
164
165
166.. method:: Compress.copy()
167
168   Returns a copy of the compression object.  This can be used to efficiently
169   compress a set of data that share a common initial prefix.
170
171   .. versionadded:: 2.5
172
173Decompression objects support the following methods, and two attributes:
174
175
176.. attribute:: Decompress.unused_data
177
178   A string which contains any bytes past the end of the compressed data. That is,
179   this remains ``""`` until the last byte that contains compression data is
180   available.  If the whole string turned out to contain compressed data, this is
181   ``""``, the empty string.
182
183   The only way to determine where a string of compressed data ends is by actually
184   decompressing it.  This means that when compressed data is contained part of a
185   larger file, you can only find the end of it by reading data and feeding it
186   followed by some non-empty string into a decompression object's
187   :meth:`decompress` method until the :attr:`unused_data` attribute is no longer
188   the empty string.
189
190
191.. attribute:: Decompress.unconsumed_tail
192
193   A string that contains any data that was not consumed by the last
194   :meth:`decompress` call because it exceeded the limit for the uncompressed data
195   buffer.  This data has not yet been seen by the zlib machinery, so you must feed
196   it (possibly with further data concatenated to it) back to a subsequent
197   :meth:`decompress` method call in order to get correct output.
198
199
200.. method:: Decompress.decompress(string[, max_length])
201
202   Decompress *string*, returning a string containing the uncompressed data
203   corresponding to at least part of the data in *string*.  This data should be
204   concatenated to the output produced by any preceding calls to the
205   :meth:`decompress` method.  Some of the input data may be preserved in internal
206   buffers for later processing.
207
208   If the optional parameter *max_length* is supplied then the return value will be
209   no longer than *max_length*. This may mean that not all of the compressed input
210   can be processed; and unconsumed data will be stored in the attribute
211   :attr:`unconsumed_tail`. This string must be passed to a subsequent call to
212   :meth:`decompress` if decompression is to continue.  If *max_length* is not
213   supplied then the whole input is decompressed, and :attr:`unconsumed_tail` is an
214   empty string.
215
216
217.. method:: Decompress.flush([length])
218
219   All pending input is processed, and a string containing the remaining
220   uncompressed output is returned.  After calling :meth:`flush`, the
221   :meth:`decompress` method cannot be called again; the only realistic action is
222   to delete the object.
223
224   The optional parameter *length* sets the initial size of the output buffer.
225
226
227.. method:: Decompress.copy()
228
229   Returns a copy of the decompression object.  This can be used to save the state
230   of the decompressor midway through the data stream in order to speed up random
231   seeks into the stream at a future point.
232
233   .. versionadded:: 2.5
234
235
236.. seealso::
237
238   Module :mod:`gzip`
239      Reading and writing :program:`gzip`\ -format files.
240
241   http://www.zlib.net
242      The zlib library home page.
243
244   http://www.zlib.net/manual.html
245      The zlib manual explains  the semantics and usage of the library's many
246      functions.
247