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/Doc/library/multifile.rst

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  1
  2:mod:`multifile` --- Support for files containing distinct parts
  3================================================================
  4
  5.. module:: multifile
  6   :synopsis: Support for reading files which contain distinct parts, such as some MIME data.
  7   :deprecated:
  8.. sectionauthor:: Eric S. Raymond <esr@snark.thyrsus.com>
  9
 10
 11.. deprecated:: 2.5
 12   The :mod:`email` package should be used in preference to the :mod:`multifile`
 13   module. This module is present only to maintain backward compatibility.
 14
 15The :class:`MultiFile` object enables you to treat sections of a text file as
 16file-like input objects, with ``''`` being returned by :meth:`readline` when a
 17given delimiter pattern is encountered.  The defaults of this class are designed
 18to make it useful for parsing MIME multipart messages, but by subclassing it and
 19overriding methods  it can be easily adapted for more general use.
 20
 21
 22.. class:: MultiFile(fp[, seekable])
 23
 24   Create a multi-file.  You must instantiate this class with an input object
 25   argument for the :class:`MultiFile` instance to get lines from, such as a file
 26   object returned by :func:`open`.
 27
 28   :class:`MultiFile` only ever looks at the input object's :meth:`readline`,
 29   :meth:`seek` and :meth:`tell` methods, and the latter two are only needed if you
 30   want random access to the individual MIME parts. To use :class:`MultiFile` on a
 31   non-seekable stream object, set the optional *seekable* argument to false; this
 32   will prevent using the input object's :meth:`seek` and :meth:`tell` methods.
 33
 34It will be useful to know that in :class:`MultiFile`'s view of the world, text
 35is composed of three kinds of lines: data, section-dividers, and end-markers.
 36MultiFile is designed to support parsing of messages that may have multiple
 37nested message parts, each with its own pattern for section-divider and
 38end-marker lines.
 39
 40
 41.. seealso::
 42
 43   Module :mod:`email`
 44      Comprehensive email handling package; supersedes the :mod:`multifile` module.
 45
 46
 47.. _multifile-objects:
 48
 49MultiFile Objects
 50-----------------
 51
 52A :class:`MultiFile` instance has the following methods:
 53
 54
 55.. method:: MultiFile.readline(str)
 56
 57   Read a line.  If the line is data (not a section-divider or end-marker or real
 58   EOF) return it.  If the line matches the most-recently-stacked boundary, return
 59   ``''`` and set ``self.last`` to 1 or 0 according as the match is or is not an
 60   end-marker.  If the line matches any other stacked boundary, raise an error.  On
 61   encountering end-of-file on the underlying stream object, the method raises
 62   :exc:`Error` unless all boundaries have been popped.
 63
 64
 65.. method:: MultiFile.readlines(str)
 66
 67   Return all lines remaining in this part as a list of strings.
 68
 69
 70.. method:: MultiFile.read()
 71
 72   Read all lines, up to the next section.  Return them as a single (multiline)
 73   string.  Note that this doesn't take a size argument!
 74
 75
 76.. method:: MultiFile.seek(pos[, whence])
 77
 78   Seek.  Seek indices are relative to the start of the current section. The *pos*
 79   and *whence* arguments are interpreted as for a file seek.
 80
 81
 82.. method:: MultiFile.tell()
 83
 84   Return the file position relative to the start of the current section.
 85
 86
 87.. method:: MultiFile.next()
 88
 89   Skip lines to the next section (that is, read lines until a section-divider or
 90   end-marker has been consumed).  Return true if there is such a section, false if
 91   an end-marker is seen.  Re-enable the most-recently-pushed boundary.
 92
 93
 94.. method:: MultiFile.is_data(str)
 95
 96   Return true if *str* is data and false if it might be a section boundary.  As
 97   written, it tests for a prefix other than ``'-``\ ``-'`` at start of line (which
 98   all MIME boundaries have) but it is declared so it can be overridden in derived
 99   classes.
100
101   Note that this test is used intended as a fast guard for the real boundary
102   tests; if it always returns false it will merely slow processing, not cause it
103   to fail.
104
105
106.. method:: MultiFile.push(str)
107
108   Push a boundary string.  When a decorated version of this boundary  is found as
109   an input line, it will be interpreted as a section-divider  or end-marker
110   (depending on the decoration, see :rfc:`2045`).  All subsequent reads will
111   return the empty string to indicate end-of-file, until a call to :meth:`pop`
112   removes the boundary a or :meth:`next` call reenables it.
113
114   It is possible to push more than one boundary.  Encountering the
115   most-recently-pushed boundary will return EOF; encountering any other
116   boundary will raise an error.
117
118
119.. method:: MultiFile.pop()
120
121   Pop a section boundary.  This boundary will no longer be interpreted as EOF.
122
123
124.. method:: MultiFile.section_divider(str)
125
126   Turn a boundary into a section-divider line.  By default, this method
127   prepends ``'--'`` (which MIME section boundaries have) but it is declared so
128   it can be overridden in derived classes.  This method need not append LF or
129   CR-LF, as comparison with the result ignores trailing whitespace.
130
131
132.. method:: MultiFile.end_marker(str)
133
134   Turn a boundary string into an end-marker line.  By default, this method
135   prepends ``'--'`` and appends ``'--'`` (like a MIME-multipart end-of-message
136   marker) but it is declared so it can be overridden in derived classes.  This
137   method need not append LF or CR-LF, as comparison with the result ignores
138   trailing whitespace.
139
140Finally, :class:`MultiFile` instances have two public instance variables:
141
142
143.. attribute:: MultiFile.level
144
145   Nesting depth of the current part.
146
147
148.. attribute:: MultiFile.last
149
150   True if the last end-of-file was for an end-of-message marker.
151
152
153.. _multifile-example:
154
155:class:`MultiFile` Example
156--------------------------
157
158.. sectionauthor:: Skip Montanaro <skip@pobox.com>
159
160
161::
162
163   import mimetools
164   import multifile
165   import StringIO
166
167   def extract_mime_part_matching(stream, mimetype):
168       """Return the first element in a multipart MIME message on stream
169       matching mimetype."""
170
171       msg = mimetools.Message(stream)
172       msgtype = msg.gettype()
173       params = msg.getplist()
174
175       data = StringIO.StringIO()
176       if msgtype[:10] == "multipart/":
177
178           file = multifile.MultiFile(stream)
179           file.push(msg.getparam("boundary"))
180           while file.next():
181               submsg = mimetools.Message(file)
182               try:
183                   data = StringIO.StringIO()
184                   mimetools.decode(file, data, submsg.getencoding())
185               except ValueError:
186                   continue
187               if submsg.gettype() == mimetype:
188                   break
189           file.pop()
190       return data.getvalue()
191