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Possible License(s): GPL-2.0, LGPL-2.0, AGPL-1.0
  1The Linux NTFS filesystem driver
  5Table of contents
  8- Overview
  9- Web site
 10- Features
 11- Supported mount options
 12- Known bugs and (mis-)features
 13- Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
 14  - The Device-Mapper driver
 15  - The Software RAID / MD driver
 16  - Limitations when using the MD driver
 17- ChangeLog
 23Linux-NTFS comes with a number of user-space programs known as ntfsprogs.
 24These include mkntfs, a full-featured ntfs filesystem format utility,
 25ntfsundelete used for recovering files that were unintentionally deleted
 26from an NTFS volume and ntfsresize which is used to resize an NTFS partition.
 27See the web site for more information.
 29To mount an NTFS 1.2/3.x (Windows NT4/2000/XP/2003) volume, use the file
 30system type 'ntfs'.  The driver currently supports read-only mode (with no
 31fault-tolerance, encryption or journalling) and very limited, but safe, write
 34For fault tolerance and raid support (i.e. volume and stripe sets), you can
 35use the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  See section "Using Software RAID
 36with NTFS" for details.
 39Web site
 42There is plenty of additional information on the linux-ntfs web site
 45The web site has a lot of additional information, such as a comprehensive
 46FAQ, documentation on the NTFS on-disk format, information on the Linux-NTFS
 47userspace utilities, etc.
 53- This is a complete rewrite of the NTFS driver that used to be in the 2.4 and
 54  earlier kernels.  This new driver implements NTFS read support and is
 55  functionally equivalent to the old ntfs driver and it also implements limited
 56  write support.  The biggest limitation at present is that files/directories
 57  cannot be created or deleted.  See below for the list of write features that
 58  are so far supported.  Another limitation is that writing to compressed files
 59  is not implemented at all.  Also, neither read nor write access to encrypted
 60  files is so far implemented.
 61- The new driver has full support for sparse files on NTFS 3.x volumes which
 62  the old driver isn't happy with.
 63- The new driver supports execution of binaries due to mmap() now being
 64  supported.
 65- The new driver supports loopback mounting of files on NTFS which is used by
 66  some Linux distributions to enable the user to run Linux from an NTFS
 67  partition by creating a large file while in Windows and then loopback
 68  mounting the file while in Linux and creating a Linux filesystem on it that
 69  is used to install Linux on it.
 70- A comparison of the two drivers using:
 71	time find . -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \;
 72  run three times in sequence with each driver (after a reboot) on a 1.4GiB
 73  NTFS partition, showed the new driver to be 20% faster in total time elapsed
 74  (from 9:43 minutes on average down to 7:53).  The time spent in user space
 75  was unchanged but the time spent in the kernel was decreased by a factor of
 76  2.5 (from 85 CPU seconds down to 33).
 77- The driver does not support short file names in general.  For backwards
 78  compatibility, we implement access to files using their short file names if
 79  they exist.  The driver will not create short file names however, and a
 80  rename will discard any existing short file name.
 81- The new driver supports exporting of mounted NTFS volumes via NFS.
 82- The new driver supports async io (aio).
 83- The new driver supports fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2).
 84- The new driver supports readv(2) and writev(2).
 85- The new driver supports access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
 86- The new driver supports truncate(2) and open(2) with O_TRUNC.  But at present
 87  only very limited support for highly fragmented files, i.e. ones which have
 88  their data attribute split across multiple extents, is included.  Another
 89  limitation is that at present truncate(2) will never create sparse files,
 90  since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for the
 91  file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
 92- The new driver supports write(2) which can both overwrite existing data and
 93  extend the file size so that you can write beyond the existing data.  Also,
 94  writing into sparse regions is supported and the holes are filled in with
 95  clusters.  But at present only limited support for highly fragmented files,
 96  i.e. ones which have their data attribute split across multiple extents, is
 97  included.  Another limitation is that write(2) will never create sparse
 98  files, since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for
 99  the file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
101Supported mount options
104In addition to the generic mount options described by the manual page for the
105mount command (man 8 mount, also see man 5 fstab), the NTFS driver supports the
106following mount options:
108iocharset=name		Deprecated option.  Still supported but please use
109			nls=name in the future.  See description for nls=name.
111nls=name		Character set to use when returning file names.
112			Unlike VFAT, NTFS suppresses names that contain
113			unconvertible characters.  Note that most character
114			sets contain insufficient characters to represent all
115			possible Unicode characters that can exist on NTFS.
116			To be sure you are not missing any files, you are
117			advised to use nls=utf8 which is capable of
118			representing all Unicode characters.
120utf8=<bool>		Option no longer supported.  Currently mapped to
121			nls=utf8 but please use nls=utf8 in the future and
122			make sure utf8 is compiled either as module or into
123			the kernel.  See description for nls=name.
127umask=			Provide default owner, group, and access mode mask.
128			These options work as documented in mount(8).  By
129			default, the files/directories are owned by root and
130			he/she has read and write permissions, as well as
131			browse permission for directories.  No one else has any
132			access permissions.  I.e. the mode on all files is by
133			default rw------- and for directories rwx------, a
134			consequence of the default fmask=0177 and dmask=0077.
135			Using a umask of zero will grant all permissions to
136			everyone, i.e. all files and directories will have mode
137			rwxrwxrwx.
140dmask=			Instead of specifying umask which applies both to
141			files and directories, fmask applies only to files and
142			dmask only to directories.
144sloppy=<BOOL>		If sloppy is specified, ignore unknown mount options.
145			Otherwise the default behaviour is to abort mount if
146			any unknown options are found.
148show_sys_files=<BOOL>	If show_sys_files is specified, show the system files
149			in directory listings.  Otherwise the default behaviour
150			is to hide the system files.
151			Note that even when show_sys_files is specified, "$MFT"
152			will not be visible due to bugs/mis-features in glibc.
153			Further, note that irrespective of show_sys_files, all
154			files are accessible by name, i.e. you can always do
155			"ls -l \$UpCase" for example to specifically show the
156			system file containing the Unicode upcase table.
158case_sensitive=<BOOL>	If case_sensitive is specified, treat all file names as
159			case sensitive and create file names in the POSIX
160			namespace.  Otherwise the default behaviour is to treat
161			file names as case insensitive and to create file names
162			in the WIN32/LONG name space.  Note, the Linux NTFS
163			driver will never create short file names and will
164			remove them on rename/delete of the corresponding long
165			file name.
166			Note that files remain accessible via their short file
167			name, if it exists.  If case_sensitive, you will need
168			to provide the correct case of the short file name.
170disable_sparse=<BOOL>	If disable_sparse is specified, creation of sparse
171			regions, i.e. holes, inside files is disabled for the
172			volume (for the duration of this mount only).  By
173			default, creation of sparse regions is enabled, which
174			is consistent with the behaviour of traditional Unix
175			filesystems.
177errors=opt		What to do when critical filesystem errors are found.
178			Following values can be used for "opt":
179			  continue: DEFAULT, try to clean-up as much as
180				    possible, e.g. marking a corrupt inode as
181				    bad so it is no longer accessed, and then
182				    continue.
183			  recover:  At present only supported is recovery of
184				    the boot sector from the backup copy.
185				    If read-only mount, the recovery is done
186				    in memory only and not written to disk.
187			Note that the options are additive, i.e. specifying:
188			   errors=continue,errors=recover
189			means the driver will attempt to recover and if that
190			fails it will clean-up as much as possible and
191			continue.
193mft_zone_multiplier=	Set the MFT zone multiplier for the volume (this
194			setting is not persistent across mounts and can be
195			changed from mount to mount but cannot be changed on
196			remount).  Values of 1 to 4 are allowed, 1 being the
197			default.  The MFT zone multiplier determines how much
198			space is reserved for the MFT on the volume.  If all
199			other space is used up, then the MFT zone will be
200			shrunk dynamically, so this has no impact on the
201			amount of free space.  However, it can have an impact
202			on performance by affecting fragmentation of the MFT.
203			In general use the default.  If you have a lot of small
204			files then use a higher value.  The values have the
205			following meaning:
206			      Value	     MFT zone size (% of volume size)
207				1		12.5%
208				2		25%
209				3		37.5%
210				4		50%
211			Note this option is irrelevant for read-only mounts.
214Known bugs and (mis-)features
217- The link count on each directory inode entry is set to 1, due to Linux not
218  supporting directory hard links.  This may well confuse some user space
219  applications, since the directory names will have the same inode numbers.
220  This also speeds up ntfs_read_inode() immensely.  And we haven't found any
221  problems with this approach so far.  If you find a problem with this, please
222  let us know.
225Please send bug reports/comments/feedback/abuse to the Linux-NTFS development
226list at sourceforge:
229Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
232For support of volume and stripe sets, you can either use the kernel's
233Device-Mapper driver or the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  The former is
234the recommended one to use for linear raid.  But the latter is required for
235raid level 5.  For striping and mirroring, either driver should work fine.
238The Device-Mapper driver
241You will need to create a table of the components of the volume/stripe set and
242how they fit together and load this into the kernel using the dmsetup utility
243(see man 8 dmsetup).
245Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, has been tested and works fine.  Even
246though untested, there is no reason why stripe sets, i.e. raid level 0, and
247mirrors, i.e. raid level 1 should not work, too.  Stripes with parity, i.e.
248raid level 5, unfortunately cannot work yet because the current version of the
249Device-Mapper driver does not support raid level 5.  You may be able to use the
250Software RAID / MD driver for raid level 5, see the next section for details.
252To create the table describing your volume you will need to know each of its
253components and their sizes in sectors, i.e. multiples of 512-byte blocks.
255For NT4 fault tolerant volumes you can obtain the sizes using fdisk.  So for
256example if one of your partitions is /dev/hda2 you would do:
258$ fdisk -ul /dev/hda
260Disk /dev/hda: 81.9 GB, 81964302336 bytes
261255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9964 cylinders, total 160086528 sectors
262Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
264   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
265   /dev/hda1   *          63     4209029     2104483+  83  Linux
266   /dev/hda2         4209030    37768814    16779892+  86  NTFS
267   /dev/hda3        37768815    46170809     4200997+  83  Linux
269And you would know that /dev/hda2 has a size of 37768814 - 4209030 + 1 =
27033559785 sectors.
272For Win2k and later dynamic disks, you can for example use the ldminfo utility
273which is part of the Linux LDM tools (the latest version at the time of
274writing is linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2).  You can download it from:
276Simply extract the downloaded archive (tar xvjf linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2), go
277into it (cd linux-ldm-0.0.8) and change to the test directory (cd test).  You
278will find the precompiled (i386) ldminfo utility there.  NOTE: You will not be
279able to compile this yourself easily so use the binary version!
281Then you would use ldminfo in dump mode to obtain the necessary information:
283$ ./ldminfo --dump /dev/hda
285This would dump the LDM database found on /dev/hda which describes all of your
286dynamic disks and all the volumes on them.  At the bottom you will see the
287VOLUME DEFINITIONS section which is all you really need.  You may need to look
288further above to determine which of the disks in the volume definitions is
289which device in Linux.  Hint: Run ldminfo on each of your dynamic disks and
290look at the Disk Id close to the top of the output for each (the PRIVATE HEADER
291section).  You can then find these Disk Ids in the VBLK DATABASE section in the
292<Disk> components where you will get the LDM Name for the disk that is found in
293the VOLUME DEFINITIONS section.
295Note you will also need to enable the LDM driver in the Linux kernel.  If your
296distribution did not enable it, you will need to recompile the kernel with it
297enabled.  This will create the LDM partitions on each device at boot time.  You
298would then use those devices (for /dev/hda they would be /dev/hda1, 2, 3, etc)
299in the Device-Mapper table.
301You can also bypass using the LDM driver by using the main device (e.g.
302/dev/hda) and then using the offsets of the LDM partitions into this device as
303the "Start sector of device" when creating the table.  Once again ldminfo would
304give you the correct information to do this.
306Assuming you know all your devices and their sizes things are easy.
308For a linear raid the table would look like this (note all values are in
309512-byte sectors):
311--- cut here ---
312# Offset into	Size of this	Raid type	Device		Start sector
313# volume	device						of device
3140		1028161		linear		/dev/hda1	0
3151028161		3903762		linear		/dev/hdb2	0
3164931923		2103211		linear		/dev/hdc1	0
317--- cut here ---
319For a striped volume, i.e. raid level 0, you will need to know the chunk size
320you used when creating the volume.  Windows uses 64kiB as the default, so it
321will probably be this unless you changes the defaults when creating the array.
323For a raid level 0 the table would look like this (note all values are in
324512-byte sectors):
326--- cut here ---
327# Offset   Size	    Raid     Number   Chunk  1st        Start	2nd	  Start
328# into     of the   type     of	      size   Device	in	Device	  in
329# volume   volume	     stripes			device		  device
3300	   2056320  striped  2	      128    /dev/hda1	0	/dev/hdb1 0
331--- cut here ---
333If there are more than two devices, just add each of them to the end of the
336Finally, for a mirrored volume, i.e. raid level 1, the table would look like
337this (note all values are in 512-byte sectors):
339--- cut here ---
340# Ofs Size   Raid   Log  Number Region Should Number Source  Start Target Start
341# in  of the type   type of log size   sync?  of     Device  in    Device in
342# vol volume		 params		     mirrors	     Device	  Device
3430    2056320 mirror core 2	16     nosync 2	   /dev/hda1 0   /dev/hdb1 0
344--- cut here ---
346If you are mirroring to multiple devices you can specify further targets at the
347end of the line.
349Note the "Should sync?" parameter "nosync" means that the two mirrors are
350already in sync which will be the case on a clean shutdown of Windows.  If the
351mirrors are not clean, you can specify the "sync" option instead of "nosync"
352and the Device-Mapper driver will then copy the entirety of the "Source Device"
353to the "Target Device" or if you specified multipled target devices to all of
356Once you have your table, save it in a file somewhere (e.g. /etc/ntfsvolume1),
357and hand it over to dmsetup to work with, like so:
359$ dmsetup create myvolume1 /etc/ntfsvolume1
361You can obviously replace "myvolume1" with whatever name you like.
363If it all worked, you will now have the device /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1
364which you can then just use as an argument to the mount command as usual to
365mount the ntfs volume.  For example:
367$ mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1 /mnt/myvol1
369(You need to create the directory /mnt/myvol1 first and of course you can use
370anything you like instead of /mnt/myvol1 as long as it is an existing
373It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the volume has been setup
374correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the ntfs
378The Software RAID / MD driver
381An alternative to using the Device-Mapper driver is to use the kernel's
382Software RAID / MD driver.  For which you need to set up your /etc/raidtab
383appropriately (see man 5 raidtab).
385Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, as well as stripe sets, i.e. raid level
3860, have been tested and work fine (though see section "Limitations when using
387the MD driver with NTFS volumes" especially if you want to use linear raid).
388Even though untested, there is no reason why mirrors, i.e. raid level 1, and
389stripes with parity, i.e. raid level 5, should not work, too.
391You have to use the "persistent-superblock 0" option for each raid-disk in the
392NTFS volume/stripe you are configuring in /etc/raidtab as the persistent
393superblock used by the MD driver would damage the NTFS volume.
395Windows by default uses a stripe chunk size of 64k, so you probably want the
396"chunk-size 64k" option for each raid-disk, too.
398For example, if you have a stripe set consisting of two partitions /dev/hda5
399and /dev/hdb1 your /etc/raidtab would look like this:
401raiddev /dev/md0
402	raid-level	0
403	nr-raid-disks	2
404	nr-spare-disks	0
405	persistent-superblock	0
406	chunk-size	64k
407	device		/dev/hda5
408	raid-disk	0
409	device		/dev/hdb1
410	raid-disk	1
412For linear raid, just change the raid-level above to "raid-level linear", for
413mirrors, change it to "raid-level 1", and for stripe sets with parity, change
414it to "raid-level 5".
416Note for stripe sets with parity you will also need to tell the MD driver
417which parity algorithm to use by specifying the option "parity-algorithm
418which", where you need to replace "which" with the name of the algorithm to
419use (see man 5 raidtab for available algorithms) and you will have to try the
420different available algorithms until you find one that works.  Make sure you
421are working read-only when playing with this as you may damage your data
422otherwise.  If you find which algorithm works please let us know (email the
423linux-ntfs developers list or drop in on
424IRC in channel #ntfs on the network) so we can update this
427Once the raidtab is setup, run for example raid0run -a to start all devices or
428raid0run /dev/md0 to start a particular md device, in this case /dev/md0.
430Then just use the mount command as usual to mount the ntfs volume using for
431example:	mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/myntfsvolume
433It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the md volume has been
434setup correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the
435ntfs volume.
438Limitations when using the Software RAID / MD driver
441Using the md driver will not work properly if any of your NTFS partitions have
442an odd number of sectors.  This is especially important for linear raid as all
443data after the first partition with an odd number of sectors will be offset by
444one or more sectors so if you mount such a partition with write support you
445will cause massive damage to the data on the volume which will only become
446apparent when you try to use the volume again under Windows.
448So when using linear raid, make sure that all your partitions have an even
449number of sectors BEFORE attempting to use it.  You have been warned!
451Even better is to simply use the Device-Mapper for linear raid and then you do
452not have this problem with odd numbers of sectors.
458Note, a technical ChangeLog aimed at kernel hackers is in fs/ntfs/ChangeLog.
461	- Fix a deadlock when mounting read-write.
463	- Fix a deadlock.
465	- Implement page migration support so the kernel can move memory used
466	  by NTFS files and directories around for management purposes.
467	- Add support for writing to sparse files created with Windows XP SP2.
468	- Many minor improvements and bug fixes.
470	- Implement support for sector sizes above 512 bytes (up to the maximum
471	  supported by NTFS which is 4096 bytes).
472	- Enhance support for NTFS volumes which were supported by Windows but
473	  not by Linux due to invalid attribute list attribute flags.
474	- A few minor updates and bug fixes.
476	- Write support is now extended with write(2) being able to both
477	  overwrite existing file data and to extend files.  Also, if a write
478	  to a sparse region occurs, write(2) will fill in the hole.  Note,
479	  mmap(2) based writes still do not support writing into holes or
480	  writing beyond the initialized size.
481	- Write support has a new feature and that is that truncate(2) and
482	  open(2) with O_TRUNC are now implemented thus files can be both made
483	  smaller and larger.
484	- Note: Both write(2) and truncate(2)/open(2) with O_TRUNC still have
485	  limitations in that they
486	  - only provide limited support for highly fragmented files.
487	  - only work on regular, i.e. uncompressed and unencrypted files.
488	  - never create sparse files although this will change once directory
489	    operations are implemented.
490	- Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
492	- Support journals ($LogFile) which have been modified by chkdsk.  This
493	  means users can boot into Windows after we marked the volume dirty.
494	  The Windows boot will run chkdsk and then reboot.  The user can then
495	  immediately boot into Linux rather than having to do a full Windows
496	  boot first before rebooting into Linux and we will recognize such a
497	  journal and empty it as it is clean by definition.
498	- Support journals ($LogFile) with only one restart page as well as
499	  journals with two different restart pages.  We sanity check both and
500	  either use the only sane one or the more recent one of the two in the
501	  case that both are valid.
502	- Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
504	- Stamp the user space journal, aka transaction log, aka $UsnJrnl, if
505	  it is present and active thus telling Windows and applications using
506	  the transaction log that changes can have happened on the volume
507	  which are not recorded in $UsnJrnl.
508	- Detect the case when Windows has been hibernated (suspended to disk)
509	  and if this is the case do not allow (re)mounting read-write to
510	  prevent data corruption when you boot back into the suspended
511	  Windows session.
512	- Implement extension of resident files using the normal file write
513	  code paths, i.e. most very small files can be extended to be a little
514	  bit bigger but not by much.
515	- Add new mount option "disable_sparse".  (See list of mount options
516	  above for details.)
517	- Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors and strange boot sectors
518	  in particular.
519	- Fix various bugs including a nasty deadlock that appeared in recent
520	  kernels (around 2.6.11-2.6.12 timeframe).
522	- Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors.
523	- Fix various bugs and race conditions.
525	- Fix several race conditions and various other bugs.
526	- Many internal cleanups, code reorganization, optimizations, and mft
527	  and index record writing code rewritten to fit in with the changes.
528	- Update Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt with instructions on how to
529	  use the Device-Mapper driver with NTFS ftdisk/LDM raid.
531	- Fix two stupid bugs introduced in 2.1.18 release.
533	- Minor bugfix in handling of the default upcase table.
534	- Many internal cleanups and improvements.  Many thanks to Linus
535	  Torvalds and Al Viro for the help and advice with the sparse
536	  annotations and cleanups.
538	- Fix scheduling latencies at mount time.  (Ingo Molnar)
539	- Fix endianness bug in a little traversed portion of the attribute
540	  lookup code.
542	- Fix bugs in mount time error code paths.
544	- Implement access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
545	- Implement fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2) system calls.
546	- Enable the readv(2) and writev(2) system calls.
547	- Enable access via the asynchronous io (aio) API by adding support for
548	  the aio_read(3) and aio_write(3) functions.
550	- Invalidate quotas when (re)mounting read-write.
551	  NOTE:  This now only leave user space journalling on the side.  (See
552	  note for version 2.1.13, below.)
554	- Fix an NFSd caused deadlock reported by several users.
556	- Implement writing of inodes (access time updates are not implemented
557	  yet so mounting with -o noatime,nodiratime is enforced).
558	- Enable writing out of resident files so you can now overwrite any
559	  uncompressed, unencrypted, nonsparse file as long as you do not
560	  change the file size.
561	- Add housekeeping of ntfs system files so that ntfsfix no longer needs
562	  to be run after writing to an NTFS volume.
563	  NOTE:  This still leaves quota tracking and user space journalling on
564	  the side but they should not cause data corruption.  In the worst
565	  case the charged quotas will be out of date ($Quota) and some
566	  userspace applications might get confused due to the out of date
567	  userspace journal ($UsnJrnl).
569	- Fix the second fix to the decompression engine from the 2.1.9 release
570	  and some further internals cleanups.
572	- Driver internal cleanups.
574	- Force read-only (re)mounting of volumes with unsupported volume
575	  flags and various cleanups.
577	- Fix two bugs in handling of corner cases in the decompression engine.
579	- Read the $MFT mirror and compare it to the $MFT and if the two do not
580	  match, force a read-only mount and do not allow read-write remounts.
581	- Read and parse the $LogFile journal and if it indicates that the
582	  volume was not shutdown cleanly, force a read-only mount and do not
583	  allow read-write remounts.  If the $LogFile indicates a clean
584	  shutdown and a read-write (re)mount is requested, empty $LogFile to
585	  ensure that Windows cannot cause data corruption by replaying a stale
586	  journal after Linux has written to the volume.
587	- Improve time handling so that the NTFS time is fully preserved when
588	  converted to kernel time and only up to 99 nano-seconds are lost when
589	  kernel time is converted to NTFS time.
591	- Enable NFS exporting of mounted NTFS volumes.
593	- Fix minor bug in handling of compressed directories that fixes the
594	  erroneous "du" and "stat" output people reported.
596	- Minor bug fix in attribute list attribute handling that fixes the
597	  I/O errors on "ls" of certain fragmented files found by at least two
598	  people running Windows XP.
600	- Minor update allowing compilation with all gcc versions (well, the
601	  ones the kernel can be compiled with anyway).
603	- Major bug fixes for reading files and volumes in corner cases which
604	  were being hit by Windows 2k/XP users.
606	- Major bug fixes alleviating the hangs in statfs experienced by some
607	  users.
609	- Update handling of compressed files so people no longer get the
610	  frequently reported warning messages about initialized_size !=
611	  data_size.
613	- Add configuration option for developmental write support.
614	- Initial implementation of file overwriting. (Writes to resident files
615	  are not written out to disk yet, so avoid writing to files smaller
616	  than about 1kiB.)
617	- Intercept/abort changes in file size as they are not implemented yet.
619	- Minor bugfixes in error code paths and small cleanups.
621	- Small internal cleanups.
622	- Support for sendfile system call. (Christoph Hellwig)
624	- Massive internal locking changes to mft record locking. Fixes
625	  various race conditions and deadlocks.
626	- Fix ntfs over loopback for compressed files by adding an
627	  optimization barrier. (gcc was screwing up otherwise ?)
628	Thanks go to Christoph Hellwig for pointing these two out:
629	- Remove now unused function fs/ntfs/malloc.h::vmalloc_nofs().
630	- Fix ntfs_free() for ia64 and parisc.
632	- Small internal cleanups.
634	These only affect 32-bit architectures:
635	- Check for, and refuse to mount too large volumes (maximum is 2TiB).
636	- Check for, and refuse to open too large files and directories
637	  (maximum is 16TiB).
639	- Support non-resident directory index bitmaps. This means we now cope
640	  with huge directories without problems.
641	- Fix a page leak that manifested itself in some cases when reading
642	  directory contents.
643	- Internal cleanups.
645	- Fix race condition and improvements in block i/o interface.
646	- Optimization when reading compressed files.
648	- Fix race condition in reading of compressed files.
650	- Cleanups and optimizations.
652	- Fix stupid bug introduced in 2.0.15 in new attribute inode API.
653	- Big internal cleanup replacing the mftbmp access hacks by using the
654	  new attribute inode API instead.
656	- Bug fix in parsing of remount options.
657	- Internal changes implementing attribute (fake) inodes allowing all
658	  attribute i/o to go via the page cache and to use all the normal
659	  vfs/mm functionality.
661	- Internal changes improving run list merging code and minor locking
662	  change to not rely on BKL in ntfs_statfs().
664	- Internal changes towards using iget5_locked() in preparation for
665	  fake inodes and small cleanups to ntfs_volume structure.
667	- Internal cleanups in address space operations made possible by the
668	  changes introduced in the previous release.
670	- Internal updates and cleanups introducing the first step towards
671	  fake inode based attribute i/o.
673	- Microsoft says that the maximum number of inodes is 2^32 - 1. Update
674	  the driver accordingly to only use 32-bits to store inode numbers on
675	  32-bit architectures. This improves the speed of the driver a little.
677	- Change decompression engine to use a single buffer. This should not
678	  affect performance except perhaps on the most heavy i/o on SMP
679	  systems when accessing multiple compressed files from multiple
680	  devices simultaneously.
681	- Minor updates and cleanups.
683	- Remove now obsolete show_inodes and posix mount option(s).
684	- Restore show_sys_files mount option.
685	- Add new mount option case_sensitive, to determine if the driver
686	  treats file names as case sensitive or not.
687	- Mostly drop support for short file names (for backwards compatibility
688	  we only support accessing files via their short file name if one
689	  exists).
690	- Fix dcache aliasing issues wrt short/long file names.
691	- Cleanups and minor fixes.
693	- Just cleanups.
695	- Major bugfix to make compatible with other kernel changes. This fixes
696	  the hangs/oopses on umount.
697	- Locking cleanup in directory operations (remove BKL usage).
699	- Major buffer overflow bug fix.
700	- Minor cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.12.
702	- Cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.11.
704	- Small bug fixes, cleanups, and performance improvements.
706	- Use default fmask of 0177 so that files are no executable by default.
707	  If you want owner executable files, just use fmask=0077.
708	- Update for kernel 2.5.9 but preserve backwards compatibility with
709	  kernel 2.5.7.
710	- Minor bug fixes, cleanups, and updates.
712	- Minor updates, primarily set the executable bit by default on files
713	  so they can be executed.
715	- Started ChangeLog.