PageRenderTime 216ms CodeModel.GetById 203ms app.highlight 11ms RepoModel.GetById 1ms app.codeStats 0ms

/tools/Ruby/lib/ruby/1.8/observer.rb

http://github.com/agross/netopenspace
Ruby | 192 lines | 67 code | 4 blank | 121 comment | 3 complexity | fd35b15939bd094f29376e0a90b14e2b MD5 | raw file
  1#
  2# observer.rb implements the _Observer_ object-oriented design pattern.  The
  3# following documentation is copied, with modifications, from "Programming
  4# Ruby", by Hunt and Thomas; http://www.rubycentral.com/book/lib_patterns.html.
  5#
  6# == About
  7#
  8# The Observer pattern, also known as Publish/Subscribe, provides a simple
  9# mechanism for one object to inform a set of interested third-party objects
 10# when its state changes. 
 11#
 12# == Mechanism
 13#
 14# In the Ruby implementation, the notifying class mixes in the +Observable+
 15# module, which provides the methods for managing the associated observer
 16# objects.
 17#
 18# The observers must implement the +update+ method to receive notifications.
 19#
 20# The observable object must:
 21# * assert that it has +changed+
 22# * call +notify_observers+
 23#
 24# == Example
 25#
 26# The following example demonstrates this nicely.  A +Ticker+, when run,
 27# continually receives the stock +Price+ for its +@symbol+.  A +Warner+ is a
 28# general observer of the price, and two warners are demonstrated, a +WarnLow+
 29# and a +WarnHigh+, which print a warning if the price is below or above their
 30# set limits, respectively.
 31#
 32# The +update+ callback allows the warners to run without being explicitly
 33# called.  The system is set up with the +Ticker+ and several observers, and the
 34# observers do their duty without the top-level code having to interfere.
 35#
 36# Note that the contract between publisher and subscriber (observable and
 37# observer) is not declared or enforced.  The +Ticker+ publishes a time and a
 38# price, and the warners receive that.  But if you don't ensure that your
 39# contracts are correct, nothing else can warn you.
 40#
 41#   require "observer"
 42#   
 43#   class Ticker          ### Periodically fetch a stock price.
 44#     include Observable
 45#   
 46#     def initialize(symbol)
 47#       @symbol = symbol
 48#     end
 49#   
 50#     def run
 51#       lastPrice = nil
 52#       loop do
 53#         price = Price.fetch(@symbol)
 54#         print "Current price: #{price}\n"
 55#         if price != lastPrice
 56#           changed                 # notify observers
 57#           lastPrice = price
 58#           notify_observers(Time.now, price)
 59#         end
 60#         sleep 1
 61#       end
 62#     end
 63#   end
 64#
 65#   class Price           ### A mock class to fetch a stock price (60 - 140).
 66#     def Price.fetch(symbol)
 67#       60 + rand(80)
 68#     end
 69#   end
 70#   
 71#   class Warner          ### An abstract observer of Ticker objects.
 72#     def initialize(ticker, limit)
 73#       @limit = limit
 74#       ticker.add_observer(self)
 75#     end
 76#   end
 77#   
 78#   class WarnLow < Warner
 79#     def update(time, price)       # callback for observer
 80#       if price < @limit
 81#         print "--- #{time.to_s}: Price below #@limit: #{price}\n"
 82#       end
 83#     end
 84#   end
 85#   
 86#   class WarnHigh < Warner
 87#     def update(time, price)       # callback for observer
 88#       if price > @limit
 89#         print "+++ #{time.to_s}: Price above #@limit: #{price}\n"
 90#       end
 91#     end
 92#   end
 93#
 94#   ticker = Ticker.new("MSFT")
 95#   WarnLow.new(ticker, 80)
 96#   WarnHigh.new(ticker, 120)
 97#   ticker.run
 98#
 99# Produces:
100#
101#   Current price: 83
102#   Current price: 75
103#   --- Sun Jun 09 00:10:25 CDT 2002: Price below 80: 75
104#   Current price: 90
105#   Current price: 134
106#   +++ Sun Jun 09 00:10:25 CDT 2002: Price above 120: 134
107#   Current price: 134
108#   Current price: 112
109#   Current price: 79
110#   --- Sun Jun 09 00:10:25 CDT 2002: Price below 80: 79
111
112
113#
114# Implements the Observable design pattern as a mixin so that other objects can
115# be notified of changes in state.  See observer.rb for details and an example.
116#
117module Observable
118
119  #
120  # Add +observer+ as an observer on this object. +observer+ will now receive
121  # notifications.
122  #
123  def add_observer(observer)
124    @observer_peers = [] unless defined? @observer_peers
125    unless observer.respond_to? :update
126      raise NoMethodError, "observer needs to respond to `update'" 
127    end
128    @observer_peers.push observer
129  end
130
131  #
132  # Delete +observer+ as an observer on this object. It will no longer receive
133  # notifications.
134  #
135  def delete_observer(observer)
136    @observer_peers.delete observer if defined? @observer_peers
137  end
138
139  #
140  # Delete all observers associated with this object.
141  #
142  def delete_observers
143    @observer_peers.clear if defined? @observer_peers
144  end
145
146  #
147  # Return the number of observers associated with this object.
148  #
149  def count_observers
150    if defined? @observer_peers
151      @observer_peers.size
152    else
153      0
154    end
155  end
156
157  #
158  # Set the changed state of this object.  Notifications will be sent only if
159  # the changed +state+ is +true+.
160  #
161  def changed(state=true)
162    @observer_state = state
163  end
164
165  #
166  # Query the changed state of this object.
167  #
168  def changed?
169    if defined? @observer_state and @observer_state
170      true
171    else
172      false
173    end
174  end
175
176  #
177  # If this object's changed state is +true+, invoke the update method in each
178  # currently associated observer in turn, passing it the given arguments. The
179  # changed state is then set to +false+.
180  #
181  def notify_observers(*arg)
182    if defined? @observer_state and @observer_state
183      if defined? @observer_peers
184	for i in @observer_peers.dup
185	  i.update(*arg)
186	end
187      end
188      @observer_state = false
189    end
190  end
191
192end