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Possible License(s): CC-BY-SA-3.0, GPL-2.0, LGPL-2.0, AGPL-1.0
  1		 Asynchronous Transfers/Transforms API
  73 USAGE
  83.1 General format of the API
  93.2 Supported operations
 103.3 Descriptor management
 113.4 When does the operation execute?
 123.5 When does the operation complete?
 133.6 Constraints
 143.7 Example
 174.1 Conformance points
 184.2 "My application needs exclusive control of hardware channels"
 26The async_tx API provides methods for describing a chain of asynchronous
 27bulk memory transfers/transforms with support for inter-transactional
 28dependencies.  It is implemented as a dmaengine client that smooths over
 29the details of different hardware offload engine implementations.  Code
 30that is written to the API can optimize for asynchronous operation and
 31the API will fit the chain of operations to the available offload
 36The API was initially designed to offload the memory copy and
 37xor-parity-calculations of the md-raid5 driver using the offload engines
 38present in the Intel(R) Xscale series of I/O processors.  It also built
 39on the 'dmaengine' layer developed for offloading memory copies in the
 40network stack using Intel(R) I/OAT engines.  The following design
 41features surfaced as a result:
 421/ implicit synchronous path: users of the API do not need to know if
 43   the platform they are running on has offload capabilities.  The
 44   operation will be offloaded when an engine is available and carried out
 45   in software otherwise.
 462/ cross channel dependency chains: the API allows a chain of dependent
 47   operations to be submitted, like xor->copy->xor in the raid5 case.  The
 48   API automatically handles cases where the transition from one operation
 49   to another implies a hardware channel switch.
 503/ dmaengine extensions to support multiple clients and operation types
 51   beyond 'memcpy'
 533 USAGE
 553.1 General format of the API:
 56struct dma_async_tx_descriptor *
 57async_<operation>(<op specific parameters>, struct async_submit ctl *submit)
 593.2 Supported operations:
 60memcpy  - memory copy between a source and a destination buffer
 61memset  - fill a destination buffer with a byte value
 62xor     - xor a series of source buffers and write the result to a
 63	  destination buffer
 64xor_val - xor a series of source buffers and set a flag if the
 65	  result is zero.  The implementation attempts to prevent
 66	  writes to memory
 67pq	- generate the p+q (raid6 syndrome) from a series of source buffers
 68pq_val  - validate that a p and or q buffer are in sync with a given series of
 69	  sources
 70datap	- (raid6_datap_recov) recover a raid6 data block and the p block
 71	  from the given sources
 722data	- (raid6_2data_recov) recover 2 raid6 data blocks from the given
 73	  sources
 753.3 Descriptor management:
 76The return value is non-NULL and points to a 'descriptor' when the operation
 77has been queued to execute asynchronously.  Descriptors are recycled
 78resources, under control of the offload engine driver, to be reused as
 79operations complete.  When an application needs to submit a chain of
 80operations it must guarantee that the descriptor is not automatically recycled
 81before the dependency is submitted.  This requires that all descriptors be
 82acknowledged by the application before the offload engine driver is allowed to
 83recycle (or free) the descriptor.  A descriptor can be acked by one of the
 84following methods:
 851/ setting the ASYNC_TX_ACK flag if no child operations are to be submitted
 862/ submitting an unacknowledged descriptor as a dependency to another
 87   async_tx call will implicitly set the acknowledged state.
 883/ calling async_tx_ack() on the descriptor.
 903.4 When does the operation execute?
 91Operations do not immediately issue after return from the
 92async_<operation> call.  Offload engine drivers batch operations to
 93improve performance by reducing the number of mmio cycles needed to
 94manage the channel.  Once a driver-specific threshold is met the driver
 95automatically issues pending operations.  An application can force this
 96event by calling async_tx_issue_pending_all().  This operates on all
 97channels since the application has no knowledge of channel to operation
1003.5 When does the operation complete?
101There are two methods for an application to learn about the completion
102of an operation.
1031/ Call dma_wait_for_async_tx().  This call causes the CPU to spin while
104   it polls for the completion of the operation.  It handles dependency
105   chains and issuing pending operations.
1062/ Specify a completion callback.  The callback routine runs in tasklet
107   context if the offload engine driver supports interrupts, or it is
108   called in application context if the operation is carried out
109   synchronously in software.  The callback can be set in the call to
110   async_<operation>, or when the application needs to submit a chain of
111   unknown length it can use the async_trigger_callback() routine to set a
112   completion interrupt/callback at the end of the chain.
1143.6 Constraints:
1151/ Calls to async_<operation> are not permitted in IRQ context.  Other
116   contexts are permitted provided constraint #2 is not violated.
1172/ Completion callback routines cannot submit new operations.  This
118   results in recursion in the synchronous case and spin_locks being
119   acquired twice in the asynchronous case.
1213.7 Example:
122Perform a xor->copy->xor operation where each operation depends on the
123result from the previous operation:
125void callback(void *param)
127	struct completion *cmp = param;
129	complete(cmp);
132void run_xor_copy_xor(struct page **xor_srcs,
133		      int xor_src_cnt,
134		      struct page *xor_dest,
135		      size_t xor_len,
136		      struct page *copy_src,
137		      struct page *copy_dest,
138		      size_t copy_len)
140	struct dma_async_tx_descriptor *tx;
141	addr_conv_t addr_conv[xor_src_cnt];
142	struct async_submit_ctl submit;
143	addr_conv_t addr_conv[NDISKS];
144	struct completion cmp;
146	init_async_submit(&submit, ASYNC_TX_XOR_DROP_DST, NULL, NULL, NULL,
147			  addr_conv);
148	tx = async_xor(xor_dest, xor_srcs, 0, xor_src_cnt, xor_len, &submit)
150	submit->depend_tx = tx;
151	tx = async_memcpy(copy_dest, copy_src, 0, 0, copy_len, &submit);
153	init_completion(&cmp);
154	init_async_submit(&submit, ASYNC_TX_XOR_DROP_DST | ASYNC_TX_ACK, tx,
155			  callback, &cmp, addr_conv);
156	tx = async_xor(xor_dest, xor_srcs, 0, xor_src_cnt, xor_len, &submit);
158	async_tx_issue_pending_all();
160	wait_for_completion(&cmp);
163See include/linux/async_tx.h for more information on the flags.  See the
164ops_run_* and ops_complete_* routines in drivers/md/raid5.c for more
165implementation examples.
1694.1 Conformance points:
170There are a few conformance points required in dmaengine drivers to
171accommodate assumptions made by applications using the async_tx API:
1721/ Completion callbacks are expected to happen in tasklet context
1732/ dma_async_tx_descriptor fields are never manipulated in IRQ context
1743/ Use async_tx_run_dependencies() in the descriptor clean up path to
175   handle submission of dependent operations
1774.2 "My application needs exclusive control of hardware channels"
178Primarily this requirement arises from cases where a DMA engine driver
179is being used to support device-to-memory operations.  A channel that is
180performing these operations cannot, for many platform specific reasons,
181be shared.  For these cases the dma_request_channel() interface is
184The interface is:
185struct dma_chan *dma_request_channel(dma_cap_mask_t mask,
186				     dma_filter_fn filter_fn,
187				     void *filter_param);
189Where dma_filter_fn is defined as:
190typedef bool (*dma_filter_fn)(struct dma_chan *chan, void *filter_param);
192When the optional 'filter_fn' parameter is set to NULL
193dma_request_channel simply returns the first channel that satisfies the
194capability mask.  Otherwise, when the mask parameter is insufficient for
195specifying the necessary channel, the filter_fn routine can be used to
196disposition the available channels in the system. The filter_fn routine
197is called once for each free channel in the system.  Upon seeing a
198suitable channel filter_fn returns DMA_ACK which flags that channel to
199be the return value from dma_request_channel.  A channel allocated via
200this interface is exclusive to the caller, until dma_release_channel()
201is called.
203The DMA_PRIVATE capability flag is used to tag dma devices that should
204not be used by the general-purpose allocator.  It can be set at
205initialization time if it is known that a channel will always be
206private.  Alternatively, it is set when dma_request_channel() finds an
207unused "public" channel.
209A couple caveats to note when implementing a driver and consumer:
2101/ Once a channel has been privately allocated it will no longer be
211   considered by the general-purpose allocator even after a call to
212   dma_release_channel().
2132/ Since capabilities are specified at the device level a dma_device
214   with multiple channels will either have all channels public, or all
215   channels private.
219include/linux/dmaengine.h: core header file for DMA drivers and api users
220drivers/dma/dmaengine.c: offload engine channel management routines
221drivers/dma/: location for offload engine drivers
222include/linux/async_tx.h: core header file for the async_tx api
223crypto/async_tx/async_tx.c: async_tx interface to dmaengine and common code
224crypto/async_tx/async_memcpy.c: copy offload
225crypto/async_tx/async_memset.c: memory fill offload
226crypto/async_tx/async_xor.c: xor and xor zero sum offload