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/Doc/library/pwd.rst

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 2:mod:`pwd` --- The password database
 3====================================
 4
 5.. module:: pwd
 6   :platform: Unix
 7   :synopsis: The password database (getpwnam() and friends).
 8
 9
10This module provides access to the Unix user account and password database.  It
11is available on all Unix versions.
12
13Password database entries are reported as a tuple-like object, whose attributes
14correspond to the members of the ``passwd`` structure (Attribute field below,
15see ``<pwd.h>``):
16
17+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
18| Index | Attribute     | Meaning                     |
19+=======+===============+=============================+
20| 0     | ``pw_name``   | Login name                  |
21+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
22| 1     | ``pw_passwd`` | Optional encrypted password |
23+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
24| 2     | ``pw_uid``    | Numerical user ID           |
25+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
26| 3     | ``pw_gid``    | Numerical group ID          |
27+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
28| 4     | ``pw_gecos``  | User name or comment field  |
29+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
30| 5     | ``pw_dir``    | User home directory         |
31+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
32| 6     | ``pw_shell``  | User command interpreter    |
33+-------+---------------+-----------------------------+
34
35The uid and gid items are integers, all others are strings. :exc:`KeyError` is
36raised if the entry asked for cannot be found.
37
38.. note::
39
40   .. index:: module: crypt
41
42   In traditional Unix the field ``pw_passwd`` usually contains a password
43   encrypted with a DES derived algorithm (see module :mod:`crypt`).  However most
44   modern unices  use a so-called *shadow password* system.  On those unices the
45   *pw_passwd* field only contains an asterisk (``'*'``) or the  letter ``'x'``
46   where the encrypted password is stored in a file :file:`/etc/shadow` which is
47   not world readable.  Whether the *pw_passwd* field contains anything useful is
48   system-dependent.  If available, the :mod:`spwd` module should be used where
49   access to the encrypted password is required.
50
51It defines the following items:
52
53
54.. function:: getpwuid(uid)
55
56   Return the password database entry for the given numeric user ID.
57
58
59.. function:: getpwnam(name)
60
61   Return the password database entry for the given user name.
62
63
64.. function:: getpwall()
65
66   Return a list of all available password database entries, in arbitrary order.
67
68
69.. seealso::
70
71   Module :mod:`grp`
72      An interface to the group database, similar to this.
73
74   Module :mod:`spwd`
75      An interface to the shadow password database, similar to this.
76