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Relevant Search: With Applications for Solr and Elasticsearch

For more in depth reading about search, ranking and generally everything you could ever want to know about how lucene, elasticsearch or solr work under the hood I highly suggest this book. Easily one of the most interesting technical books I have read in a long time. If you are tasked with solving search relevance problems even if not in Solr or Elasticsearch it should be your first reference. Amazon Affiliate Link
https://bitbucket.org/bo_hmb/bo_hmb
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425  <div class="section" id="generating-query-results">
426<h1>Generating Query Results<a class="headerlink" href="#generating-query-results" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
427<p>There are several ways to generate query results:</p>
428<div class="contents local topic" id="contents">
429<ul class="simple">
430<li><a class="reference internal" href="#result-arrays" id="id1">Result Arrays</a></li>
431<li><a class="reference internal" href="#result-rows" id="id2">Result Rows</a></li>
432<li><a class="reference internal" href="#custom-result-objects" id="id3">Custom Result Objects</a></li>
433<li><a class="reference internal" href="#result-helper-methods" id="id4">Result Helper Methods</a></li>
434<li><a class="reference internal" href="#class-reference" id="id5">Class Reference</a></li>
435</ul>
436</div>
437<div class="section" id="result-arrays">
438<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id1">Result Arrays</a><a class="headerlink" href="#result-arrays" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
439<p><strong>result()</strong></p>
440<p>This method returns the query result as an array of <strong>objects</strong>, or
441<strong>an empty array</strong> on failure. Typically you’ll use this in a foreach
442loop, like this:</p>
443<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;YOUR QUERY&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
444
445<span class="k">foreach</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">result</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">)</span>
446<span class="p">{</span>
447        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">title</span><span class="p">;</span>
448        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">name</span><span class="p">;</span>
449        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">body</span><span class="p">;</span>
450<span class="p">}</span>
451</pre></div>
452</div>
453<p>The above method is an alias of <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">result_object()</span></code>.</p>
454<p>You can also pass a string to <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">result()</span></code> which represents a class to
455instantiate for each result object (note: this class must be loaded)</p>
456<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;SELECT * FROM users;&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
457
458<span class="k">foreach</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">result</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;User&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="nv">$user</span><span class="p">)</span>
459<span class="p">{</span>
460        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$user</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">name</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// access attributes</span>
461        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$user</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">reverse_name</span><span class="p">();</span> <span class="c1">// or methods defined on the &#39;User&#39; class</span>
462<span class="p">}</span>
463</pre></div>
464</div>
465<p><strong>result_array()</strong></p>
466<p>This method returns the query result as a pure array, or an empty
467array when no result is produced. Typically you’ll use this in a foreach
468loop, like this:</p>
469<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;YOUR QUERY&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
470
471<span class="k">foreach</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">result_array</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">)</span>
472<span class="p">{</span>
473        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;title&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
474        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;name&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
475        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;body&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
476<span class="p">}</span>
477</pre></div>
478</div>
479</div>
480<div class="section" id="result-rows">
481<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id2">Result Rows</a><a class="headerlink" href="#result-rows" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
482<p><strong>row()</strong></p>
483<p>This method returns a single result row. If your query has more than
484one row, it returns only the first row. The result is returned as an
485<strong>object</strong>. Here’s a usage example:</p>
486<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;YOUR QUERY&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
487
488<span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">row</span><span class="p">();</span>
489
490<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">isset</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">))</span>
491<span class="p">{</span>
492        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">title</span><span class="p">;</span>
493        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">name</span><span class="p">;</span>
494        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">body</span><span class="p">;</span>
495<span class="p">}</span>
496</pre></div>
497</div>
498<p>If you want a specific row returned you can submit the row number as a
499digit in the first parameter:</p>
500<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">row</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">5</span><span class="p">);</span>
501</pre></div>
502</div>
503<p>You can also add a second String parameter, which is the name of a class
504to instantiate the row with:</p>
505<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 1;&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
506<span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">row</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;User&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
507
508<span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">name</span><span class="p">;</span> <span class="c1">// access attributes</span>
509<span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">reverse_name</span><span class="p">();</span> <span class="c1">// or methods defined on the &#39;User&#39; class</span>
510</pre></div>
511</div>
512<p><strong>row_array()</strong></p>
513<p>Identical to the above <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">row()</span></code> method, except it returns an array.
514Example:</p>
515<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;YOUR QUERY&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
516
517<span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">row_array</span><span class="p">();</span>
518
519<span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">isset</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">))</span>
520<span class="p">{</span>
521        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;title&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
522        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;name&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
523        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;body&#39;</span><span class="p">];</span>
524<span class="p">}</span>
525</pre></div>
526</div>
527<p>If you want a specific row returned you can submit the row number as a
528digit in the first parameter:</p>
529<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">row_array</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">5</span><span class="p">);</span>
530</pre></div>
531</div>
532<p>In addition, you can walk forward/backwards/first/last through your
533results using these variations:</p>
534<blockquote>
535<div><div class="line-block">
536<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;first_row()</strong></div>
537<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;last_row()</strong></div>
538<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;next_row()</strong></div>
539<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;previous_row()</strong></div>
540</div>
541</div></blockquote>
542<p>By default they return an object unless you put the word “array” in the
543parameter:</p>
544<blockquote>
545<div><div class="line-block">
546<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;first_row(‘array’)</strong></div>
547<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;last_row(‘array’)</strong></div>
548<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;next_row(‘array’)</strong></div>
549<div class="line"><strong>$row = $query-&gt;previous_row(‘array’)</strong></div>
550</div>
551</div></blockquote>
552<div class="admonition note">
553<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
554<p class="last">All the methods above will load the whole result into memory
555(prefetching). Use <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">unbuffered_row()</span></code> for processing large
556result sets.</p>
557</div>
558<p><strong>unbuffered_row()</strong></p>
559<p>This method returns a single result row without prefetching the whole
560result in memory as <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">row()</span></code> does. If your query has more than one row,
561it returns the current row and moves the internal data pointer ahead.</p>
562<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">db</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s2">&quot;YOUR QUERY&quot;</span><span class="p">);</span>
563
564<span class="k">while</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$row</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">unbuffered_row</span><span class="p">())</span>
565<span class="p">{</span>
566        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">title</span><span class="p">;</span>
567        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">name</span><span class="p">;</span>
568        <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$row</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">body</span><span class="p">;</span>
569<span class="p">}</span>
570</pre></div>
571</div>
572<p>You can optionally pass ‘object’ (default) or ‘array’ in order to specify
573the returned value’s type:</p>
574<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">unbuffered_row</span><span class="p">();</span>               <span class="c1">// object</span>
575<span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">unbuffered_row</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;object&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>       <span class="c1">// object</span>
576<span class="nv">$query</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">unbuffered_row</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;array&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>        <span class="c1">// associative array</span>
577</pre></div>
578</div>
579</div>
580<div class="section" id="custom-result-objects">
581<h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id3">Custom Result Objects</a><a class="headerlink" href="#custom-result-objects" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
582<p>You can have the results returned as an instance of a custom class instead
583of a <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">stdClass</span></code> or array, as the <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">result()</span></code> and <code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">result_array()</span></code>
584methods allow. This requires that the class is already loaded into memory.
585The object will have all values returned from the database set as properties.
586If these have been declared and are non-public then you should provide a
587<code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">__set()</span></code> method to allow them to be set.</p>
588<p>Example:</p>
589<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">User</span> <span class="p">{</span>
590
591        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="nv">$id</span><span class="p">;</span>
592        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="nv">$email</span><span class="p">;</span>
593        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="nv">$username</span><span class="p">;</span>
594
595        <span class="k">protected</span> <span class="nv">$last_login</span><span class="p">;</span>
596
597        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">last_login</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$format</span><span class="p">)</span>
598        <span class="p">{</span>
599                <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">last_login</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">format</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$format</span><span class="p">);</span>
600        <span class="p">}</span>
601
602        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">__set</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$name</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$value</span><span class="p">)</span>
603        <span class="p">{</span>
604                <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$name</span> <span class="o">===</span> <span class="s1">&#39;last_login&#39;</span><span class="p">)</span>
605                <span class="p">{</span>
606                        <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">last_login</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="nx">DateTime</span><span class="o">::</span><span class="na">createFromFormat</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;U&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$value</span><span class="p">);</span>
607                <span class="p">}</span>
608        <span class="p">}</span>
609
610        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">__get</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$name</span><span class="p">)</span>
611        <span class="p">{</span>
612                <span class="k">if</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">isset</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="nv">$name</span><span class="p">))</span>
613                <span class="p">{</span>
614                        <span class="k">return</span> <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="nv">$name</span><span class="p">;</span>
615

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