PageRenderTime 48ms CodeModel.GetById 27ms app.highlight 13ms RepoModel.GetById 1ms app.codeStats 0ms

/contrib/groff/contrib/mom/momdoc/definitions.html

https://bitbucket.org/freebsd/freebsd-head/
HTML | 768 lines | 705 code | 63 blank | 0 comment | 0 complexity | 3aef14acd6495967829bea5452045f0d MD5 | raw file
  1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN">
  2<html>
  3<head>
  4<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1">
  5<title>Mom -- Definitions and Terms</title>
  6</head>
  7<body bgcolor="#dfdfdf">
  8
  9<!====================================================================>
 10
 11<a href="using.html#TOP">Next</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
 12<a href="intro.html#TOP">Prev</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
 13<a href="toc.html">Back to Table of Contents</a>
 14<p>
 15<a name="TOP"></a>
 16<a name="TERMS">
 17	<h1 align="center"><u>DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THIS MANUAL</u></h1>
 18</a>
 19
 20<a href="#TERMS_TYPESETTING">Typesetting Terms</a>
 21<br>
 22<a href="#TERMS_GROFF">Groff Terms</a>
 23<br>
 24<a href="#TERMS_MOM">Mom Document Processing Terms</a>
 25<p>
 26I use a number of typesetting-specific and groff-specific terms
 27throughout this documentation, as well as a few terms that apply
 28to <strong>mom</strong> herself.  To make life easier, I'll explain
 29them here.  Refer back to this section should you encounter a word
 30or concept you're not familiar with.
 31<p>
 32<hr>
 33
 34<a name="TERMS_TYPESETTING">
 35	<h2><u>Typesetting terms</u></h2>
 36</a>
 37
 38<ul>
 39	<li><a href="#TERMS_ASCENDER">Ascender</a>
 40	<li><a href="#TERMS_BASELINE">Baseline</a>
 41	<li><a href="#TERMS_BALLOTBOX">Ballot box</a>
 42	<li><a href="#TERMS_BULLET">Bullet</a>
 43	<li><a href="#TERMS_CAPHEIGHT">Cap-height</a>
 44	<li><a href="#TERMS_DESCENDER">Descender</a>
 45	<li><a href="#TERMS_DISCRETIONARYHYPHEN">Discretionary hyphen</a>
 46	<li><a href="#TERMS_DROPCAP">Drop cap</a>
 47	<li><a href="#TERMS_EM">Em/en</a>
 48	<li><a href="#TERMS_FAMILY">Family</a>
 49	<li><a href="#TERMS_FIGURESPACE">Figure space/Digit space</a>
 50	<li><a href="#TERMS_FIXEDWIDTHSPACE">Fixed width space</a>
 51	<li><a href="#TERMS_FONT">Font</a>
 52	<li><a href="#TERMS_FORCE">Force justify</a>
 53	<li><a href="#TERMS_JUST">Justify/justification</a>
 54	<li><a href="#TERMS_GUTTER">Gutter</a>
 55	<li><a href="#TERMS_KERN">Kerning</a>
 56	<li><a href="#TERMS_KERNUNIT">Kern Units</a>
 57	<li><a href="#TERMS_LEADING">Lead/leading</a>    
 58	<li><a href="#TERMS_LEADER">Leaders</a>
 59	<li><a href="#TERMS_LIGATURES">Ligature</a>    
 60	<li><a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">Picas/Points</a>
 61	<li><a href="#TERMS_PS">Point Size</a>
 62	<li><a href="#TERMS_QUAD">Quad</a>
 63	<li><a href="#TERMS_RAG">Rag</a>
 64	<li><a href="#TERMS_SHAPE">Shape</a>
 65	<li><a href="#TERMS_SOLID">Solid/set solid</a>
 66	<li><a href="#TERMS_TRACKKERNING">Track kerning/Line kerning</a>
 67	<li><a href="#TERMS_UNBREAKABLESPACE">Unbreakable space</a>
 68	<li><a href="#TERMS_WEIGHT">Weight</a>
 69	<li><a href="#TERMS_WORDSPACE">Word space</a>
 70	<li><a href="#TERMS_XHEIGHT">x-height</a>
 71</ul>
 72
 73<dl>
 74<dt><a name="TERMS_ASCENDER"><em>Ascender</em></a>
 75<dd>The portion of a letter that extends above the bowl.  For example,
 76the letters a, c, and e have no ascenders.  The letters b, d, and h
 77do.
 78
 79<dt><a name="TERMS_BASELINE"><em>Baseline</em></a>
 80<dd>The imaginary line on which the bottoms of capital letters and the
 81bowls of lower case letters rest.
 82
 83<dt><a name="TERMS_BALLOTBOX"><em>Ballot box</em></a>
 84<dd>An unfilled square, usually
 85<a href="#TERMS_CAPHEIGHT">cap-height</a>
 86in size, typically placed beside items in a checklist.
 87
 88<dt><a name="TERMS_BULLET"><em>Bullet</em></a>
 89<dd>A small, filled circle typically found beside items or points in
 90a list.
 91
 92<dt><a name="TERMS_CAPHEIGHT"><em>Cap-height</em></a>
 93<dd>The height of the tallest capital letter in a given
 94<a href="#TERMS_FONT">font</a>
 95at the current
 96<a href="#TERMS_PS">point size</a>.
 97
 98<dt><a name="TERMS_DESCENDER"><em>Descender</em></a>
 99<dd>The portion of a letter that extends beneath the
100<a href="#TERMS_BASELINE">baseline</a>
101(j, q, y are letters with descenders).
102
103<dt><a name="TERMS_DISCRETIONARYHYPHEN"><em>Discretionary hyphen</em></a>
104<dd>A symbol inserted between two syllables of a word that indicates to a
105typesetting program the legal hyphenation points in the word.  Normally,
106if hyphenation is turned on, groff knows where to hyphenate words.
107However, hyphenation being what it is (in English, at any rate),
108groff doesn't always get it right.  Discretionary hyphens make sure
109it does.  In the event that the word doesn't need to be hyphenated
110at all, groff leaves them alone.  In groff, the discretionary hyphen is
111entered with
112<p>
113<pre>
114	\%
115</pre>
116
117(backslash followed by a percent).
118
119<dt><a name="TERMS_DROPCAP"><em>Drop cap</em></a>
120<dd>A large, usually upper-case letter that introduces the first
121paragraph of a document or section thereof.  The top of the drop
122cap usually lines up with the top of the first line of the
123paragraph, and typically &quot;drops&quot; several lines lower.
124Text adjacent to the drop cap is indented to the right of the
125letter until the bottom of the drop cap is reached, at which
126point text reverts to the left margin.
127
128<dt><a name="TERMS_EM"><em>Em/en</em></a>
129<dd>An em is a relative measurement equal to the width of the
130letter M at a given
131<a href="#TERMS_PS">point size</a>
132in a given
133<a href="#TERMS_FONT">font</a>.
134Since most Ms are designed square, an em is usually (but sometimes
135erroneously) considered to be the same size as the current point
136size (i.e. if the point size of the type is 12, one em equals 12
137points).  An en is equal to the width of a letter N (historically
1382/3 of an em, although groff treats an en as 1/2 of an em).
139Typically, ems and ens are used to measure indents, or to define the
140length of dashes (long hyphens).
141
142<dt><a name="TERMS_FAMILY"><em>Family</em></a>
143<dd>The collective name by which a collection of
144<a href="#TERMS_FONT">fonts</a>
145are known, e.g.  Helvetica, Times Roman, Garamond.
146
147<dt><a name="TERMS_FIGURESPACE"><em>Figure space/Digit space</em></a>
148<dd>A
149<a href="#TERMS_FIXEDWIDTHSPACE">fixed width space</a>
150that has the width of one digit.  Used for aligning numerals in,
151say, columns or numbered lists.  In groff, the figure space is
152entered with
153<p>
154<pre>
155	\0
156</pre>
157
158(backslash followed by a zero).
159
160<dt><a name="TERMS_FIXEDWIDTHSPACE"><em>Fixed width space</em></a>
161<dd>Equal to
162<a href="#TERMS_WORDSPACE">word space</a>,
163but does not expand or contract when text is
164<a href="#TERMS_JUST">justified</a>.
165In groff, fixed width space is entered with
166<p>
167<pre>
168	\&lt;space&gt;
169</pre>
170
171where &lt;space&gt; means "hit the spacebar on your keyboard."
172
173<dt><a name="TERMS_FONT"><em>Font</em></a>
174<dd>The specific
175<a href="#TERMS_WEIGHT">weight</a>
176and
177<a href="#TERMS_SHAPE">shape</a>
178of type within a
179<a href="#TERMS_FAMILY">family</a>,
180e.g. light, medium, bold (which are weights), and roman, italic,
181condensed (which are shapes).  By default, groff knows of four fonts
182within its default set of families: R (medium roman), I (medium
183italic), B (bold roman) and BI (bold italic).
184
185<dt><a name="TERMS_FORCE"><em>Force justify
186</em></a>
187<dd>Sometimes, in
188<a href="#TERMS_JUST">justified</a>
189text, a line needs to be broken short of the right margin.  Force
190justifying means telling a typesetting program (like groff) that you
191want the line broken early AND that you want the line's word spacing
192stretched to force the line flush with the right margin.
193
194<dt><a name="TERMS_GUTTER"><em>Gutter</em></a>
195<dd>The vertical whitespace separating columns of type.
196
197<dt><a name="TERMS_JUST"><em>Justify/justification</em></a>
198<dd>Lines of type are justified when they're flush at both the left and
199right margins.  Justification is the act of making both margins flush.
200Some people use the terms "left justified" and "right justified"
201to mean type where only the left (or right) margins align.  I don't.
202See
203<a href="#TERMS_QUAD">quad</a>.
204
205<dt><a name="TERMS_KERN"><em>Kerning</em></a>
206<dd>Moving pairs of letters closer together to remove excess
207whitespace between them.  In the days before phototypesetting,
208type was set from small, rectangular blocks of wood or metal, each
209block having exactly one letter.  Because the edge of each block
210determined the edge of each letter, certain letter combinations (TA,
211for example) didn't fit together well and had to be mortised by hand
212to bring them visually closer.  Modern typesetting systems usually
213take care of kerning automatically, but they're far from perfect.
214Professional typesetters still devote a lot of time to fitting letters
215and punctuation together properly.
216
217<dt><a name="TERMS_KERNUNIT"><em>Kern Units</em></a>
218<dd>A relative distance equal to 1/36 of the current
219<a href="#TERMS_PS">point size</a>.
220Used between individual letters
221for
222<a href="#TERMS_KERN">kerning</a>.
223Different typesetting systems use different values (1/54 is
224popular), and sometimes call kern units by a different name.
225<p>
226<strong>Experts:
227<br></strong>A kern unit has nothing to do with groff
228machine units.
229
230<dt><a name="TERMS_LEADING"><em>Lead/leading</em></a>
231<dd>The distance from the
232<a href="#TERMS_BASELINE">baseline</a>
233of one line of type to the line of type immediately beneath it.
234Pronounced "ledding."  Also called line spacing.  Usually measured
235in
236<a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>.
237<p>
238<em>In case you're interested...</em> In previous centuries,
239lines of type were separated by thin strips of--you guessed
240it--lead.  Lines of type that had no lead between them were said to
241be &quot;set solid.&quot; Once you began separating them with strips
242of lead, they were said to be &quot;leaded&quot;, and the spacing was
243expressed in terms of the number of
244<a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>
245of lead.  For this reason, &quot;leading&quot; and &quot;line
246spacing&quot; aren't, historically speaking, synonymous.  If type
247was set 10 on 12, for example, the leading was 2 points, not 12.
248Nowadays, however, the two terms are used interchangeably to mean
249the distance from baseline to baseline.
250
251<dt><a name="TERMS_LEADER"><em>Leaders</em></a>
252<dd>Single characters used to fill lines, usually to their end.
253So called because they &quot;lead&quot; the eye from one element
254of the page to another.  For example, in the following (brief)
255Table of Contents, the periods (dots) are leaders.
256<p>
257<pre>
258	Foreword............... 2
259	Chapter 1.............. 5
260	Chapter 2.............. 38
261	Chapter 3.............. 60
262</pre>
263
264<dt><a name="TERMS_LIGATURES"><em>Ligature</em></a>
265<dd>Ligatures are letters joined together to form a single character.
266The commonest are fi, fl, ff, ffi and ffl.  Others are ae and oe.
267Occasionally, one sees an st ligature, but this is archaic and
268quite rare.
269
270<dt><a name="TERMS_PICASPOINTS"><em>Picas/Points</em></a>
271<dd>There are twelve points in a pica, and six picas in an inch
272(hence 72 points to the inch).  In the same way that gem-dealers
273have always used their own system of measurement for weight (carats),
274typographers have always used their own system of measurement for type.
275
276<dt><a name="TERMS_PS"><em>Point Size</em></a>
277<dd>The nominal size of type, measured in
278<a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>
279from the bottom of the longest
280<a href="#TERMS_DESCENDER">descender</a>
281to the top of the highest
282<a href="#TERMS_ASCENDER">ascender</a>.
283In reality, type is always fractionally smaller than its point size.
284
285<dt><a name="TERMS_QUAD"><em>Quad</em></a>
286<dd>When only one margin of type is flush, lines of type are quadded in
287the direction of the flush margin.  Therefore, quad left means the
288left margin is flush, the right isn't.  Quad right means the right
289margin is flush, the left isn't.  Quad centre means neither the left
290nor the right margin is flush; rather, lines of type are quadded on
291both sides so that type appears centred on the page.
292
293<dt><a name="TERMS_RAG"><em>Rag</em></a>
294<dd>Describes a margin that isn't flush.  Rag right means the right
295margin isn't flush.  Rag left means the left margin isn't flush.
296The expression "flush left/rag right" is sometimes used to describe
297type that is
298<a href="#TERMS_QUAD">quadded</a>
299left.
300
301<dt><a name="TERMS_SHAPE"><em>Shape</em></a>
302<dd>The degree of slant and/or the width of characters.
303(Technically speaking, this is not a proper typesetting term;
304however, it may help clarify some concepts presented in these
305documents.)
306<p>
307Some typical shapes are:
308<ul>
309	<li>&quot;Roman&quot;, which has no slant, and has letterforms of
310		average width
311	<li>&quot;Italic&quot;, which is slanted, and has letterforms
312		of average width
313	<li>&quot;Condensed&quot;, which has no slant, but has
314		letterforms narrower than the average represented by Roman
315	<li>&quot;Condensed Italic&quot;, which is slanted, with letterforms narrower
316		than average
317</ul>
318The term
319<a href="#TERMS_FONT">font</a>,
320as it is used in these documents, refers to a combination of
321<a href="#TERMS_WEIGHT">weight</a>
322and shape.
323
324<dt><a name="TERMS_SOLID"><em>Solid/set solid</em></a>
325<dd>When no
326<a href="#TERMS_LEADING">lead</a>
327is added between lines of type (i.e. the
328<a href="#TERMS_PS">point size</a>
329and linespacing are the same), the lines are said to be &quot;set
330solid.&quot;
331
332<dt><a name="TERMS_TRACKKERNING"><em>Track kerning/Line kerning</em></a>
333<dd>Sometimes, it's advantageous to increase or decrease the amount of
334space between every letter in a line by an equal (usually small)
335amount, in order to fit more (or fewer) characters on the line.
336The correct term is letter spacing, but track kerning and line kerning
337(and sometimes, just "kerning") have come to mean the same thing.
338
339<dt><a name="TERMS_UNBREAKABLESPACE"><em>Unbreakable space</em></a>
340<dd>Equal to
341<a href="#TERMS_WORDSPACE">word space</a>,
342however words separated by an unbreakable space will always be kept
343together on the same line.  Expands and contracts like word space.
344Useful for proper names, which one should, whenever possible, avoid
345splitting onto two lines.  In groff, unbreakable space is entered
346with
347<p>
348<pre>
349	\~
350</pre>
351
352(backslash followed by a tilde).
353
354<dt><a name="TERMS_WEIGHT"><em>Weight</em></a>
355<dd>The thickness of the strokes of letterforms.  Medium and Book
356have average thicknesses and are the weights used for most of the
357text in books, magazines, newspapers, etc.  Light has strokes
358slightly thinner than Medium or Book, but is still acceptable for
359most text.  Semibold, Bold, Heavy and Black all have strokes of
360increasing thickness, making them suitable for heads, subheads,
361headlines and the like.
362
363<dt><a name="TERMS_WORDSPACE"><em>Word space</em></a>
364<dd>The amount of whitespace between words.  When text is
365<a href="#TERMS_JUST">justified</a>,
366word space expands or contracts to make the margins flush.
367
368<dt><a name="TERMS_XHEIGHT"><em>x-height</em></a>
369<dd>The height of a lower case letter x in a given font at a given
370point size.  Generally used to mean the average height of the bowl
371of lower case letters.
372</dl>
373<p>
374<hr>
375
376<a name="TERMS_GROFF">
377	<h2><u>Groff terms</u></h2>
378</a>
379
380<ul>
381	<li><a href="#TERMS_ALIAS">Alias</a>
382	<li><a href="#TERMS_ARGUMENTS">Arguments</a>
383	<li><a href="#TERMS_COMMENTLINES">Comment lines</a>
384	<li><a href="#TERMS_CONTROLLINES">Control Lines</a>
385	<li><a href="#TERMS_FILLED">Filled lines</a>
386	<li><a href="#TERMS_INLINES">Inline escapes</a>
387	<li><a href="#TERMS_INPUTLINE">Input line</a>
388	<li><a href="#TERMS_MACROS">Macros</a>
389	<li><a href="#TERMS_UNITS">Machine units</a>
390	<li><a href="#TERMS_NUMERICARGUMENT">Numeric argument</a>
391	<li><a href="#TERMS_OUTPUTLINE">Output line</a>
392	<li><a href="#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">Primitives</a>
393	<li><a href="#TERMS_STRINGARGUMENT">String Argument</a>
394	<li><a href="#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">Unit of measure</a>
395	<li><a href="#TERMS_ZEROWIDTHCHARACTER">Zero-width character</a>
396</ul>
397<dl>
398
399<dt><a name="TERMS_ALIAS"><em>Alias</em></a>
400<dd>A
401<a href="#TERMS_MACROS">macro</a>
402invoked by a name different from its &quot;official&quot;
403name.  For example, the official name of the macro to change
404<a href="#TERMS_FAMILY">family</a>
405is <strong>FAMILY</strong>.  Its alias is
406<strong>FAM</strong>.  Aliases may be created for any macro (via the
407<a href="goodies.html#ALIAS">ALIAS</a>
408macro) provided the alias uses a name not already taken
409by the <strong>mom</strong> macros or one of the groff
410<a href="#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">primitives</a>.
411For a complete list of words or names you must not use, see the
412<a href="reserved.html#RESERVED">list of reserved words</a>.
413
414<dt><a name="TERMS_ARGUMENTS"><em>Arguments</em></a>
415<dd>Parameters or information needed by a
416<a href="#TERMS_MACROS">macro</a>
417to do its job.  For example, in the macro
418<p>
419<pre>
420	.PT_SIZE 12
421</pre>
422
423&quot;12&quot; is the argument.  In the macro
424<p>
425<pre>
426	.QUAD LEFT
427</pre>
428
429LEFT is the argument.  Arguments are separated from macros by spaces.
430Some macros require several arguments; each is separated by a space.
431
432<dt><a name="TERMS_COMMENTLINES"><em>Comment Lines</em></a>
433<dd><a href="#TERMS_INPUTLINE">Input lines</a>
434introduced with the comment character
435<p>
436<pre>
437	\#
438</pre>
439
440When processing output, groff silently ignores everything on a
441line that begins with the comment character.
442
443<dt><a name="TERMS_CONTROLLINES"><em>Control Lines</em></a>
444<dd>Instructions to groff that appear on a line by themselves,
445which means that &quot;control lines&quot; are either
446<a href="#TERMS_MACROS">macros</a>
447or groff
448<a href="#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">primitives</a>.
449Control lines begin with a period or, occasionally, an apostrophe.
450
451<dt><a name="TERMS_FILLED"><em>Filled lines/fill mode</em></a>
452<dd>Automatic
453<a href="#TERMS_JUST">justification</a>
454or
455<a href="#TERMS_QUAD">quadding</a>.
456In fill mode, the ends of lines as they appear in your text editor
457are ignored.  Instead, words from adjoining
458<a href="#TERMS_INPUTLINE">input lines</a>
459are added one at a time to the output line until no more words fit.
460Then, depending whether text is to be
461<a href="#TERMS_JUST">justified</a>
462or
463<a href="#TERMS_QUAD">quadded</a>
464(left, right, or centre), and depending on whether automatic
465hyphenation is turned on, groff attempts to hyphenate the last word,
466or, barring that, spreads and breaks the line (when justification
467is turned on) or breaks and quads the line (when quadding is turned
468on).
469<p>
470<a name="TERMS_NOFILL"></a>
471Nofill mode (non-filled text) means that groff respects the ends
472of lines as they appear in your text editor.
473
474<dt><a name="TERMS_INLINES"><em>Inline escapes</em></a>
475<dd>Instructions issued to groff that appear as part of an
476<a href="#TERMS_INPUTLINE">input line</a>
477(as opposed to
478<a href="#TERMS_MACROS">macros</a>,
479which must appear on a line by themselves).  Inline escapes are
480always introduced by the backslash character.  For example,
481<p>
482<pre>
483	A line of text with the word T\*[BU 2]oronto in it
484</pre>
485
486contains the inline escape \*[BU 2] (which means &quot;move the letter
487'o' 2
488<a href="#TERMS_KERNUNIT">kern units</a>
489closer to the letter 'T'&quot;).
490<p>
491<strong>Mom</strong>'s inline escapes always take the form
492<strong>\*[</strong><i>ESCAPE</i><strong>]</strong>, where <i>ESCAPE</i>
493is composed of capital letters, sometimes followed immediately
494by a digit, sometimes followed by a space and a
495<a href="#TERMS_NUMERICARGUMENT">numeric argument</a>.
496<strong>Groff</strong>'s escapes begin with the backslash character
497but typically have no star and are in lower case.  For example, the
498<strong>mom</strong> escapes to move forward 6 points on a line are
499either
500<p>
501<pre>
502	\*[FP6]&nbsp;&nbsp;or&nbsp;&nbsp;\*[FWD 6p]
503</pre>
504
505while the <strong>groff</strong> escape for the same thing is
506<p>
507<pre>
508	\h'6p'
509</pre>
510
511<dt><a name="TERMS_INPUTLINE"><em>Input line</em></a>
512<dd>A line of text as it appears in your text editor.
513
514<dt><a name="TERMS_MACROS"><em>Macros</em></a>
515<dd>Instructions embedded in a document that determine how groff processes
516the text for output.  <strong>mom</strong>'s macros always begin with a
517period, on a line by themselves, and must be typed in capital letters.
518Typically, macros contain complex commands issued to groff--behind
519the scenes--via groff
520<a href="#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">primitives</a>.
521
522<dt><a name="TERMS_UNITS"><em>Machine units</em></a>
523<dd>A machine unit is 1/1000 of a
524<a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">point</a>
525when the groff device is ps. (&quot;ps&quot; means
526&quot;PostScript&quot;--the default device for which groff
527prepares output, and the device for which <strong>mom</strong> was
528specifically designed.)
529
530<dt><a name="TERMS_NUMERICARGUMENT"><em>Numeric argument</em></a>
531<dd>An
532<a href="#TERMS_ARGUMENT">argument</a>
533that has the form of a digit.  Numeric arguments can be built out
534of arithmetic expressions using +, -, *, and / for plus, minus,
535times, and divided-by respectively.  If a numeric argument requires
536a
537<a href="#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a>,
538a unit of measure must be appended to <em>every</em> digit in the
539argument.  For example:
540<p>
541<pre>
542	.ALD 1i-1v
543</pre>
544
545<strong>NOTE:</strong> groff does not respect the order of operations,
546but rather evaluates arithmetic expressions from left to right.
547Parentheses must be used to circumvent this peculiarity.  Not to
548worry, though.  The likelihood of more than just the occasional plus
549or minus sign when using <strong>mom</strong>'s macros is slim.
550
551<dt><a name="TERMS_OUTPUTLINE"><em>Output line</em></a>
552<dd>A line of text as it appears in output copy.
553
554<dt><a name="TERMS_PRIMITIVES"><em>Primitives</em></a>
555<dd>The two-letter, lower case instructions groff uses as its
556native command language, and out of which macros are built.
557
558<dt><a name="TERMS_STRINGARGUMENT"><em>String Argument</em></a>
559<dd>Technically, any
560<a href="#TERMS_ARGUMENTS">argument</a>
561that is not numeric.  In this documentation, string argument means
562an argument that requires the user to input text.  For example, in
563the
564<a href="#TERMS_MACROS">macro</a>
565<p>
566<pre>
567	.TITLE "My Pulitzer Novel"
568</pre>
569
570&quot;My Pulitzer Novel&quot; is a string argument.
571<p>
572Because string arguments must be enclosed by double-quotes, you can't
573use double-quotes as part of the string argument.  If you need
574double-quotes to be part of a string argument, use the
575<a href="#TERMS_INLINES">inline escapes</a>
576<strong>\(lq</strong> and <strong>\(rq</strong> (leftquote and rightquote
577respectively) in place of the double-quote character (").
578
579<dt><a name="TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE"><em>Unit of measure</em></a>
580<dd>The single letter after a
581<a href="#TERMS_NUMERICARGUMENT">numeric argument</a>
582that tells <strong>mom</strong> what measurement scale the argument
583should use.  Common valid units are:
584<p>
585<table valign="baseline" summary="unitsofmeasure">
586<tr><td><strong>i</strong><td> = <td>inches
587<tr><td><strong>p</strong><td> = <td>points
588<tr><td><strong>P</strong><td> = <td>picas
589<tr><td><strong>c</strong><td> = <td>centimetres
590<tr><td><strong>m</strong><td> = <td>ems
591<tr><td><strong>n</strong><td> = <td>ens
592<tr><td><strong>v</strong><td> = <td>the current leading (line space)</td></tr>
593</table>
594<br>
595<dd>Units of measure must come immediately after the numeric argument (i.e.
596with no space between the argument and the unit of measure), like this:
597<p>
598<pre>
599	.ALD 2v
600	.LL  39P
601	.IL  1i
602</pre>
603
604The above example advances 2 line spaces and sets the line length to
60539 picas with a left indent of 1 inch.
606<p>
607<strong>IMPORTANT:</strong> Most <strong>mom</strong> macros
608that set the size or measure of something MUST be given a unit of
609measure.  <strong>mom</strong>'s macros do not have default units
610of measure.  There are a couple of exceptions, the most notable of
611which are <strong>PT_SIZE</strong> and <strong>LS</strong>.  Both use
612<a href="#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>
613as the default unit of measure, which means
614you don't have to append &quot;p&quot; to their argument.
615<p>
616You can enter decimal values for any unit of measure.  Different units
617may be combined by adding them together (e.g. 1.5i+2m, which gives a
618measure of 1-1/2 inches plus 2 ems).
619<p>
620<strong>NOTE:</strong> a pica is composed of 12 points,
621therefore 12.5 picas is 12 picas and 6 points, not 12 picas
622and 5 points.  If you want 12 picas and 5 points, you have to
623enter the measure as 12P+5p.
624
625<dt><a name="TERMS_ZEROWIDTHCHARACTER"><em>Zero-width character</em></a>
626<dd>The
627<a href="#TERMS_INLINES">inline escape</a>
628that allows you to print a literal period, apostrophe and, if
629<a href="#TERMS_OUTPUTLINE">output lines</a>
630are
631<a href="#TERMS_FILLED">filled</a>,
632a space that falls at the beginning of an
633<a href="#TERMS_INPUTLINE">input line</a>.
634It looks like this:
635<p>
636<pre>
637	\&amp;
638</pre>
639
640(backslash followed by an ampersand).
641<p>
642Normally, groff interprets a period (or an apostrophe) at the beginning
643of an input line as meaning that what follows is a
644<a href="#TERMS_CONTROLLINES">control line</a>.
645In fill modes, groff treats a space at the beginning of an input
646line as meaning &quot;start a new line and put a space at the
647beginning of it.&quot; If you want groff to interpret periods and
648apostrophes at the beginning of input lines literally (i.e. print
649them), or spaces at the beginning of input lines as just garden
650variety word spaces, you must start the line with the zero-width
651character.
652</dl>
653<p>
654<hr>
655
656<a name="TERMS_MOM">
657	<h2><u>Mom's Document Processing Terms</u></h2>
658</a>
659
660<ul>
661	<li><a href="#TERMS_BLOCKQUOTE">Blockquote</a>
662	<li><a href="#TERMS_CONTROLMACRO">Control macro</a>
663	<li><a href="#TERMS_DOCHEADER">Docheader</a>
664	<li><a href="#TERMS_EPIGRAPH">Epigraph</a>
665	<li><a href="#TERMS_FOOTER">Footer</a>
666	<li><a href="#TERMS_HEAD">Head</a>
667	<li><a href="#TERMS_HEADER">Header</a>
668	<li><a href="#TERMS_LINEBREAK">Linebreak</a>
669	<li><a href="#TERMS_PARAHEAD">Paragraph head</a>
670	<li><a href="#TERMS_QUOTE">Quote</a>
671	<li><a href="#TERMS_RUNNING">Running text</a>
672	<li><a href="#TERMS_SUBHEAD">Subhead</a>
673	<li><a href="#TERMS_TOGGLE">Toggle</a>
674</ul>
675<dl>
676<dt><a name="TERMS_BLOCKQUOTE"><em>Blockquote</em></a>
677<dd>Cited material other than
678<a href="#TERMS_QUOTE">quotes</a>.
679Typically set at a smaller point size than paragraph text, indented
680from the left and right margins.  Blockquotes are
681<a href="#TERMS_FILLED">filled</a>.
682
683<dt><a name="TERMS_CONTROLMACRO"><em>Control macro</em></a>
684<dd>Macros used in
685<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCPROCESSING">document processing</a>
686to control/alter the appearance of document elements (e.g. heads,
687quotes, footnotes,
688<a href="#TERMS_HEADER">headers</a>,
689etc.).
690
691<dt><a name="TERMS_DOCHEADER"><em>Document header/docheader</em></a>
692<dd>Document information (title, subtitle, author, etc) output
693at the top of page one.
694
695<dt><a name="TERMS_EPIGRAPH"><em>Epigraph</em></a>
696<dd>A short, usually cited passage that appears at the
697beginning of a chapter, story, or other document.
698
699<dt><a name="TERMS_FOOTER"><em>Footer/page footer</em></a>
700<dd>Document information (frequently author and title) output in
701the bottom margin of pages <em>after</em> page one.  Not to be
702confused with footnotes, which are considered part of
703<a href="#TERMS_RUNNING">running text</a>.
704
705<dt><a name="TERMS_HEAD"><em>Head</em></a>
706<dd>A title that introduces a major section of a document.
707
708<dt><a name="TERMS_HEADER"><em>Header/page header</em></a>
709<dd>Document information (frequently author and title) output in
710the top margin of pages <em>after</em> page one.
711<p>
712<strong>NOTE:</strong> In terms of content and style, headers and
713<a href="#TERMS_FOOTER">footers</a>
714are the same; they differ only in their placement on the page.  In
715most places in this documentation, references to the content or
716style of headers applies equally to footers.
717
718<dt><a name="TERMS_LINEBREAK"><em>Linebreak/author linebreak</em></a>
719<dd>A horizontal gap in
720<a href="#TERMS_RUNNING">running text</a>,
721frequently set off by typographic symbols such as asterisks or
722daggers.  Used to indicate a shift in the content of a document
723(e.g. a scene change in a short story).  Also commonly called a
724scene break or a section break.
725
726<dt><a name="TERMS_PARAHEAD"><em>Paragraph head</em></a>
727<dd>A title joined to the body of a paragraph; hierarchically one
728level beneath
729<a href="#TERMS_SUBHEAD">subheads</a>.
730
731<dt><a name="TERMS_QUOTE"><em>Quote</em></a>
732<dd>A quote, to <strong>mom</strong>, is a line-for-line setting
733of quoted material (e.g. poetry, song lyrics, or a snippet of
734programming code).  You don't have to use
735<a href="typesetting.html#BR">BR</a>
736with quotes.
737
738<dt><a name="TERMS_RUNNING"><em>Running text</em></a>
739<dd>In a document formatted with <strong>mom</strong>, running
740text means text that forms the body of the document, including
741elements such as heads and subheads.
742<a href="#TERMS_DOCHEADER">Docheaders</a>,
743<a href="#TERMS_HEADER">headers</a>,
744<a href="#TERMS_FOOTER">footers</a>
745and page numbers are NOT part of running text.
746
747<dt><a name="TERMS_SUBHEAD"><em>Subhead</em></a>
748<dd>A title used to introduce secondary sections of a document;
749hierarchically one level beneath sections introduced by
750<a href="#TERMS_HEAD">heads</a>.
751
752<dt><a name="TERMS_TOGGLE"><em>Toggle</em></a>
753<dd>A macro or tag that, when invoked without an argument,
754begins something or turns a feature on, and, when invoked with
755ANY argument, ends something or turns a feature off.  See
756<a href="intro.html#TOGGLE_EXAMPLE">Example 3</a>
757of the section
758<a href="intro.html#MACRO_ARGS">How to read macro arguments</a>.
759</dl>
760
761<p>
762<hr>
763<a href="using.html#TOP">Next</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
764<a href="intro.html#TOP">Prev</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
765<a href="#TOP">Top</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
766<a href="toc.html">Back to Table of Contents</a>
767</body>
768</html>