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  1.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1993
  2.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
  3.\"
  4.\" %sccs.include.redist.roff%
  5.\"
  6.\"	@(#)error.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 06/06/93
  7.\"
  8.Dd 
  9.Dt ERROR 1
 10.Os BSD 4
 11.Sh NAME
 12.Nm error
 13.Nd analyze and disperse compiler error messages
 14.Sh SYNOPSIS
 15.Nm error
 16.Op Fl n
 17.Op Fl s
 18.Op Fl q
 19.Op Fl v
 20.Op Fl t Ar suffixlist
 21.Op Fl I Ar ignorefile
 22.Op name
 23.Sh DESCRIPTION
 24.Nm Error
 25analyzes and optionally disperses the diagnostic error messages
 26produced by a number of compilers and language processors to the source
 27file and line where the errors occurred.  It can replace the painful,
 28traditional methods of scribbling abbreviations of errors on paper, and
 29permits error messages and source code to be viewed simultaneously
 30without machinations of multiple windows in a screen editor.
 31.Pp
 32Options are:
 33.Bl -tag -width Ds
 34.It Fl n
 35Do
 36.Em not
 37touch any files; all error messages are sent to the
 38standard output.
 39.It Fl q
 40The user is
 41.Ar queried
 42whether s/he wants to touch the file.
 43A ``y'' or ``n'' to the question is necessary to continue.
 44Absence of the
 45.Fl q
 46option implies that all referenced files
 47(except those referring to discarded error messages)
 48are to be touched.
 49.It Fl v
 50After all files have been touched,
 51overlay the visual editor
 52.Xr \&vi 1
 53with it set up to edit all files touched,
 54and positioned in the first touched file at the first error.
 55If
 56.Xr \&vi 1
 57can't be found, try
 58.Xr \&ex 1
 59or
 60.Xr \&ed 1
 61from standard places.
 62.It Fl t
 63Take the following argument as a suffix list.
 64Files whose suffixes do not appear in the suffix list are not touched.
 65The suffix list is dot separated, and ``*'' wildcards work.
 66Thus the suffix list:
 67.Pp
 68.Dl ".c.y.foo*.h"
 69.Pp
 70allows
 71.Nm error
 72to touch files ending with ``.c'', ``.y'', ``.foo*'' and ``.y''.
 73.It Fl s
 74Print out
 75.Em statistics
 76regarding the error categorization.
 77Not too useful.
 78.El
 79.Pp
 80.Nm Error
 81looks at the error messages,
 82either from the specified file
 83.Ar name
 84or from the standard input,
 85and attempts to determine which
 86language processor produced each error message,
 87determines the source file and line number to which the error message refers,
 88determines if the error message is to be ignored or not,
 89and inserts the (possibly slightly modified) error message into
 90the source file as a comment on the line preceding to which the
 91line the error message refers.
 92Error messages which can't be categorized by language processor
 93or content are not inserted into any file,
 94but are sent to the standard output.
 95.Nm Error
 96touches source files only after all input has been read.
 97.Pp
 98.Nm Error
 99is intended to be run
100with its standard input
101connected via a pipe to the error message source.
102Some language processors put error messages on their standard error file;
103others put their messages on the standard output.
104Hence, both error sources should be piped together into
105.Nm error .
106For example, when using the
107.Xr csh 1
108syntax,
109.Pp
110.Dl make \-s lint \&| error \-q \-v
111.Pp
112will analyze all the error messages produced
113by whatever programs
114.Xr make 1
115runs when making lint.
116.Pp
117.Nm Error
118knows about the error messages produced by:
119.Xr make 1 ,
120.Xr \&cc 1 ,
121.Xr cpp 1 ,
122.Xr ccom 1 ,
123.Xr \&as 1 ,
124.Xr \&ld 1 ,
125.Xr lint 1 ,
126.Xr \&pi 1 ,
127.Xr \&pc 1 ,
128.Xr f77 1 ,
129and
130.Em DEC Western Research Modula\-2 .
131.Nm Error
132knows a standard format for error messages produced by
133the language processors,
134so is sensitive to changes in these formats.
135For all languages except
136.Em Pascal ,
137error messages are restricted to be on one line.
138Some error messages refer to more than one line in more than
139one files;
140.Nm error
141will duplicate the error message and insert it at
142all of the places referenced.
143.Pp
144.Nm Error
145will do one of six things with error messages.
146.Bl -tag -width Em synchronize
147.It Em synchronize
148Some language processors produce short errors describing
149which file it is processing.
150.Nm Error
151uses these to determine the file name for languages that
152don't include the file name in each error message.
153These synchronization messages are consumed entirely by
154.Nm error .
155.It Em discard
156Error messages from
157.Xr lint 1
158that refer to one of the two
159.Xr lint 1
160libraries,
161.Pa /usr/libdata/lint/llib-lc
162and
163.Pa /usr/libdata/lint/llib-port
164are discarded,
165to prevent accidently touching these libraries.
166Again, these error messages are consumed entirely by
167.Nm error .
168.It Em nullify
169Error messages from
170.Xr lint 1
171can be nullified if they refer to a specific function,
172which is known to generate diagnostics which are not interesting.
173Nullified error messages are not inserted into the source file,
174but are written to the standard output.
175The names of functions to ignore are taken from
176either the file named
177.Pa .errorrc
178in the users's home directory,
179or from the file named by the
180.Fl I
181option.
182If the file does not exist,
183no error messages are nullified.
184If the file does exist, there must be one function
185name per line.
186.It Em not file specific
187Error messages that can't be intuited are grouped together,
188and written to the standard output before any files are touched.
189They will not be inserted into any source file.
190.It Em file specific
191Error message that refer to a specific file,
192but to no specific line,
193are written to the standard output when
194that file is touched.
195.It Em true errors
196Error messages that can be intuited are candidates for
197insertion into the file to which they refer.
198.El
199.Pp
200Only true error messages are candidates for inserting into
201the file they refer to.
202Other error messages are consumed entirely by
203.Nm error
204or are written to the standard output.
205.Nm Error
206inserts the error messages into the source file on the line
207preceding the line the language processor found in error.
208Each error message is turned into a one line comment for the
209language,
210and is internally flagged
211with the string ``###'' at
212the beginning of the error,
213and ``%%%'' at the end of the error.
214This makes pattern searching for errors easier with an editor,
215and allows the messages to be easily removed.
216In addition, each error message contains the source line number
217for the line the message refers to.
218A reasonably formatted source program can be recompiled
219with the error messages still in it,
220without having the error messages themselves cause future errors.
221For poorly formatted source programs in free format languages,
222such as C or Pascal,
223it is possible to insert a comment into another comment,
224which can wreak havoc with a future compilation.
225To avoid this, programs with comments and source
226on the same line should be formatted
227so that language statements appear before comments.
228.Pp
229.Nm Error
230catches interrupt and terminate signals,
231and if in the insertion phase,
232will orderly terminate what it is doing.
233.Sh FILES
234.Bl -tag -width ~/.errorrc -compact
235.It Pa ~/.errorrc
236function names to ignore for
237.Xr lint 1
238error messages
239.It Pa /dev/tty
240user's teletype
241.El
242.Sh HISTORY
243The
244.Nm error
245command
246appeared in
247.Bx 4.0 .
248.Sh AUTHOR
249Robert Henry
250.Sh BUGS
251.Pp
252Opens the teletype directly to do user querying.
253.Pp
254Source files with links make a new copy of the file with
255only one link to it.
256.Pp
257Changing a language processor's format of error messages
258may cause
259.Nm error
260to not understand the error message.
261.Pp
262.Nm Error ,
263since it is purely mechanical,
264will not filter out subsequent errors caused by `floodgating'
265initiated by one syntactically trivial error.
266Humans are still much better at discarding these related errors.
267.Pp
268Pascal error messages belong after the lines affected
269(error puts them before).  The alignment of the `\\' marking
270the point of error is also disturbed by
271.Nm error .
272.Pp
273.Nm Error
274was designed for work on
275.Tn CRT Ns 's
276at reasonably high speed.
277It is less pleasant on slow speed terminals, and has never been
278used on hardcopy terminals.