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Relevant Search: With Applications for Solr and Elasticsearch

For more in depth reading about search, ranking and generally everything you could ever want to know about how lucene, elasticsearch or solr work under the hood I highly suggest this book. Easily one of the most interesting technical books I have read in a long time. If you are tasked with solving search relevance problems even if not in Solr or Elasticsearch it should be your first reference. Amazon Affiliate Link
https://bitbucket.org/Naked_Yoshi/sq_kanban
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320<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="../libraries/ftp.html">FTP Class</a></li>
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336<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="../libraries/uri.html">URI Class</a></li>
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339<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="../libraries/zip.html">Zip Encoding Class</a></li>
340</ul>
341</li>
342</ul>
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344<li class="toctree-l1 current"><a class="reference internal" href="index.html">Database Reference</a><ul class="current">
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346<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="configuration.html">Database Configuration</a></li>
347<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="connecting.html">Connecting to a Database</a></li>
348<li class="toctree-l2 current"><a class="current reference internal" href="#">Running Queries</a></li>
349<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="results.html">Generating Query Results</a></li>
350<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="helpers.html">Query Helper Functions</a></li>
351<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="query_builder.html">Query Builder Class</a></li>
352<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="transactions.html">Transactions</a></li>
353<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="metadata.html">Getting MetaData</a></li>
354<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="call_function.html">Custom Function Calls</a></li>
355<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="caching.html">Query Caching</a></li>
356<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="forge.html">Database Manipulation with Database Forge</a></li>
357<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="utilities.html">Database Utilities Class</a></li>
358<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="db_driver_reference.html">Database Driver Reference</a></li>
359</ul>
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373<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="../helpers/html_helper.html">HTML Helper</a></li>
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379<li class="toctree-l2"><a class="reference internal" href="../helpers/smiley_helper.html">Smiley Helper</a></li>
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385</ul>
386</li>
387</ul>
388
389          
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424            
425  <div class="section" id="queries">
426<h1>Queries<a class="headerlink" href="#queries" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
427<div class="section" id="query-basics">
428<h2>Query Basics<a class="headerlink" href="#query-basics" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
429<div class="section" id="regular-queries">
430<h3>Regular Queries<a class="headerlink" href="#regular-queries" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
431<p>To submit a query, use the <strong>query</strong> function:</p>
432<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;YOUR QUERY HERE&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
433</pre></div>
434</div>
435<p>The query() function returns a database result <strong>object</strong> when “read”
436type queries are run, which you can use to <a class="reference internal" href="results.html"><span class="doc">show your
437results</span></a>. When “write” type queries are run it simply
438returns TRUE or FALSE depending on success or failure. When retrieving
439data you will typically assign the query to your own variable, like
440this:</p>
441<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;YOUR QUERY HERE&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
442</pre></div>
443</div>
444</div>
445<div class="section" id="simplified-queries">
446<h3>Simplified Queries<a class="headerlink" href="#simplified-queries" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
447<p>The <strong>simple_query</strong> method is a simplified version of the
448$this-&gt;db-&gt;query() method. It DOES
449NOT return a database result set, nor does it set the query timer, or
450compile bind data, or store your query for debugging. It simply lets you
451submit a query. Most users will rarely use this function.</p>
452<p>It returns whatever the database drivers’ “execute” function returns.
453That typically is TRUE/FALSE on success or failure for write type queries
454such as INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE statements (which is what it really
455should be used for) and a resource/object on success for queries with
456fetchable results.</p>
457<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">simple_query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;YOUR QUERY&#39;</span><span class="p">))</span>
458<span class="p">{</span>
459        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="s2">&quot;Success!&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
460<span class="p">}</span>
461<span class="k">else</span>
462<span class="p">{</span>
463        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="s2">&quot;Query failed!&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
464<span class="p">}</span>
465</pre></div>
466</div>
467<div class="admonition note">
468<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
469<p class="last">PostgreSQL’s <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">pg_exec()</span></code> function (for example) always
470returns a resource on success, even for write type queries.
471So take that in mind if you’re looking for a boolean value.</p>
472</div>
473</div>
474</div>
475<div class="section" id="working-with-database-prefixes-manually">
476<h2>Working with Database prefixes manually<a class="headerlink" href="#working-with-database-prefixes-manually" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
477<p>If you have configured a database prefix and would like to prepend it to
478a table name for use in a native SQL query for example, then you can use
479the following:</p>
480<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">dbprefix</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;tablename&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span> <span class="c1">// outputs prefix_tablename</span>
481</pre></div>
482</div>
483<p>If for any reason you would like to change the prefix programatically
484without needing to create a new connection, you can use this method:</p>
485<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">set_dbprefix</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;newprefix_&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
486<span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">dbprefix</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;tablename&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span> <span class="c1">// outputs newprefix_tablename</span>
487</pre></div>
488</div>
489</div>
490<div class="section" id="protecting-identifiers">
491<h2>Protecting identifiers<a class="headerlink" href="#protecting-identifiers" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
492<p>In many databases it is advisable to protect table and field names - for
493example with backticks in MySQL. <strong>Query Builder queries are
494automatically protected</strong>, however if you need to manually protect an
495identifier you can use:</p>
496<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">protect_identifiers</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;table_name&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
497</pre></div>
498</div>
499<div class="admonition important">
500<p class="first admonition-title">Important</p>
501<p class="last">Although the Query Builder will try its best to properly
502quote any field and table names that you feed it, note that it
503is NOT designed to work with arbitrary user input. DO NOT feed it
504with unsanitized user data.</p>
505</div>
506<p>This function will also add a table prefix to your table, assuming you
507have a prefix specified in your database config file. To enable the
508prefixing set TRUE (boolean) via the second parameter:</p>
509<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">protect_identifiers</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;table_name&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">TRUE</span><span class="p">);</span>
510</pre></div>
511</div>
512</div>
513<div class="section" id="escaping-queries">
514<h2>Escaping Queries<a class="headerlink" href="#escaping-queries" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
515<p>It’s a very good security practice to escape your data before submitting
516it into your database. CodeIgniter has three methods that help you do
517this:</p>
518<ol class="arabic">
519<li><p class="first"><strong>$this-&gt;db-&gt;escape()</strong> This function determines the data type so
520that it can escape only string data. It also automatically adds
521single quotes around the data so you don’t have to:</p>
522<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$sql</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;INSERT INTO table (title) VALUES(&quot;</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">escape</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$title</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="s2">&quot;)&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
523</pre></div>
524</div>
525</li>
526<li><p class="first"><strong>$this-&gt;db-&gt;escape_str()</strong> This function escapes the data passed to
527it, regardless of type. Most of the time you’ll use the above
528function rather than this one. Use the function like this:</p>
529<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$sql</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;INSERT INTO table (title) VALUES(&#39;&quot;</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">escape_str</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$title</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="s2">&quot;&#39;)&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
530</pre></div>
531</div>
532</li>
533<li><p class="first"><strong>$this-&gt;db-&gt;escape_like_str()</strong> This method should be used when
534strings are to be used in LIKE conditions so that LIKE wildcards
535(‘%’, ‘_’) in the string are also properly escaped.</p>
536</li>
537</ol>
538<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$search</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39;20% raise&#39;</span><span class="p">;</span>
539<span class="nv">$sql</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;SELECT id FROM table WHERE column LIKE &#39;%&quot;</span> <span class="o">.</span>
540    <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">escape_like_str</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$search</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="s2">&quot;%&#39; ESCAPE &#39;!&#39;&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
541</pre></div>
542</div>
543<div class="admonition important">
544<p class="first admonition-title">Important</p>
545<p class="last">The <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">escape_like_str()</span></code> method uses ‘!’ (exclamation mark)
546to escape special characters for <em>LIKE</em> conditions. Because this
547method escapes partial strings that you would wrap in quotes
548yourself, it cannot automatically add the <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">ESCAPE</span> <span class="pre">'!'</span></code>
549condition for you, and so you’ll have to manually do that.</p>
550</div>
551</div>
552<div class="section" id="query-bindings">
553<h2>Query Bindings<a class="headerlink" href="#query-bindings" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
554<p>Bindings enable you to simplify your query syntax by letting the system
555put the queries together for you. Consider the following example:</p>
556<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$sql</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;SELECT * FROM some_table WHERE id = ? AND status = ? AND author = ?&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
557<span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$sql</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">array</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;live&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Rick&#39;</span><span class="p">));</span>
558</pre></div>
559</div>
560<p>The question marks in the query are automatically replaced with the
561values in the array in the second parameter of the query function.</p>
562<p>Binding also work with arrays, which will be transformed to IN sets:</p>
563<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$sql</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;SELECT * FROM some_table WHERE id IN ? AND status = ? AND author = ?&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
564<span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$sql</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">array</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">array</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">6</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="s1">&#39;live&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Rick&#39;</span><span class="p">));</span>
565</pre></div>
566</div>
567<p>The resulting query will be:</p>
568<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nx">SELECT</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="nx">FROM</span> <span class="nx">some_table</span> <span class="nx">WHERE</span> <span class="nx">id</span> <span class="nx">IN</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">,</span><span class="mi">6</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">AND</span> <span class="nx">status</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39;live&#39;</span> <span class="k">AND</span> <span class="nx">author</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Rick&#39;</span>
569</pre></div>
570</div>
571<p>The secondary benefit of using binds is that the values are
572automatically escaped, producing safer queries. You don’t have to
573remember to manually escape data; the engine does it automatically for
574you.</p>
575</div>
576<div class="section" id="handling-errors">
577<h2>Handling Errors<a class="headerlink" href="#handling-errors" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
578<p><strong>$this-&gt;db-&gt;error();</strong></p>
579<p>If you need to get the last error that has occurred, the error() method
580will return an array containing its code and message. Here’s a quick
581example:</p>
582<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span> <span class="o">!</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">simple_query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;SELECT `example_field` FROM `example_table`&#39;</span><span class="p">))</span>
583<span class="p">{</span>
584        <span class="nv">$error</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">error</span><span class="p">();</span> <span class="c1">// Has keys &#39;code&#39; and &#39;message&#39;</span>
585<span class="p">}</span>
586</pre></div>
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