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13		<h3>Trusted Hosts and Groups</h3>
14		<img src="pic/alice23.gif" alt="gif" align="left"><a href="http://www.eecis.udel.edu/%7emills/pictures.html">from <i>Alice's Adventures in Wonderland</i>, Lewis Carroll</a>
15		<p>Alice holds the key.</p>
16		<p>Last update: <csobj format="ShortTime" h="25" locale="00000409" region="0" t="DateTime" w="61">00:12</csobj> UTC <csobj format="LongDate" h="25" locale="00000409" region="0" t="DateTime" w="299">Tuesday, November 08, 2005</csobj></p>
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18		<h4>Related Links</h4>
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20		<h4>Table of Contents</h4>
21		<ul>
22			<li class="inline"><a href="#idexp">Identity Schemes</a>
23			<li class="inline"><a href="#exam">Example</a>
24			<li class="inline"><a href="#cmd">Command Line Options</a>
25			<li class="inline"><a href="#rand">Random Seed File</a>
26			<li class="inline"><a href="#fmt">Cryptographic Data Files</a>
27			<li class="inline"><a href="#bug">Bugs</a>
28		</ul>
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30		<h4 id="synop">Trusted Hosts and Groups</h4>
31		<p>Each cryptographic configuration involves selection of a signature scheme and identification scheme, called a cryptotype, as explained in the <a href="authopt.html">Authentication Options</a> page. The default cryptotype uses RSA encryption, MD5 message digest and TC identification. First, configure a NTP subnet including one or more low-stratum trusted hosts from which all other hosts derive synchronization directly or indirectly. Trusted hosts have trusted certificates; all other hosts have nontrusted certificates. These hosts will automatically and dynamically build authoritative certificate trails to one or more trusted hosts. A trusted group is the set of all hosts that have, directly or indirectly, a certificate trail ending at a trusted host. The trail is defined by static configuration file entries or dynamic means described on the <a href="manyopt.html">Automatic NTP Configuration Options</a> page.</p>
32		<p>On each trusted host as root, change to the keys directory. To insure a fresh fileset, remove all <tt>ntpkey</tt> files. Then run <tt>ntp-keygen -T</tt> to generate keys and a trusted certificate. On all other hosts do the same, but leave off the <tt>-T</tt> flag to generate keys and nontrusted certificates. When complete, start the NTP daemons beginning at the lowest stratum and working up the tree. It may take some time for Autokey to instantiate the certificate trails throughout the subnet, but setting up the environment is completely automatic.</p>
33		<p>If it is necessary to use a different sign key or different digest/signature scheme than the default, run <tt>ntp-keygen</tt> with the <tt>-S</tt><i><tt> type</tt></i> option, where <i><tt>type</tt></i> is either <tt>RSA</tt> or <tt>DSA</tt>. The most often need to do this is when a DSA-signed certificate is used. If it is necessary to use a different certificate scheme than the default, run <tt>ntp-keygen</tt> with the <tt>-c <i>scheme</i></tt> option and selected <i><tt>scheme</tt></i> as needed. If <tt>ntp-keygen</tt> is run again without these options, it generates a new certificate using the same scheme and sign key.</p>
34		<p>After setting up the environment it is advisable to update certificates from time to time, if only to extend the validity interval. Simply run <tt>ntp-keygen</tt> with the same flags as before to generate new certificates using existing keys. However, if the host or sign key is changed, <tt>ntpd</tt> should be restarted. When ntpd is restarted, it loads any new files and restarts the protocol. Other dependent hosts will continue as usual until signatures are refreshed, at which time the protocol is restarted.</p>
35		<h4 id="idexp">Identity Schemes</h4>
36		<p>As mentioned on the Autonomous Authentication page, the default TC identity scheme is vulnerable to a middleman attack. However, there are more secure identity schemes available, including PC, IFF, GQ and MV described on the <a href="http://www.eecis.udel.edu/%7emills/keygen.html">Identification Schemes</a> page. These schemes are based on a TA, one or more trusted hosts and some number of nontrusted hosts. Trusted hosts prove identity using values provided by the TA, while the remaining hosts prove identity using values provided by a trusted host and certificate trails that end on that host. The name of a trusted host is also the name of its sugroup and also the subject and issuer name on its trusted certificate. The TA is not necessarily a trusted host in this sense, but often is.</p>
37		<p>In some schemes there are separate keys for servers and clients. A server can also be a client of another server, but a client can never be a server for another client. In general, trusted hosts and nontrusted hosts that operate as both server and client have parameter files that contain both server and client keys. Hosts that operate only as clients have key files that contain only client keys.</p>
38		<p>The PC scheme supports only one trusted host in the group. On trusted host <i>alice</i> run <tt>ntp-keygen -P -p <i>password</i></tt> to generate the host key file <tt>ntpkey_RSAkey_<i>alice.filestamp</i></tt> and trusted private certificate file <tt>ntpkey_RSA-MD5_cert_<i>alice.filestamp</i></tt>. Copy both files to all group hosts; they replace the files which would be generated in other schemes. On each host <i>bob</i> install a soft link from the generic name <tt>ntpkey_host_<i>bob</i></tt> to the host key file and soft link <tt>ntpkey_cert_<i>bob</i></tt> to the private certificate file. Note the generic links are on <i>bob</i>, but point to files generated by trusted host <i>alice</i>. In this scheme it is not possible to refresh either the keys or certificates without copying them to all other hosts in the group.</p>
39		<p>For the IFF scheme proceed as in the TC scheme to generate keys and certificates for all group hosts, then for every trusted host in the group, generate the IFF&nbsp;parameter file. On trusted host <i>alice</i> run <tt>ntp-keygen -T </tt><tt>-I -p <i>password</i></tt> to produce her parameter file <tt>ntpkey_IFFpar_<i>alice.filestamp</i></tt>, which includes both server and client keys. Copy this file to all group hosts that operate as both servers and clients and install a soft link from the generic <tt>ntpkey_iff_<i>alice</i></tt> to this file. If there are no hosts restricted to operate only as clients, there is nothing further to do. As the IFF scheme is independent of keys and certificates, these files can be refreshed as needed.</p>
40		<p>If a rogue client has the parameter file, it could masquerade as a legitimate server and present a middleman threat. To eliminate this threat, the client keys can be extracted from the parameter file and distributed to all restricted clients. After generating the parameter file, on <i>alice</i> run <tt>ntp-keygen</tt> <tt>-e</tt> and pipe the output to a file or mail program. Copy or mail this file to all restricted clients. On these clients install a soft link from the generic <tt>ntpkey_iff_<i>alice</i></tt> to this file. To further protect the integrity of the keys, each file can be encrypted with a secret password.</p>
41		<p>For the GQ scheme proceed as in the TC scheme to generate keys and certificates for all group hosts, then for every trusted host in the group, generate the IFF parameter file. On trusted host <i>alice</i> run <tt>ntp-keygen -T </tt><tt>-G -p <i>password</i></tt> to produce her parameter file <tt>ntpkey_GQpar_<i>alice.filestamp</i></tt>, which includes both server and client keys. Copy this file to all group hosts and install a soft link from the generic <tt>ntpkey_gq_<i>alice</i></tt> to this file. In addition, on each host <i>bob</i> install a soft link from generic <tt>ntpkey_gq_<i>bob</i></tt> to this file. As the GQ scheme updates the GQ parameters file and certificate at the same time, keys and certificates can be regenerated as needed.</p>
42		<p>For the MV scheme, proceed as in the TC scheme to generate keys and certificates for all group hosts. For illustration assume <i>trish</i> is the TA, <i>alice</i> one of several trusted hosts and <i>bob</i> one of her clients. On TA <i>trish</i> run <tt>ntp-keygen </tt><tt>-V&nbsp;<i>n</i> -p <i>password</i></tt>, where <i>n</i> is the number of revokable keys (typically 5) to produce the parameter file <tt>ntpkeys_MVpar_<i>trish.filestamp </i></tt>and client key files <tt>ntpkeys_MVkey<i>d</i>_<i>trish.filestamp</i></tt> where <i><tt>d</tt></i> is the key number (0 &lt; <i><tt>d</tt></i> &lt; <i>n</i>). Copy the parameter file to <i>alice</i> and install a soft link from the generic <tt>ntpkey_mv_<i>alice</i></tt> to this file. Copy one of the client key files to <i>alice</i> for later distribution to her clients. It doesn't matter which client key file goes to <i>alice</i>, since they all work the same way. <i>Alice</i> copies the client key file to all of her cliens. On client <i>bob</i> install a soft link from generic <tt>ntpkey_mvkey_<i>bob </i></tt>to the client key file. As the MV scheme is independent of keys and certificates, these files can be refreshed as needed.</p>
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