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  1.. _bltin-exceptions:
  2
  3Built-in Exceptions
  4===================
  5
  6.. module:: exceptions
  7   :synopsis: Standard exception classes.
  8
  9
 10Exceptions should be class objects.   The exceptions are defined in the module
 11:mod:`exceptions`.  This module never needs to be imported explicitly: the
 12exceptions are provided in the built-in namespace as well as the
 13:mod:`exceptions` module.
 14
 15.. index::
 16   statement: try
 17   statement: except
 18
 19For class exceptions, in a :keyword:`try` statement with an :keyword:`except`
 20clause that mentions a particular class, that clause also handles any exception
 21classes derived from that class (but not exception classes from which *it* is
 22derived).  Two exception classes that are not related via subclassing are never
 23equivalent, even if they have the same name.
 24
 25.. index:: statement: raise
 26
 27The built-in exceptions listed below can be generated by the interpreter or
 28built-in functions.  Except where mentioned, they have an "associated value"
 29indicating the detailed cause of the error. This may be a string or a tuple
 30containing several items of information (e.g., an error code and a string
 31explaining the code). The associated value is the second argument to the
 32:keyword:`raise` statement.  If the exception class is derived from the standard
 33root class :exc:`BaseException`, the associated value is present as the
 34exception instance's :attr:`args` attribute.
 35
 36User code can raise built-in exceptions.  This can be used to test an exception
 37handler or to report an error condition "just like" the situation in which the
 38interpreter raises the same exception; but beware that there is nothing to
 39prevent user code from raising an inappropriate error.
 40
 41The built-in exception classes can be sub-classed to define new exceptions;
 42programmers are encouraged to at least derive new exceptions from the
 43:exc:`Exception` class and not :exc:`BaseException`.  More information on
 44defining exceptions is available in the Python Tutorial under
 45:ref:`tut-userexceptions`.
 46
 47The following exceptions are only used as base classes for other exceptions.
 48
 49
 50.. exception:: BaseException
 51
 52   The base class for all built-in exceptions.  It is not meant to be directly
 53   inherited by user-defined classes (for that use :exc:`Exception`).  If
 54   :func:`str` or :func:`unicode` is called on an instance of this class, the
 55   representation of the argument(s) to the instance are returned or the empty
 56   string when there were no arguments.  All arguments are  stored in :attr:`args`
 57   as a tuple.
 58
 59   .. versionadded:: 2.5
 60
 61
 62.. exception:: Exception
 63
 64   All built-in, non-system-exiting exceptions are derived from this class.  All
 65   user-defined exceptions should also be derived from this class.
 66
 67   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
 68      Changed to inherit from :exc:`BaseException`.
 69
 70
 71.. exception:: StandardError
 72
 73   The base class for all built-in exceptions except :exc:`StopIteration`,
 74   :exc:`GeneratorExit`, :exc:`KeyboardInterrupt` and :exc:`SystemExit`.
 75   :exc:`StandardError` itself is derived from :exc:`Exception`.
 76
 77
 78.. exception:: ArithmeticError
 79
 80   The base class for those built-in exceptions that are raised for various
 81   arithmetic errors: :exc:`OverflowError`, :exc:`ZeroDivisionError`,
 82   :exc:`FloatingPointError`.
 83
 84
 85.. exception:: LookupError
 86
 87   The base class for the exceptions that are raised when a key or index used on a
 88   mapping or sequence is invalid: :exc:`IndexError`, :exc:`KeyError`.  This can be
 89   raised directly by :func:`sys.setdefaultencoding`.
 90
 91
 92.. exception:: EnvironmentError
 93
 94   The base class for exceptions that can occur outside the Python system:
 95   :exc:`IOError`, :exc:`OSError`.  When exceptions of this type are created with a
 96   2-tuple, the first item is available on the instance's :attr:`errno` attribute
 97   (it is assumed to be an error number), and the second item is available on the
 98   :attr:`strerror` attribute (it is usually the associated error message).  The
 99   tuple itself is also available on the :attr:`args` attribute.
100
101   .. versionadded:: 1.5.2
102
103   When an :exc:`EnvironmentError` exception is instantiated with a 3-tuple, the
104   first two items are available as above, while the third item is available on the
105   :attr:`filename` attribute.  However, for backwards compatibility, the
106   :attr:`args` attribute contains only a 2-tuple of the first two constructor
107   arguments.
108
109   The :attr:`filename` attribute is ``None`` when this exception is created with
110   other than 3 arguments.  The :attr:`errno` and :attr:`strerror` attributes are
111   also ``None`` when the instance was created with other than 2 or 3 arguments.
112   In this last case, :attr:`args` contains the verbatim constructor arguments as a
113   tuple.
114
115The following exceptions are the exceptions that are actually raised.
116
117
118.. exception:: AssertionError
119
120   .. index:: statement: assert
121
122   Raised when an :keyword:`assert` statement fails.
123
124
125.. exception:: AttributeError
126
127   Raised when an attribute reference (see :ref:`attribute-references`) or
128   assignment fails.  (When an object does not support attribute references or
129   attribute assignments at all, :exc:`TypeError` is raised.)
130
131
132.. exception:: EOFError
133
134   Raised when one of the built-in functions (:func:`input` or :func:`raw_input`)
135   hits an end-of-file condition (EOF) without reading any data. (N.B.: the
136   :meth:`file.read` and :meth:`file.readline` methods return an empty string
137   when they hit EOF.)
138
139
140.. exception:: FloatingPointError
141
142   Raised when a floating point operation fails.  This exception is always defined,
143   but can only be raised when Python is configured with the
144   :option:`--with-fpectl` option, or the :const:`WANT_SIGFPE_HANDLER` symbol is
145   defined in the :file:`pyconfig.h` file.
146
147
148.. exception:: GeneratorExit
149
150   Raise when a :term:`generator`\'s :meth:`close` method is called.  It
151   directly inherits from :exc:`BaseException` instead of :exc:`StandardError` since
152   it is technically not an error.
153
154   .. versionadded:: 2.5
155
156   .. versionchanged:: 2.6
157      Changed to inherit from :exc:`BaseException`.
158
159.. exception:: IOError
160
161   Raised when an I/O operation (such as a :keyword:`print` statement, the built-in
162   :func:`open` function or a method of a file object) fails for an I/O-related
163   reason, e.g., "file not found" or "disk full".
164
165   This class is derived from :exc:`EnvironmentError`.  See the discussion above
166   for more information on exception instance attributes.
167
168   .. versionchanged:: 2.6
169      Changed :exc:`socket.error` to use this as a base class.
170
171
172.. exception:: ImportError
173
174   Raised when an :keyword:`import` statement fails to find the module definition
175   or when a ``from ... import`` fails to find a name that is to be imported.
176
177
178.. exception:: IndexError
179
180   Raised when a sequence subscript is out of range.  (Slice indices are silently
181   truncated to fall in the allowed range; if an index is not a plain integer,
182   :exc:`TypeError` is raised.)
183
184   .. XXX xref to sequences
185
186
187.. exception:: KeyError
188
189   Raised when a mapping (dictionary) key is not found in the set of existing keys.
190
191   .. XXX xref to mapping objects?
192
193
194.. exception:: KeyboardInterrupt
195
196   Raised when the user hits the interrupt key (normally :kbd:`Control-C` or
197   :kbd:`Delete`).  During execution, a check for interrupts is made regularly.
198   Interrupts typed when a built-in function :func:`input` or :func:`raw_input` is
199   waiting for input also raise this exception. The exception inherits from
200   :exc:`BaseException` so as to not be accidentally caught by code that catches
201   :exc:`Exception` and thus prevent the interpreter from exiting.
202
203   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
204      Changed to inherit from :exc:`BaseException`.
205
206
207.. exception:: MemoryError
208
209   Raised when an operation runs out of memory but the situation may still be
210   rescued (by deleting some objects).  The associated value is a string indicating
211   what kind of (internal) operation ran out of memory. Note that because of the
212   underlying memory management architecture (C's :cfunc:`malloc` function), the
213   interpreter may not always be able to completely recover from this situation; it
214   nevertheless raises an exception so that a stack traceback can be printed, in
215   case a run-away program was the cause.
216
217
218.. exception:: NameError
219
220   Raised when a local or global name is not found.  This applies only to
221   unqualified names.  The associated value is an error message that includes the
222   name that could not be found.
223
224
225.. exception:: NotImplementedError
226
227   This exception is derived from :exc:`RuntimeError`.  In user defined base
228   classes, abstract methods should raise this exception when they require derived
229   classes to override the method.
230
231   .. versionadded:: 1.5.2
232
233
234.. exception:: OSError
235
236   .. index:: module: errno
237
238   This exception is derived from :exc:`EnvironmentError`.  It is raised when a
239   function returns a system-related error (not for illegal argument types or
240   other incidental errors).  The :attr:`errno` attribute is a numeric error
241   code from :cdata:`errno`, and the :attr:`strerror` attribute is the
242   corresponding string, as would be printed by the C function :cfunc:`perror`.
243   See the module :mod:`errno`, which contains names for the error codes defined
244   by the underlying operating system.
245
246   For exceptions that involve a file system path (such as :func:`chdir` or
247   :func:`unlink`), the exception instance will contain a third attribute,
248   :attr:`filename`, which is the file name passed to the function.
249
250   .. versionadded:: 1.5.2
251
252
253.. exception:: OverflowError
254
255   Raised when the result of an arithmetic operation is too large to be
256   represented.  This cannot occur for long integers (which would rather raise
257   :exc:`MemoryError` than give up) and for most operations with plain integers,
258   which return a long integer instead.  Because of the lack of standardization
259   of floating point exception handling in C, most floating point operations
260   also aren't checked.
261
262
263.. exception:: ReferenceError
264
265   This exception is raised when a weak reference proxy, created by the
266   :func:`weakref.proxy` function, is used to access an attribute of the referent
267   after it has been garbage collected. For more information on weak references,
268   see the :mod:`weakref` module.
269
270   .. versionadded:: 2.2
271      Previously known as the :exc:`weakref.ReferenceError` exception.
272
273
274.. exception:: RuntimeError
275
276   Raised when an error is detected that doesn't fall in any of the other
277   categories.  The associated value is a string indicating what precisely went
278   wrong.  (This exception is mostly a relic from a previous version of the
279   interpreter; it is not used very much any more.)
280
281
282.. exception:: StopIteration
283
284   Raised by an :term:`iterator`\'s :meth:`next` method to signal that there are
285   no further values.  This is derived from :exc:`Exception` rather than
286   :exc:`StandardError`, since this is not considered an error in its normal
287   application.
288
289   .. versionadded:: 2.2
290
291
292.. exception:: SyntaxError
293
294   Raised when the parser encounters a syntax error.  This may occur in an
295   :keyword:`import` statement, in an :keyword:`exec` statement, in a call to the
296   built-in function :func:`eval` or :func:`input`, or when reading the initial
297   script or standard input (also interactively).
298
299   Instances of this class have attributes :attr:`filename`, :attr:`lineno`,
300   :attr:`offset` and :attr:`text` for easier access to the details.  :func:`str`
301   of the exception instance returns only the message.
302
303
304.. exception:: SystemError
305
306   Raised when the interpreter finds an internal error, but the situation does not
307   look so serious to cause it to abandon all hope. The associated value is a
308   string indicating what went wrong (in low-level terms).
309
310   You should report this to the author or maintainer of your Python interpreter.
311   Be sure to report the version of the Python interpreter (``sys.version``; it is
312   also printed at the start of an interactive Python session), the exact error
313   message (the exception's associated value) and if possible the source of the
314   program that triggered the error.
315
316
317.. exception:: SystemExit
318
319   This exception is raised by the :func:`sys.exit` function.  When it is not
320   handled, the Python interpreter exits; no stack traceback is printed.  If the
321   associated value is a plain integer, it specifies the system exit status (passed
322   to C's :cfunc:`exit` function); if it is ``None``, the exit status is zero; if
323   it has another type (such as a string), the object's value is printed and the
324   exit status is one.
325
326   Instances have an attribute :attr:`code` which is set to the proposed exit
327   status or error message (defaulting to ``None``). Also, this exception derives
328   directly from :exc:`BaseException` and not :exc:`StandardError`, since it is not
329   technically an error.
330
331   A call to :func:`sys.exit` is translated into an exception so that clean-up
332   handlers (:keyword:`finally` clauses of :keyword:`try` statements) can be
333   executed, and so that a debugger can execute a script without running the risk
334   of losing control.  The :func:`os._exit` function can be used if it is
335   absolutely positively necessary to exit immediately (for example, in the child
336   process after a call to :func:`fork`).
337
338   The exception inherits from :exc:`BaseException` instead of :exc:`StandardError`
339   or :exc:`Exception` so that it is not accidentally caught by code that catches
340   :exc:`Exception`.  This allows the exception to properly propagate up and cause
341   the interpreter to exit.
342
343   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
344      Changed to inherit from :exc:`BaseException`.
345
346
347.. exception:: TypeError
348
349   Raised when an operation or function is applied to an object of inappropriate
350   type.  The associated value is a string giving details about the type mismatch.
351
352
353.. exception:: UnboundLocalError
354
355   Raised when a reference is made to a local variable in a function or method, but
356   no value has been bound to that variable.  This is a subclass of
357   :exc:`NameError`.
358
359   .. versionadded:: 2.0
360
361
362.. exception:: UnicodeError
363
364   Raised when a Unicode-related encoding or decoding error occurs.  It is a
365   subclass of :exc:`ValueError`.
366
367   .. versionadded:: 2.0
368
369
370.. exception:: UnicodeEncodeError
371
372   Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during encoding.  It is a subclass of
373   :exc:`UnicodeError`.
374
375   .. versionadded:: 2.3
376
377
378.. exception:: UnicodeDecodeError
379
380   Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during decoding.  It is a subclass of
381   :exc:`UnicodeError`.
382
383   .. versionadded:: 2.3
384
385
386.. exception:: UnicodeTranslateError
387
388   Raised when a Unicode-related error occurs during translating.  It is a subclass
389   of :exc:`UnicodeError`.
390
391   .. versionadded:: 2.3
392
393
394.. exception:: ValueError
395
396   Raised when a built-in operation or function receives an argument that has the
397   right type but an inappropriate value, and the situation is not described by a
398   more precise exception such as :exc:`IndexError`.
399
400
401.. exception:: VMSError
402
403   Only available on VMS.  Raised when a VMS-specific error occurs.
404
405
406.. exception:: WindowsError
407
408   Raised when a Windows-specific error occurs or when the error number does not
409   correspond to an :cdata:`errno` value.  The :attr:`winerror` and
410   :attr:`strerror` values are created from the return values of the
411   :cfunc:`GetLastError` and :cfunc:`FormatMessage` functions from the Windows
412   Platform API. The :attr:`errno` value maps the :attr:`winerror` value to
413   corresponding ``errno.h`` values. This is a subclass of :exc:`OSError`.
414
415   .. versionadded:: 2.0
416
417   .. versionchanged:: 2.5
418      Previous versions put the :cfunc:`GetLastError` codes into :attr:`errno`.
419
420
421.. exception:: ZeroDivisionError
422
423   Raised when the second argument of a division or modulo operation is zero.  The
424   associated value is a string indicating the type of the operands and the
425   operation.
426
427The following exceptions are used as warning categories; see the :mod:`warnings`
428module for more information.
429
430
431.. exception:: Warning
432
433   Base class for warning categories.
434
435
436.. exception:: UserWarning
437
438   Base class for warnings generated by user code.
439
440
441.. exception:: DeprecationWarning
442
443   Base class for warnings about deprecated features.
444
445
446.. exception:: PendingDeprecationWarning
447
448   Base class for warnings about features which will be deprecated in the future.
449
450
451.. exception:: SyntaxWarning
452
453   Base class for warnings about dubious syntax
454
455
456.. exception:: RuntimeWarning
457
458   Base class for warnings about dubious runtime behavior.
459
460
461.. exception:: FutureWarning
462
463   Base class for warnings about constructs that will change semantically in the
464   future.
465
466
467.. exception:: ImportWarning
468
469   Base class for warnings about probable mistakes in module imports.
470
471   .. versionadded:: 2.5
472
473
474.. exception:: UnicodeWarning
475
476   Base class for warnings related to Unicode.
477
478   .. versionadded:: 2.5
479
480
481Exception hierarchy
482-------------------
483
484The class hierarchy for built-in exceptions is:
485
486.. literalinclude:: ../../Lib/test/exception_hierarchy.txt