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  5<TITLE>FAQ XPM</TITLE>
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  9<h1 align="center">The XPM<br>
 10Frequently Asked Questions</h1>
 11<p>
 12This article contains the answers to some Frequently Asked Questions about the
 13XPM format and/or library. If you don't find the answer to your problem here,
 14then you can mail either to lehors@sophia.inria.fr or to the mailing list
 15xpm-talk@sophia.inria.fr.
 16
 17
 18<h2>Contents</h2>
 19
 20<ol>
 21<li><a href="#Q1">How do I convert my images to or from XPM ?</a>
 22<li><a href="#Q2">Why are my XPM files said to be invalid ?</a>
 23<li><a href="#Q3">Why does my program core dumps using XPM ?</a>
 24<li><a href="#Q4">Why does my program core dumps using XPM with a widget ?</a>
 25<li><a href="#Q5">How can I get a non rectangular icon using XPM ?</a>
 26<li><a href="#Q6">What exactly triggers the creation of a mask when using XPM ?</a>
 27<li><a href="#Q7">How should I use the mask ?</a>
 28<li><a href="#Q8">Is there a string to pixmap converter somewhere ?</a>
 29<li><a href="#Q9">How can I edit XPM icons ?</a>
 30<li><a href="#Q10">Is there a collection of icons somewhere ?</a>
 31<li><a href="#Q11">The documentation fails to print out. Why ?</a>
 32<li><a href="#copy">Copyright</a>
 33</ol>
 34
 35
 36<h2><a name="Q1">1. How do I convert my images to or from XPM ?</a></h2>
 37<p>
 38  Netpbm is surely the best image conversion package that I know of. It defines
 39  formats for color, gray and monochrome images and provides a set of filters.
 40  Thus a GIF image can be converted to XPM with something like:
 41<p>
 42  $ giftoppm youricon.gif | ppmtoxpm > youricon.xpm
 43<p>
 44  The latest release can be found at least from wuarchive.wustl.edu
 45  (128.252.135.4), directory /graphics/graphics/packages/NetPBM
 46
 47
 48<h2><a name="Q2">2. Why are my XPM files said to be invalid ?</a></h2>
 49<p>
 50  There are three official versions of the XPM format. The XPM library since
 51  version 3.3 can read all them but writes out only XPM 3. Also the small
 52  program called sxpm which is part of the XPM library package can be used to
 53  automatically translate XPM 1 and 2 files to XPM 3 with a command such as:
 54<p>
 55  $ sxpm -nod yourxpm1or2file -o yourxpm3file
 56<p>
 57  Also, the XPM format defines "None" to be the color name meaning
 58  "transparent", but IXI used to hack the XPM library in its early days to
 59  handle transparency as "#Transparent". This makes IXI format not compatible
 60  with the official XPM format, and so not readable neither by the official XPM
 61  library nor any of the programs built on top of it.
 62<p>
 63  The only solutions are either to stick on IXI programs which can deal with
 64  their format or convert your files to the standard XPM format. This can be
 65  done simply by changing "#Transparent" to "None".
 66
 67
 68<h2><a name="Q3">3. Why does my program core dumps using XPM ?</a></h2>
 69<p>
 70  Be sure the XpmAttributes structure you pass by reference has a valid
 71  valuemask. You can give NULL instead if you don't want to use an
 72  XpmAttributes but if you do, you MUST initialize its valuemask component to
 73  some valid value, at least 0, otherwise unpredictable errors can occur.
 74<p>
 75  So instead of doing something like:
 76<pre>
 77      XpmAttributes attrib;
 78
 79      XpmReadFileToPixmap(dpy, d, filename, &amp;pixmap, &amp;mask, &amp;attrib);
 80</pre>
 81<p>
 82  you should do:
 83<pre>
 84      XpmAttributes attrib;
 85
 86      attrib.valuemask = 0;
 87      XpmReadFileToPixmap(dpy, d, filename, &amp;pixmap, &amp;mask, &amp;attrib);
 88</pre>
 89
 90
 91<h2><a name="Q4">4. Why does my program core dumps using XPM with a widget ?</a></h2>
 92<ul>
 93<li>First the XPM library is Xlib level, so don't pass your widget as a
 94    Drawable parameter. A Drawable is either a Window or a Pixmap. The widget's
 95    window can do the job but:
 96
 97<li>Then a widget only gets a Window when realized, so passing XtWindow(widget)
 98    with a not yet realized widget is wrong. Either realize you widget first or
 99    use another window. Since the Drawable parameter is only used to specify
100    the screen to which the pixmap must be created on, most of the time the
101    default root window is just fine.
102</ul>
103
104
105<h2><a name="Q5">5. How can I get a non rectangular icon using XPM ?</a></h2>
106<p>
107  The X Window System does not support transparent color. However there are
108  several ways you can use to get the same visual effect using XPM:
109<ul>
110<li>First you can use the None color to get a shape mask and use it as
111    explained below (question 7).
112
113<li>Second you can define a symbolic color name such as "mask" in the XPM
114    format file, then use the color overriding mechanism to set this symbolic
115    color to the color of the underlying object. Note that in this case the XPM
116    library won't create a shape mask, and that if the color of the underlying
117    object is changed then you'll have to create a new pixmap.
118</ul>
119
120
121<h2><a name="Q6">6. What exactly triggers the creation of a mask when using XPM ?</a></h2>
122<p>
123  Basically a mask is created if "None" is used as one of the color of the
124  pixmap. Be aware that this is not only true if it is used in the XPM of the
125  pixmap since the colors can be overridden at load time. So a mask is created
126  if the "None" color is used at load time, coming either from the XPM
127  definition or the color overriding.
128
129
130<h2><a name="Q7">7. How should I use the mask ?</a></h2>
131<p>
132  There are basically two ways of using the mask:
133<ul>
134<li>Use the mask as a shapemask with the X11 Nonrectangular Saphe Window
135    Extension. Typically this is what should be done when the icon is used in a
136    desktop.
137
138<li>Use the mask as a clipmask in the GC you pass to XCopyArea when drawing the
139    pixmap. So the "transparent" pixels being not actually drawn will get the
140    underlying pixels colors.
141</ul>
142
143
144<h2><a name="Q8">8. Is there a string to pixmap converter for Motif ?</a></h2>
145<p>
146 Yes, Motif 2.0 or later does support XPM pixmaps as well as XBM bitmaps.
147
148
149<h2><a name="Q9">9. How can I edit XPM icons ?</a></h2>
150<p>
151  As listed below several editors either commercial or not are supporting the
152  XPM format. However, pixmap is the one I would recommend since it is freely
153  available and, being fully dedicated to XPM, it allows to edit all the
154  special things, such as the symbolic color names, which makes XPM different
155  from all the other image formats. Pixmap can always be found by ftp from
156  ftp.x.org (contrib) and avahi.inria.fr (pub/pixmap).
157<p>
158Last Update: 3 August 1994
159<table border=1>
160<caption>XPM Icon Editors</caption>
161<tr><th>Program<th>Infos<th>Source/Author<th>Platforms<th>SA<th>XPM<th>cost
162<tr><td>pixmap<td><ul>
163   <li><a href="ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/application/pixmap/pixmap2.6.tar.gz">ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/application/pixmap/pixmap2.6.tar.gz</a>
164   <li>requires 3.4 or higher revision of Xpm lib.
165   <li>supports all XPM format features
166   <li>current version doesn't work on 24-plane displays
167</ul>
168<td>Lionel Mallet<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
169
170<tr><td>pixt<td><ul>
171   <li><a href="ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/pixt.tar.Z">ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/pixt.tar.Z</a>
172   <li>doesn't work on 24-plane displays
173   <li>last updated November 1991
174</ul>
175<td>J. Michael Flanery<td>source<td>yes<td>1<td>NC
176
177<tr><td>pixed<td><ul>
178   <li>part of X.desktop
179   <li>current version doesn't work on 24-plane displays
180</ul>
181<td>IXI<td>Many UNIX<td>no<td>3<td>N/A
182
183<tr><td>olpixmap<td><ul>
184   <li>packaged with the OLIT (OpenLook) toolkit
185</ul>
186<td>USL<td>Sun, SVR4.2, UnixWare<td>no<td>1<td>N/A
187
188<tr><td>xfedor<td><ul>
189   <li>only uses XLIB
190   <li>doesn't work on 24-plane displays
191</ul>
192<td>Daniel Dardailler<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
193
194<tr><td>SCOpaint<td><ul>
195   <li>included with the ODT package
196</ul>
197<td>SCO/Wing Eng<td>ODT<td>yes<td>2.8<td>N/A
198
199<tr><td>pme.icn<td><ul>
200   <li>written in the Icon language
201</ul>
202<td>Icon Project<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
203
204<tr><td>PixEditT<td><ul>
205   <li>there is currently no support for editing the colormap
206</ul>
207<td>Free Widget Foundation<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
208
209<tr><td>xscribble<td><ul>
210   <li>requires the FWF, 8-bit pseudocolor
211   <li><a href="ftp://ftp.cis.ufl.edu/pub/thoth">ftp://ftp.cis.ufl.edu/pub/thoth</a>
212   <li>Alpha version (last updated April 1993)
213</ul>
214<td>Robert Forsman<td>source<td>yes<td>?<td>NC
215
216<tr><td>vueicon<td><ul>
217   <li>included with Vue3.0
218</ul>
219<td>Hewlett-Packard<td>HP<td>yes<td>3<td>N/A
220
221<tr><td>iconedit V3<td>&nbsp;<td>SunSoft<td>Sparc/Sun3<td>yes<td>2<td>N/A
222
223<tr><td>Pixmap Editor<td><ul>
224   <li>this is a Widget, not a complete program
225</ul>
226<td>ICS<td>?<td>yes<td>?<td>?
227
228<tr><td>ezX<td>&nbsp;<td>Sunrise Softwarey<td>?<td>?<td>?<td>N/A
229
230<tr><td>XPaint<td><ul>
231     <li>full featured, works on all displays
232     <li>current release is 2.1.1 (last update January 1994)
233</ul>
234<td>David Koblas<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
235
236<tr><td>Phoenix<td><ul>
237    <li>full featured, 24-bit painting program, requires Motif.
238    <li><a href="ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/graphics/packages/phoenix">ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/graphics/packages/phoenix</a>
239    <li>Beta version (last updated September 1993)
240</ul>
241<td>ohtcolor@niksula.hut.fi<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
242
243<tr><td>pixed<td><ul>
244    <li>pixed is part of the TeleUSE UIMS
245    <li>More info is available from service@ignite.alsys.com
246</ul>
247<td>Alsys<td>Many UNIX<td>yes<td>3<td>N/A
248
249<tr><td>display<td><ul>
250   <li><a href="ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/application/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-3.2.tar.gz">ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/application/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-3.2.tar.gz</a>
251   <li>lots of image conversion and manipulation features
252</ul>
253<td>John Cristy<td>source<td>yes<td>3<td>NC
254</table>
255
256<p>
257SA - Stand Alone program<br>
258NC - No Charge (i.e. free); most programs are copyrighted.<br>
259XPM - XPM format supported<br>
260source - built from source code; likely works on all standard X platforms<br>
261N/A - icon editor is normally distributed with other software
262
263<p>
264Send updates, additions, corrections, etc. to <a
265href="mailto:dan@bristol.com">dan@bristol.com</a>
266
267
268<h2><a name="Q10">10. Is there a collection of icons somewhere ?</a></h2>
269<p>
270  At least there is one freely available: Anthony's X Icon Library. You can
271  found it on several ftp servers, such as <a href="ftp://server.berkeley.edu/pub/AIcons">server.berkeley.edu/pub/AIcons</a>. It
272  contains only small icons (less than about 100x100 pixels in size) which are
273  stored in groups in a logical way. Color icons are stored in XPM format and
274  Black & White icons in XBM.
275
276
277<h2><a name="Q11">11. The documentation fails to print out. Why ?</a></h2>
278<p>
279  The PostScript documentation file is formatted for US letter paper. Frame
280  Maker tries very hard to ensure that you have the right paper and punts if
281  you don't. However, you can easily work around this problem by applying the
282  following patch. If for some reason applying the patch fails, you can still
283  do it by hand. Just locate the corresponding block in the PS file and remove
284  the lines with a leading '-' character.
285  By the way, this applies to any doc generated by Frame Maker. The
286  corresponding block might be slightly different depending on which version of
287  Frame Maker was used, but it is still easy to locate.
288
289<pre>
290*** xpm.PS      Wed Sep 11 15:47:43 1996
291--- xpm-A4.PS   Thu Nov 21 09:27:28 1996
292***************
293*** 647,668 ****
294        0 ne /edown exch def
295        /yscale exch def
296        /xscale exch def
297-       FMLevel1 {
298-               manualfeed {setmanualfeed} if
299-               /FMdicttop countdictstack 1 add def
300-               /FMoptop count def
301-               setpapername
302-               manualfeed {true} {papersize} ifelse
303-               {manualpapersize} {false} ifelse
304-               {desperatepapersize} {false} ifelse
305-               { (Can't select requested paper size for Frame print job!) FMFAILURE } if
306-               count -1 FMoptop {pop pop} for
307-               countdictstack -1 FMdicttop {pop end} for
308-               }
309-               {{1 dict dup /PageSize [paperwidth paperheight]put setpagedevice}stopped
310-               { (Can't select requested paper size for Frame print job!) FMFAILURE } if
311-                {1 dict dup /ManualFeed manualfeed put setpagedevice } stopped pop }
312-       ifelse
313
314        FMPColor {
315                currentcolorscreen
316--- 647,652 ----
317</pre>
318
319
320<hr>
321<h2><a name="copy">Copyright (C) 1989-95 GROUPE BULL</a></h2>
322<p>
323Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
324of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to
325deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the
326rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or
327sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
328furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
329<p>
330The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
331all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
332<p>
333THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
334IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
335FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL
336GROUPE BULL BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
337AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
338CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
339<p>
340Except as contained in this notice, the name of GROUPE BULL shall not be
341used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings
342in this Software without prior written authorization from GROUPE BULL.
343</body>
344</html>