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Relevant Search: With Applications for Solr and Elasticsearch

For more in depth reading about search, ranking and generally everything you could ever want to know about how lucene, elasticsearch or solr work under the hood I highly suggest this book. Easily one of the most interesting technical books I have read in a long time. If you are tasked with solving search relevance problems even if not in Solr or Elasticsearch it should be your first reference. Amazon Affiliate Link
https://bitbucket.org/bo_hmb/bo_hmb
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388
389          
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395    <section data-toggle="wy-nav-shift" class="wy-nav-content-wrap">
396
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423          <div role="main" class="document">
424            
425  <div class="section" id="views">
426<h1>Views<a class="headerlink" href="#views" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
427<p>A view is simply a web page, or a page fragment, like a header, footer,
428sidebar, etc. In fact, views can flexibly be embedded within other views
429(within other views, etc., etc.) if you need this type of hierarchy.</p>
430<p>Views are never called directly, they must be loaded by a
431<a class="reference internal" href="controllers.html"><span class="doc">controller</span></a>. Remember that in an MVC framework, the
432Controller acts as the traffic cop, so it is responsible for fetching a
433particular view. If you have not read the
434<a class="reference internal" href="controllers.html"><span class="doc">Controllers</span></a> page you should do so before
435continuing.</p>
436<p>Using the example controller you created in the
437<a class="reference internal" href="controllers.html"><span class="doc">controller</span></a> page, let’s add a view to it.</p>
438<div class="section" id="creating-a-view">
439<h2>Creating a View<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-a-view" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
440<p>Using your text editor, create a file called blogview.php, and put this
441in it:</p>
442<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">html</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
443<span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">head</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
444        <span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">title</span><span class="o">&gt;</span><span class="nx">My</span> <span class="nx">Blog</span><span class="o">&lt;/</span><span class="nx">title</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
445<span class="o">&lt;/</span><span class="nx">head</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
446<span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">body</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
447        <span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">h1</span><span class="o">&gt;</span><span class="nx">Welcome</span> <span class="nx">to</span> <span class="nx">my</span> <span class="nx">Blog</span><span class="o">!&lt;/</span><span class="nx">h1</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
448<span class="o">&lt;/</span><span class="nx">body</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
449<span class="o">&lt;/</span><span class="nx">html</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
450</pre></div>
451</div>
452<p>Then save the file in your <em>application/views/</em> directory.</p>
453</div>
454<div class="section" id="loading-a-view">
455<h2>Loading a View<a class="headerlink" href="#loading-a-view" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
456<p>To load a particular view file you will use the following method:</p>
457<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;name&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
458</pre></div>
459</div>
460<p>Where name is the name of your view file.</p>
461<div class="admonition note">
462<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
463<p class="last">The .php file extension does not need to be specified
464unless you use something other than .php.</p>
465</div>
466<p>Now, open the controller file you made earlier called Blog.php, and
467replace the echo statement with the view loading method:</p>
468<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span>
469<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Blog</span> <span class="k">extends</span> <span class="nx">CI_Controller</span> <span class="p">{</span>
470
471        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">index</span><span class="p">()</span>
472        <span class="p">{</span>
473                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;blogview&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
474        <span class="p">}</span>
475<span class="p">}</span>
476</pre></div>
477</div>
478<p>If you visit your site using the URL you did earlier you should see your
479new view. The URL was similar to this:</p>
480<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nx">example</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="nx">com</span><span class="o">/</span><span class="nx">index</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="nx">php</span><span class="o">/</span><span class="nx">blog</span><span class="o">/</span>
481</pre></div>
482</div>
483</div>
484<div class="section" id="loading-multiple-views">
485<h2>Loading multiple views<a class="headerlink" href="#loading-multiple-views" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
486<p>CodeIgniter will intelligently handle multiple calls to
487<code class="docutils literal"><span class="pre">$this-&gt;load-&gt;view()</span></code> from within a controller. If more than one call
488happens they will be appended together. For example, you may wish to
489have a header view, a menu view, a content view, and a footer view. That
490might look something like this:</p>
491<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span>
492
493<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Page</span> <span class="k">extends</span> <span class="nx">CI_Controller</span> <span class="p">{</span>
494
495        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">index</span><span class="p">()</span>
496        <span class="p">{</span>
497                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;page_title&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Your title&#39;</span><span class="p">;</span>
498                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;header&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
499                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;menu&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
500                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;content&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">);</span>
501                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;footer&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
502        <span class="p">}</span>
503
504<span class="p">}</span>
505</pre></div>
506</div>
507<p>In the example above, we are using “dynamically added data”, which you
508will see below.</p>
509</div>
510<div class="section" id="storing-views-within-sub-directories">
511<h2>Storing Views within Sub-directories<a class="headerlink" href="#storing-views-within-sub-directories" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
512<p>Your view files can also be stored within sub-directories if you prefer
513that type of organization. When doing so you will need to include the
514directory name loading the view. Example:</p>
515<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;directory_name/file_name&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
516</pre></div>
517</div>
518</div>
519<div class="section" id="adding-dynamic-data-to-the-view">
520<h2>Adding Dynamic Data to the View<a class="headerlink" href="#adding-dynamic-data-to-the-view" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
521<p>Data is passed from the controller to the view by way of an <strong>array</strong> or
522an <strong>object</strong> in the second parameter of the view loading method. Here
523is an example using an array:</p>
524<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">array</span><span class="p">(</span>
525        <span class="s1">&#39;title&#39;</span> <span class="o">=&gt;</span> <span class="s1">&#39;My Title&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span>
526        <span class="s1">&#39;heading&#39;</span> <span class="o">=&gt;</span> <span class="s1">&#39;My Heading&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span>
527        <span class="s1">&#39;message&#39;</span> <span class="o">=&gt;</span> <span class="s1">&#39;My Message&#39;</span>
528<span class="p">);</span>
529
530<span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;blogview&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">);</span>
531</pre></div>
532</div>
533<p>And here’s an example using an object:</p>
534<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="nv">$data</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="nx">Someclass</span><span class="p">();</span>
535<span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;blogview&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">);</span>
536</pre></div>
537</div>
538<div class="admonition note">
539<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
540<p class="last">If you use an object, the class variables will be turned
541into array elements.</p>
542</div>
543<p>Let’s try it with your controller file. Open it add this code:</p>
544<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span>
545<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Blog</span> <span class="k">extends</span> <span class="nx">CI_Controller</span> <span class="p">{</span>
546
547        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">index</span><span class="p">()</span>
548        <span class="p">{</span>
549                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;title&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;My Real Title&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
550                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;heading&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;My Real Heading&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
551
552                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;blogview&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">);</span>
553        <span class="p">}</span>
554<span class="p">}</span>
555</pre></div>
556</div>
557<p>Now open your view file and change the text to variables that correspond
558to the array keys in your data:</p>
559<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">html</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
560<span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">head</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
561        <span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">title</span><span class="o">&gt;&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span> <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$title</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
562<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
563<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
564        <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span><span class="cp">&lt;?php</span> <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$heading</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
565<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
566<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
567</pre></div>
568</div>
569<p>Then load the page at the URL you’ve been using and you should see the
570variables replaced.</p>
571</div>
572<div class="section" id="creating-loops">
573<h2>Creating Loops<a class="headerlink" href="#creating-loops" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
574<p>The data array you pass to your view files is not limited to simple
575variables. You can pass multi dimensional arrays, which can be looped to
576generate multiple rows. For example, if you pull data from your database
577it will typically be in the form of a multi-dimensional array.</p>
578<p>Here’s a simple example. Add this to your controller:</p>
579<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span>
580<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Blog</span> <span class="k">extends</span> <span class="nx">CI_Controller</span> <span class="p">{</span>
581
582        <span class="k">public</span> <span class="k">function</span> <span class="nf">index</span><span class="p">()</span>
583        <span class="p">{</span>
584                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;todo_list&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">array</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;Clean House&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Call Mom&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">&#39;Run Errands&#39;</span><span class="p">);</span>
585
586                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;title&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;My Real Title&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
587                <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">[</span><span class="s1">&#39;heading&#39;</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s2">&quot;My Real Heading&quot;</span><span class="p">;</span>
588
589                <span class="nv">$this</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">load</span><span class="o">-&gt;</span><span class="na">view</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">&#39;blogview&#39;</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nv">$data</span><span class="p">);</span>
590        <span class="p">}</span>
591<span class="p">}</span>
592</pre></div>
593</div>
594<p>Now open your view file and create a loop:</p>
595<div class="highlight-ci"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">html</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
596<span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">head</span><span class="o">&gt;</span>
597        <span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nx">title</span><span class="o">&gt;&lt;?</span><span class="nx">php</span> <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$title</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">title</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
598<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">head</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
599<span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
600        <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span><span class="cp">&lt;?php</span> <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$heading</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h1</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
601
602        <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">h3</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>My Todo List<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">h3</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
603
604        <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">ul</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
605        <span class="cp">&lt;?php</span> <span class="k">foreach</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nv">$todo_list</span> <span class="k">as</span> <span class="nv">$item</span><span class="p">)</span><span class="o">:</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span>
606
607                <span class="p">&lt;</span><span class="nt">li</span><span class="p">&gt;</span><span class="cp">&lt;?php</span> <span class="k">echo</span> <span class="nv">$item</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span><span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">li</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
608
609        <span class="cp">&lt;?php</span> <span class="k">endforeach</span><span class="p">;</span><span class="cp">?&gt;</span>
610        <span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">ul</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
611
612<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">body</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
613<span class="p">&lt;/</span><span class="nt">html</span><span class="p">&gt;</span>
614</pre></div>
615</div>
616<div class="admonition note">
617<p class="first admonition-title">Note</p>
618<p class="last">You’ll notice that in the example above we are using PHP’s
619alternative syntax. If you are not familiar with it you can read about
620it <a class="reference internal" href="alternative_php.html"><span class="doc">here</span></a>.</p>
621</div>
622</div>
623<div clas

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