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Possible License(s): GPL-2.0, LGPL-2.0, AGPL-1.0
  2     The GNU Free Documentation License 1.1 in DocBook
  3     Markup by Eric Baudais <>
  4     Maintained by the GNOME Documentation Project
  6     Version: 1.0.1
  7     Last Modified: Nov 16, 2000
 10<appendix id="fdl">
 11  <appendixinfo>
 12    <releaseinfo>
 13      Version 1.1, March 2000
 14    </releaseinfo>
 15    <copyright>
 16      <year>2000</year><holder>Free Software Foundation, Inc.</holder>
 17    </copyright>
 18    <legalnotice id="fdl-legalnotice">
 19      <para>
 20	<address>Free Software Foundation, Inc. <street>59 Temple Place,
 21	Suite 330</street>, <city>Boston</city>, <state>MA</state>
 22	<postcode>02111-1307</postcode>  <country>USA</country></address>
 23	Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
 24	license document, but changing it is not allowed.
 25      </para>
 26    </legalnotice>
 27  </appendixinfo>
 28  <title>GNU Free Documentation License</title>
 30  <sect1 id="fdl-preamble">
 31    <title>0. PREAMBLE</title>
 32    <para>
 33      The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or
 34      other written document <quote>free</quote> in the sense of
 35      freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and
 36      redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
 37      commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License
 38      preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for
 39      their work, while not being considered responsible for
 40      modifications made by others.
 41    </para>
 43    <para>
 44      This License is a kind of <quote>copyleft</quote>, which means
 45      that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in
 46      the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License,
 47      which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
 48    </para>
 50    <para>
 51      We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
 52      free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
 53      free program should come with manuals providing the same
 54      freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited
 55      to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work,
 56      regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a
 57      printed book. We recommend this License principally for works
 58      whose purpose is instruction or reference.
 59    </para>
 60  </sect1>
 61  <sect1 id="fdl-section1">
 62    <title>1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS</title>
 63    <para id="fdl-document">
 64      This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
 65      notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
 66      distributed under the terms of this License. The
 67      <quote>Document</quote>, below, refers to any such manual or
 68      work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed
 69      as <quote>you</quote>.
 70    </para>
 72    <para id="fdl-modified">
 73      A <quote>Modified Version</quote> of the Document means any work
 74      containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied
 75      verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another
 76      language.
 77    </para>
 79    <para id="fdl-secondary">
 80      A <quote>Secondary Section</quote> is a named appendix or a
 81      front-matter section of the <link
 82      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> that deals exclusively
 83      with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the
 84      Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related
 85      matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within
 86      that overall subject. (For example, if the Document is in part a
 87      textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
 88      mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
 89      connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
 90      legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
 91      regarding them.
 92    </para>
 94    <para id="fdl-invariant">
 95      The <quote>Invariant Sections</quote> are certain <link
 96      linkend="fdl-secondary"> Secondary Sections</link> whose titles
 97      are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the
 98      notice that says that the <link
 99      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> is released under this
100      License.
101    </para>
103    <para id="fdl-cover-texts">
104      The <quote>Cover Texts</quote> are certain short passages of
105      text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts,
106      in the notice that says that the <link
107      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> is released under this
108      License.
109    </para>
111    <para id="fdl-transparent">
112      A <quote>Transparent</quote> copy of the <link
113      linkend="fdl-document"> Document</link> means a machine-readable
114      copy, represented in a format whose specification is available
115      to the general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited
116      directly and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for
117      images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for
118      drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
119      suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic
120      translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
121      formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
122      whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
123      subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.  A copy
124      that is not <quote>Transparent</quote> is called
125      <quote>Opaque</quote>.
126    </para>
128    <para>
129      Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include
130      plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input
131      format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
132      standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human
133      modification. Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF,
134      proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
135      proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD
136      and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the
137      machine-generated HTML produced by some word processors for
138      output purposes only.
139    </para>
141    <para id="fdl-title-page">
142      The <quote>Title Page</quote> means, for a printed book, the
143      title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to
144      hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in
145      the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title
146      page as such, <quote>Title Page</quote> means the text near the
147      most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
148      beginning of the body of the text.
149    </para>
150  </sect1>
152  <sect1 id="fdl-section2">
153    <title>2. VERBATIM COPYING</title>
154    <para>
155      You may copy and distribute the <link
156      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> in any medium, either
157      commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
158      copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
159      applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that
160      you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this
161      License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or
162      control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or
163      distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for
164      copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you
165      must also follow the conditions in <link
166      linkend="fdl-section3">section 3</link>.
167    </para>
169    <para>
170      You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated
171      above, and you may publicly display copies.
172    </para>
173    </sect1>
175  <sect1 id="fdl-section3">
176    <title>3. COPYING IN QUANTITY</title>
177    <para>
178      If you publish printed copies of the <link
179      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> numbering more than 100,
180      and the Document's license notice requires <link
181      linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Texts</link>, you must enclose
182      the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these
183      Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
184      Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also
185      clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these
186      copies. The front cover must present the full title with all
187      words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add
188      other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes
189      limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the
190      <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> and satisfy these
191      conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other
192      respects.
193    </para>
195    <para>
196      If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
197      legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
198      reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
199      adjacent pages.
200    </para>
202    <para>
203      If you publish or distribute <link
204      linkend="fdl-transparent">Opaque</link> copies of the <link
205      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> numbering more than 100,
206      you must either include a machine-readable <link
207      linkend="fdl-transparent">Transparent</link> copy along with
208      each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a
209      publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a
210      complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added
211      material, which the general network-using public has access to
212      download anonymously at no charge using public-standard network
213      protocols. If you use the latter option, you must take
214      reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
215      copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
216      remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one
217      year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly
218      or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the
219      public.
220    </para>
222    <para>
223      It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors
224      of the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> well before
225      redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance
226      to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
227    </para>
228    </sect1>
230  <sect1 id="fdl-section4">
231    <title>4. MODIFICATIONS</title>
232    <para>
233      You may copy and distribute a <link
234      linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> of the <link
235      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> under the conditions of
236      sections <link linkend="fdl-section2">2</link> and <link
237      linkend="fdl-section3">3</link> above, provided that you release
238      the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the
239      Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
240      licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version
241      to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do
242      these things in the Modified Version:
243    </para>
245    <itemizedlist mark="opencircle">
246      <listitem>
247	<formalpara>
248	  <title>A</title>
249	  <para>
250	    Use in the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
251	    Page</link> (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
252	    from that of the <link
253	    linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, and from those of
254	    previous versions (which should, if there were any, be
255	    listed in the History section of the Document). You may
256	    use the same title as a previous version if the original
257	    publisher of that version gives permission.
258	  </para>
259	</formalpara>
260      </listitem>
262      <listitem>
263	<formalpara>
264	  <title>B</title>
265	  <para>
266	    List on the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
267	    Page</link>, as authors, one or more persons or entities
268	    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
269	    <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>,
270	    together with at least five of the principal authors of
271	    the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> (all of
272	    its principal authors, if it has less than five).
273	  </para>
274	</formalpara>
275      </listitem>
277      <listitem>
278	<formalpara>
279	  <title>C</title>
280	  <para>
281	    State on the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title
282	    Page</link> the name of the publisher of the <link
283	    linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>, as the
284	    publisher.
285	  </para>
286	</formalpara>
287      </listitem>
289      <listitem>
290	<formalpara>
291	  <title>D</title>
292	  <para>
293	    Preserve all the copyright notices of the <link
294	    linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>.
295	  </para>
296	</formalpara>
297      </listitem>
299      <listitem>
300	<formalpara>
301	  <title>E</title>
302	  <para>
303	    Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
304	    adjacent to the other copyright notices.
305	  </para>
306	</formalpara>
307      </listitem>
309      <listitem>
310	<formalpara>
311	  <title>F</title>
312	  <para>
313	    Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a
314	    license notice giving the public permission to use the
315	    <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> under
316	    the terms of this License, in the form shown in the
317	    Addendum below.
318	  </para>
319	</formalpara>
320      </listitem>
322      <listitem>
323	<formalpara>
324	  <title>G</title>
325	  <para>
326	    Preserve in that license notice the full lists of <link
327	    linkend="fdl-invariant"> Invariant Sections</link> and
328	    required <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover
329	    Texts</link> given in the <link
330	    linkend="fdl-document">Document's</link> license notice.
331	  </para>
332	</formalpara>
333      </listitem>
335      <listitem>
336	<formalpara>
337	  <title>H</title>
338	  <para>
339	    Include an unaltered copy of this License.
340	  </para>
341	</formalpara>
342      </listitem>
344      <listitem>
345	<formalpara>
346	  <title>I</title>
347	  <para>
348	    Preserve the section entitled <quote>History</quote>, and
349	    its title, and add to it an item stating at least the
350	    title, year, new authors, and publisher of the <link
351	    linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version </link>as given on
352	    the <link linkend="fdl-title-page">Title Page</link>.  If
353	    there is no section entitled <quote>History</quote> in the
354	    <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, create one
355	    stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the
356	    Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item
357	    describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous
358	    sentence.
359	  </para>
360	</formalpara>
361      </listitem>
363      <listitem>
364	<formalpara>
365	  <title>J</title>
366	  <para>
367	    Preserve the network location, if any, given in the <link
368	    linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> for public access
369	    to a <link linkend="fdl-transparent">Transparent</link>
370	    copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
371	    given in the Document for previous versions it was based
372	    on. These may be placed in the <quote>History</quote>
373	    section.  You may omit a network location for a work that
374	    was published at least four years before the Document
375	    itself, or if the original publisher of the version it
376	    refers to gives permission.
377	  </para>
378	</formalpara>
379      </listitem>
381      <listitem>
382	<formalpara>
383	  <title>K</title>
384	  <para>
385	    In any section entitled <quote>Acknowledgements</quote> or
386	    <quote>Dedications</quote>, preserve the section's title,
387	    and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of
388	    each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
389	    dedications given therein.
390	  </para>
391	</formalpara>
392      </listitem>
394      <listitem>
395	<formalpara>
396	  <title>L</title>
397	  <para>
398	    Preserve all the <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
399	    Sections</link> of the <link
400	    linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>, unaltered in their
401	    text and in their titles.  Section numbers or the
402	    equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
403	  </para>
404	</formalpara>
405      </listitem>
407      <listitem>
408	<formalpara>
409	  <title>M</title>
410	  <para>
411	    Delete any section entitled
412	    <quote>Endorsements</quote>. Such a section may not be
413	    included in the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified
414	    Version</link>.
415	  </para>
416	</formalpara>
417      </listitem>
419      <listitem>
420	<formalpara>
421	  <title>N</title>
422	  <para>
423	    Do not retitle any existing section as
424	    <quote>Endorsements</quote> or to conflict in title with
425	    any <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
426	    Section</link>.
427	  </para>
428	</formalpara>
429      </listitem>
430    </itemizedlist>
432    <para>
433      If the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>
434      includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as
435      <link linkend="fdl-secondary">Secondary Sections</link> and
436      contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your
437      option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To
438      do this, add their titles to the list of <link
439      linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant Sections</link> in the
440      Modified Version's license notice.  These titles must be
441      distinct from any other section titles.
442    </para>
444    <para>
445      You may add a section entitled <quote>Endorsements</quote>,
446      provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your <link
447      linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link> by various
448      parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
449      has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
450      definition of a standard.
451    </para>
453    <para>
454      You may add a passage of up to five words as a <link
455      linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Text</link>, and a passage
456      of up to 25 words as a <link
457      linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover Text</link>, to the end of
458      the list of <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Texts</link>
459      in the <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>.
460      Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text
461      may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one
462      entity. If the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
463      already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
464      added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are
465      acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
466      replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
467      publisher that added the old one.
468    </para>
470    <para>
471      The author(s) and publisher(s) of the <link
472      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> do not by this License
473      give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
474      assert or imply endorsement of any <link
475      linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version </link>.
476    </para>
477  </sect1>
479  <sect1 id="fdl-section5">
480    <title>5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS</title>
481    <para>
482      You may combine the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
483      with other documents released under this License, under the
484      terms defined in <link linkend="fdl-section4">section 4</link>
485      above for modified versions, provided that you include in the
486      combination all of the <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
487      Sections</link> of all of the original documents, unmodified,
488      and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in
489      its license notice.
490    </para>
492    <para>
493      The combined work need only contain one copy of this License,
494      and multiple identical <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
495      Sections</link> may be replaced with a single copy. If there are
496      multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different
497      contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding
498      at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
499      author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique
500      number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the
501      list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
502      work.
503    </para>
505    <para>
506      In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
507      <quote>History</quote> in the various original documents,
508      forming one section entitled <quote>History</quote>; likewise
509      combine any sections entitled <quote>Acknowledgements</quote>,
510      and any sections entitled <quote>Dedications</quote>.  You must
511      delete all sections entitled <quote>Endorsements.</quote>
512    </para>
513    </sect1>
515  <sect1 id="fdl-section6">
516    <title>6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS</title>
517    <para>
518      You may make a collection consisting of the <link
519      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> and other documents
520      released under this License, and replace the individual copies
521      of this License in the various documents with a single copy that
522      is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
523      rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
524      documents in all other respects.
525    </para>
527    <para>
528      You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
529      dispbibute it individually under this License, provided you
530      insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and
531      follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim
532      copying of that document.
533    </para>
534    </sect1>
536  <sect1 id="fdl-section7">
538    <para>
539      A compilation of the <link
540      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> or its derivatives with
541      other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a
542      volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole
543      count as a <link linkend="fdl-modified">Modified Version</link>
544      of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed
545      for the compilation.  Such a compilation is called an
546      <quote>aggregate</quote>, and this License does not apply to the
547      other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document , on
548      account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves
549      derivative works of the Document.  If the <link
550      linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Cover Text</link> requirement of <link
551      linkend="fdl-section3">section 3</link> is applicable to these
552      copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one
553      quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may
554      be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the
555      aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole
556      aggregate.
557    </para>
558    </sect1>
560  <sect1 id="fdl-section8">
561    <title>8. TRANSLATION</title>
562    <para>
563      Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
564      distribute translations of the <link
565      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> under the terms of <link
566      linkend="fdl-section4">section 4</link>. Replacing <link
567      linkend="fdl-invariant"> Invariant Sections</link> with
568      translations requires special permission from their copyright
569      holders, but you may include translations of some or all
570      Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
571      Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this
572      License provided that you also include the original English
573      version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the
574      translation and the original English version of this License,
575      the original English version will prevail.
576    </para>
577    </sect1>
579  <sect1 id="fdl-section9">
580    <title>9. TERMINATION</title>
581    <para>
582      You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the <link
583      linkend="fdl-document">Document</link> except as expressly
584      provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy,
585      modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
586      automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
587      parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
588      License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
589      parties remain in full compliance.
590    </para>
591    </sect1>
593  <sect1 id="fdl-section10">
594    <title>10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE</title>
595    <para>
596      The <ulink type="http"
597      url="">Free Software
598      Foundation</ulink> may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
599      Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
600      will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ
601      in detail to address new problems or concerns. See <ulink
602      type="http"
603      url=""></ulink>.
604    </para>
606    <para>
607      Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
608      number. If the <link linkend="fdl-document">Document</link>
609      specifies that a particular numbered version of this License
610      <quote>or any later version</quote> applies to it, you have the
611      option of following the terms and conditions either of that
612      specified version or of any later version that has been
613      published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If
614      the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
615      you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by
616      the Free Software Foundation.
617    </para>
618  </sect1>
620  <sect1 id="fdl-using">
621    <title>Addendum</title>
622    <para>
623      To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
624      the License in the document and put the following copyright and
625      license notices just after the title page:
626    </para>
628    <blockquote>
629      <para>
630	Copyright &copy; YEAR YOUR NAME.
631      </para>
632      <para>
633	Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
634	document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
635	License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the
636	Free Software Foundation; with the <link
637	linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant Sections</link> being LIST
638	THEIR TITLES, with the <link
639	linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Texts</link> being LIST,
640	and with the <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover
641	Texts</link> being LIST.  A copy of the license is included in
642	the section entitled <quote>GNU Free Documentation
643	License</quote>.
644      </para>
645    </blockquote>
647    <para>
648      If you have no <link linkend="fdl-invariant">Invariant
649      Sections</link>, write <quote>with no Invariant Sections</quote>
650      instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no
651      <link linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Front-Cover Texts</link>, write
652      <quote>no Front-Cover Texts</quote> instead of
653      <quote>Front-Cover Texts being LIST</quote>; likewise for <link
654      linkend="fdl-cover-texts">Back-Cover Texts</link>.
655    </para>
657    <para>
658      If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code,
659      we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your
660      choice of free software license, such as the <ulink type="http"
661      url=""> GNU General Public
662      License</ulink>, to permit their use in free software.
663    </para>
664  </sect1>