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  16<h1 align="center">
  17    <a name="REF_INTRO"><u>Bibliographies and references</u></a>
  18</h1>
  19<p>
  20<a href="#INTRO_REF">Introduction to bibliographies and references</a>
  21<br>
  22<a href="#TUTORIAL_REF">Tutorial</a>
  23<ul>
  24	<li><a href="#DB_REF">Creating a refer database</a>
  25	<li><a href="#RCOMMANDS_REF">Required "refer" commands</a>
  26	<li><a href="#ACCESSING_REF">Accessing references</a>
  27	<li><a href="#WHERE_REF">Telling mom where to put references</a>
  28	<li><a href="#BIBLIO_REF">Creating bibliography pages</a>
  29	<li><a href="#INVOKING_REF">Invoking groff with mom and refer</a>
  30</ul>
  31<br>
  32<a href="#MACROS_REF">Index of bibliography and reference macros</a>
  33<p>
  34
  35<a name="INTRO_REF">
  36	<h2><u>Introduction to bibliographies and references</u></h2>
  37</a>
  38
  39<strong>Mom</strong> provides the ability to automatically format
  40and generate bibliography pages, as well as footnote or endnote
  41bibliographic references, or references embedded in text.  She
  42accomplishes this by working in conjunction with a special
  43<strong>groff</strong> program called "refer".
  44<p>
  45<strong>refer</strong> is a <strong>groff</strong>
  46"pre-processor", which is to say that it scans your files looking
  47for very specific commands (i.e. lines that begin with a period
  48[dot], just like macros and document element tags).  If the
  49commands aren't there, <strong>refer</strong> can't do it's job,
  50and neither can <strong>mom</strong>.  The scanning is done
  51<strong>before</strong> any actual <strong>mom</strong> processing
  52occurs.
  53<p>
  54<strong>refer</strong> is a program that's been around for a long
  55time.  It's powerful and has many, many features.  Unfortunately,
  56the manpage (<kbd>man refer</kbd>), while complete and accurate, is
  57dense and not a good introduction to <strong>refer</strong>.  (It's
  58a classic manpage Catch-22: the information it contains is most
  59useful only after you already grasp it.)
  60<p>
  61In order to get <strong>mom</strong> users up and running with
  62<strong>refer</strong>, this section of <strong>mom</strong>'s
  63documentation focuses exclusively, in a recipe-like manner, on
  64what you need to know to use <strong>refer</strong> satisfactorily
  65in conjunction with <strong>mom</strong>.  The information and
  66instructions are <strong><em><u>not</u></em></strong> to be taken as
  67a manual or tutorial on full <strong>refer</strong> usage.  Much has
  68been left out, on purpose.
  69<p>
  70It is tempting to provide two levels of documentation, one for
  71users familiar with <strong>refer</strong> and one for newcomers
  72to <strong>groff</strong> and <strong>mom</strong>, but such an
  73approach may muddy the waters for newcomers. <strong>Mom</strong>'s
  74allegiance, first and foremost, is to newcomers.  If you're already
  75a <strong>refer</strong> user, the information herein will be useful
  76for adapting your current <strong>refer</strong> usage to
  77<strong>mom</strong>'s way of doing things.  If you've never used
  78<strong>refer</strong>, the information is essential, and, in many
  79cases, may be all you need.
  80<p>
  81(For the benefit of old groff-hands: <strong>refer</strong>
  82support in <strong>mom</strong> is heavily based on the
  83<strong>refer</strong> module of the ms macros.  The choice
  84was deliberate so that those wishing to play around with
  85<strong>mom</strong>'s bibliography formatting style would be
  86tinkering with the familiar.)
  87<p>
  88<strong>refer</strong> requires first that you create a
  89bibliographic database.  From the information contained in the
  90database, <strong>mom</strong> formats and generates bibliographies
  91and references in MLA (Modern Language Association) style.  MLA
  92style is clean, contemporary and flexible, and is widely used in
  93the humanities, where the range of material that has to be
  94referenced can run from simple books to live interviews and film.
  95<p>
  96Once you have created your database, you instruct
  97<strong>refer</strong> (and <strong>mom</strong>) to access entries
  98in it by supplying keywords from the entries.  Depending on what
  99you've instructed <strong>mom</strong> to do, she will put the
 100entries--fully and properly formatted with respect to order, punctuation
 101and italicization--in footnotes, endnotes, or a full bibliography.
 102<p>
 103I encourage anyone interested in what MLA style looks like--and, by
 104extension, how your bibliographies and references will look after
 105<strong>mom</strong> formats them--to check out
 106<p>
 107<pre>
 108	http://www.aresearchguide.com/12biblio.html
 109</pre>
 110
 111or any other website or reference book on MLA style.
 112<p>
 113<strong>NOTE:</strong> MLA style requires that second and
 114subsequent lines of individual references be indented.  <strong>Mom</strong>
 115takes care of this for you with a default indent, which
 116can be changed with the macro
 117<a href="#INDENT_REFS">INDENT_REFS</a>.
 118
 119
 120<a name="TUTORIAL_REF"><h2><u>Tutorial</u></h2></a>
 121
 122<ol>
 123	<li><a href="#DB_REF">Creating a refer database</a>
 124	<li><a href="#RCOMMANDS_REF">Required "refer" commands</a>
 125	<li><a href="#ACCESSING_REF">Accessing references</a>
 126	<li><a href="#WHERE_REF">Telling mom where to put references</a>
 127	<li><a href="#BIBLIO_REF">Creating bibliography pages</a>
 128	<li><a href="#INVOKING_REF">Invoking groff with mom and refer</a>
 129</ol>
 130<p>
 131
 132<a name="DB_REF"><h3><u>1. Creating a refer database</u></h3><a>
 133<p>
 134The first step in using <strong>refer</strong> with
 135<strong>mom</strong> is setting up your bibliographic database.
 136The database is a file containing separate entries for each
 137reference you want to access from your <strong>mom</strong> files.
 138The file is <em>not</em> a "mom" file; it is a separate database.
 139You may set up individual databases for individual documents, or
 140create a large database that contains all the references you'll
 141ever need.
 142<p>
 143Entries ("records") in the database file are separated from each
 144other by a single, blank line.  The records themselves are composed
 145of single lines ("fields") with no blank lines between them.  Each
 146field begins with a percent sign and a single letter (the "field
 147identifier") e.g. %A or %T. The letter identifies what part of a
 148bibliographic entry the field refers to: Author, Title, Publisher,
 149Date, etc.  After the field identifier comes a single space,
 150followed by the information appropriate to field.  No punctuation
 151should go at the ends of fields; <strong>mom</strong> adds what's
 152correct automatically.  Do note, however, that author(s) (%A)
 153requires that you enter the author information exactly as you wish
 154it to come out (minus the period), including the comma after the
 155first author's last name.
 156<p>
 157Here's a sample database containing two records so you can
 158visualize what the above paragraph says:
 159<p>
 160<pre>
 161%A Schweitzer, Albert
 162%A C.M. Widor
 163%T J.S. Bach
 164%l Ernest Newman
 165%V Vol 2
 166%C London
 167%I Adam and Charles Black
 168%D 1923
 169%O 2 vols
 170%K bach vol 2
 171
 172%A Schaffter, Peter
 173%T The Schumann Proof
 174%C Toronto
 175%I RendezVous Press
 176%D 2004
 177%K schumann schaffter
 178</pre>
 179
 180The order in which you enter fields doesn't matter.
 181<strong>mom</strong> and <strong>refer</strong> will re-arrange
 182them in the correct order for you.
 183<p>
 184The meaning of the letters follows.  There are, with
 185<strong>refer</strong>, quite a few--all uppercase--which have, over
 186time, come to be "standard". <strong>Mom</strong> respects these.
 187However, she adds to the list (mostly the lowercase letters).
 188<p>
 189<pre>
 190	%A Author           -- additional authors may be entered on separate %A
 191	                       lines as in first entry of the sample, above; mom 
 192	                       and refer will figure out what to do with multiple
 193	                       authors according to MLA rules
 194	%T Title            -- either the primary title (e.g. of a book), or the
 195	                       title of an article (e.g. within a book or
 196	                       journal or magazine)
 197	%B Book title       -- the title of a book when %T contains the title
 198	                       of an article; otherwise, use %T for book
 199	                       titles
 200	%R Report number    -- for technical reports
 201	%J Journal name     -- the name of a journal or magazine when %T
 202	                       contains the title of an article
 203	%E Editor           -- additional editors may be entered on separate %E
 204	                       lines (like authors); mom and refer will figure
 205	                       out what to do with them according to MLA rules
 206	%e Edition          -- the number of name of a specific edition
 207	                       (e.g. Second, 2nd, Collector's, etc.)
 208	%V Volume           -- volume number of a journal or series of books
 209	%N Journal number   -- journal or magazine number
 210	%S Series           -- series name for books or journals that are part of
 211	                       a series
 212	%C City             -- the city of publication
 213	%I Publisher        -- the publisher; %I stands for "Issuer"
 214	%D Publication date
 215	%P Page number(s)   -- enter page ranges as, e.g., 22-25
 216	%G Gov't.
 217	   ordering number  -- for government publications
 218	%O Other            -- additional information or comments you want
 219	                       to appear at the end of the reference
 220	%K Keywords         -- any words that will clear up ambiguities
 221	                       resulting from database entries that
 222	                       contain, say, the same author or the
 223	                       same title
 224	%d original
 225	   publication date -- if different from the date
 226	                                   of publication
 227	%a additions        -- for books, any additions to the original work,
 228					       such as the preface to a new edition or a new
 229	                       introduction
 230	%t reprint title    -- if different from a work's original title
 231	%l translator       -- if the translator is not the editor; if more
 232	                        than one translator, this field should contain
 233	                        all the names, with appropriate punctuation
 234	%r translator
 235	   and editor       -- if tr. and ed. are one in the same;
 236	%s site name        -- for web sites, the site name
 237	%c content
 238	   of site          -- for web sites, the content, if unclear
 239	                       (i.e. advertisement, cartoon, blog)
 240	%o organization     -- for web sites, the organization, group or
 241	                       sponsor of the site
 242	%a access date      -- for a website, the date you accessed it
 243	%u URL              -- for websites, the full URL of the site
 244</pre>
 245
 246<a name="REF_DISC_HY"></a>
 247<strong>Tip:</strong> If you have hyphenation turned on in your
 248document (you probably do), <strong>mom</strong> will hyphenate
 249your references.  This can be a problem because references
 250typically contain several proper names.  Proper names shouldn't be
 251hyphenated.  The solution is to prepend to any proper name in the
 252database the <strong>groff</strong>
 253<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_DISCRETIONARYHYPHEN">discretionary hyphen</a>
 254character, <strong>\%</strong>, like this:
 255<p>
 256<pre>
 257	%A Hill, \%Reginald
 258</pre>
 259
 260Alternatively, you can turn hyphenation off entirely in
 261references with the macro,
 262<a href="#HYPHENATE_REFS">HYPHENATE_REFS</a> <kbd>OFF</kbd>.
 263<p>
 264
 265<a name="RCOMMANDS_REF"><h3><u>2. Required "refer" commands</u></h3><a>
 266<p>
 267Having set up your database, you now need to put some
 268<strong>refer</strong>-specific commands at the top of your
 269<strong>mom</strong> file.  You cannot skip this step, nor can you
 270"source" these commands with the <strong>groff</strong>
 271<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">primitive</a>,
 272<strong>.so</strong>.  They <strong><em>must</em></strong>
 273appear, exactly as shown, in every file requiring bibliographic
 274references.
 275<p>
 276<strong>refer</strong> commands are introduced with a single
 277line containing <kbd>.R1</kbd>, and concluded with a single line
 278containing <kbd>.R2</kbd>.  What you put between the <kbd>.R1</kbd>
 279and <kbd>.R2</kbd> lines are the commands themselves.  The commands
 280should be entered one per line, in lowercase letters, <em><u>with
 281no initial period (dot)</u></em>.
 282<p>
 283Here's an example:
 284<p>
 285<pre>
 286	.R1
 287	no-label-in-text
 288	no-label-in-reference
 289	.R2
 290</pre>
 291
 292There are an awful lot of <strong>refer</strong> commands.  We will
 293focus only on those required to get <strong>mom</strong> cooperating
 294with <strong>refer</strong>.  If you're interested, study the
 295<strong>refer</strong> manpage to discover what other commands are
 296available and how to manipulate them.
 297<p>
 298At a minimum, all <strong>mom</strong> files accessing
 299a bibliographic database must contain the following
 300<strong>refer</strong> commands, exactly as shown:
 301<p>
 302<a name="REFER_BLOCK1"></a>
 303<pre>
 304.R1
 305no-label-in-text
 306no-label-in-reference
 307join-authors ", and " ", " ", and "
 308database &lt;full path to the database&gt;
 309.R2
 310</pre>
 311
 312The first two commands tell <strong>refer</strong> to let
 313<strong>mom</strong> handle everything associated with footnote
 314and endnote markers, both in the body of the document, and in the
 315footnotes/endnotes themselves.
 316<p>
 317The third command is required for <strong>mom</strong> to handle
 318multiple authors in proper, MLA style.
 319<p>
 320The last command, <kbd>database</kbd>, assumes you have created
 321your own database, and do not otherwise have a system-wide
 322"default" database.  "...full path to the database" means the full
 323path <em>including</em> the database filename, e.g.
 324/home/user/refer/my_database.
 325<p> If you're already a <strong>refer</strong> user, feel free to
 326enter whatever <strong>refer</strong> commands are necessary to
 327access the database(s) you want.
 328<p>
 329With the above <strong>refer</strong> block, you can embed
 330references directly into the text of your document, or have them
 331output as footnotes or endnotes.  If you want to "collect"
 332references for later output on a bibliography page, the block must
 333read:
 334<p>
 335<pre>
 336.R1
 337no-label-in-text
 338no-label-in-reference
 339join-authors ", and " ", " ", and "
 340database &lt;full path to the database&gt;
 341sort
 342accumulate
 343.R2
 344</pre>
 345
 346<a name="ACCESSING_REF"><h3><u>3. Accessing references</u></h3><a>
 347<p>
 348References are accessed by putting keywords, all on one line,
 349between the <strong>refer</strong> commands <strong>.[</strong> and
 350<strong>.]</strong>.  Both of these commands must appear on separate
 351lines, by themselves, like this:
 352<p>
 353<pre>
 354	.[
 355	keyword(s)
 356	.]
 357</pre>
 358
 359Keywords are any word, or set of words, that identify a database
 360record (i.e. a reference) unambiguously. (<strong>refer</strong>
 361doesn't like ambiguity.)
 362<p>
 363If, for example, you want to reference a book by Ray Bradbury,
 364and the database contains only one book by Bradbury, a suitable
 365keyword would be "Bradbury".  If your database contains several
 366books by Bradbury, say, <em>Fahrenheit 451</em> and <em>The Martian
 367Chronicles</em>, you could reference them with the keywords, "451"
 368and "Martian".  If, in addition to the two books by Bradbury, you
 369also had one whose title was <em>The Martian Mission</em>, suitable
 370keywords to reference <em>The Martian Chronicles</em> might be:
 371<p>
 372<pre>
 373	.[                or    .[                   or  .[
 374	Bradbury Martian        Bradbury Chronicles      Martian Chronicles
 375	.]                      .]                       .]
 376</pre>
 377
 378The database field identifier, %K, lets you create special keywords
 379for references.  This can be very handy if you need both a "short"
 380and a "long" reference to the same work.  The short reference might
 381be used in footnotes; the long one in a bibliography.  Consider the
 382following:
 383<p>
 384<pre>
 385	%A Isherwood, Christopher      %A Isherwood
 386	%T Mr. Norris Changes Trains   %T Mr. Norris Changes Trains
 387	%d 1935                        %K Nor short
 388	%t The Last of Mr. \%Norris
 389	%a Intro. Tom Crawford
 390	%C New York
 391	%I New Directions
 392	%D 1945
 393	%K Norris
 394
 395</pre>
 396
 397To access the shorter reference, you'd do
 398<p>
 399<pre>
 400	.[
 401	Nor short
 402	.]
 403</pre>
 404
 405To access the longer one, you'd do
 406<pre>
 407	.[
 408	Norris
 409	.]
 410</pre>
 411
 412<a name="WHERE_REF"><h3><u>4. Telling mom where to put references</u></h3><a>
 413<p>
 414<strong>Mom</strong> provides several mechanisms for outputting
 415references where you want.
 416<p>
 417<h3>Embedding references in the document body</h3>
 418<p>
 419References may be embedded in the document body, surrounded by
 420parentheses, square brackets, or braces.  Use whichever you prefer,
 421following the recipes below.
 422<p>
 423<pre>
 424	Parentheses    Square brackets    Braces
 425	-----------    ---------------    ------
 426
 427	.REF(          .REF[              .REF{
 428	.[             .[                 .[
 429	keyword(s)     keyword(s)         keyword(s)
 430	.]             .]                 .]
 431	.REF)          .REF]              .REF}
 432</pre>
 433
 434<h3>Footnote or endnote references</h3>
 435<p>
 436Most times, you'll probably want references in either footnotes or
 437endnotes.  <strong>Mom</strong> provides a simple mechanism whereby
 438you can choose which, or even switch back and forth.  The primary
 439tag is
 440<a href="#REF">REF</a>, which is used like this:
 441<p>
 442<pre>
 443	.REF
 444	.[
 445	keyword(s)
 446	.]
 447	.REF
 448</pre>
 449
 450<strong>REF</strong> collects references and outputs them
 451where you say with the macros,
 452<a href="#FOOTNOTE_REFS">FOOTNOTE_REFS</a>
 453or
 454<a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a>.
 455Neither
 456<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> nor <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>
 457requires an argument.  All they do is tell <strong>REF</strong>,
 458whenever it's invoked, where to put the references.
 459<p>
 460A recipe for footnote references looks like this:
 461<pre>
 462	.FOOTNOTE_REFS
 463	.REF
 464	.[
 465	keyword(s)
 466	.]
 467	.REF
 468</pre>
 469
 470When <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> are enabled, <strong>REF</strong>
 471behaves identically to
 472<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE">FOOTNOTE</a>,
 473so please read the
 474<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE_NOTE">HYPER IMPORTANT NOTE</a>
 475found in the document entry for <strong>FOOTNOTE</strong>.
 476<p>
 477The reference between the first and second <strong>REF</strong>
 478will be treated as a footnote, as will all subsequent
 479<strong>REF</strong> pairs unless you invoke the macro,
 480<strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>.
 481<p>
 482A recipe for endnote references looks like this:
 483<pre>
 484	.ENDNOTE_REFS
 485	.REF
 486	.[
 487	keyword(s)
 488	.]
 489	.REF
 490</pre>
 491
 492The reference between the first and second <strong>REF</strong>
 493will be treated as an endnote, as will all subsequent
 494<strong>REF</strong> pairs unless you invoke the macro,
 495<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong>.
 496<p>
 497When <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong> are enabled, <strong>REF</strong>
 498behaves identically to
 499<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE">ENDNOTE</a>,
 500so please read the
 501<a href="docelement.html#ENDNOTE_NOTE">HYPER IMPORTANT NOTE</a>
 502found in the document entry for <strong>ENDNOTE</strong>.
 503<p>
 504The innate flexibility of this scheme allows you to have both
 505footnote references and endnote references in the same document.
 506This would be desirable if, say, you wanted "short" references in
 507footnotes, and complete references in endnotes.
 508<p>
 509
 510<a name="COLLECTED_REF"><h3>Collected references</h3></a>
 511<p>
 512Sometimes, you may want to put references in input text near
 513sections of text to which they pertain, but not actually want
 514them output until later (typically, on a bibliography page).
 515<strong>REF</strong> is used for this, too, but you have to make
 516sure your <strong>refer</strong> commands block is set up properly.
 517The recipe for this is:
 518<p>
 519<a name="REFER_BLOCK2"></a>
 520<pre>
 521.R1
 522no-label-in-text
 523no-label-in-reference
 524join-authors ", and " ", " ", and "
 525database &lt;full path to the database&gt;
 526sort
 527accumulate
 528.R2
 529</pre>
 530
 531After this set up, and provided you don't issue a
 532<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> or <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>
 533command, all reference between <strong>REF</strong> pairs will be
 534collected for later output.
 535<p>
 536As a precaution, <strong>mom</strong> will issue a message the
 537first time you call <strong>.REF</strong> if neither
 538<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> nor <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong> is
 539in effect.  If collected references are what you want, and you have
 540set up your <strong>.R1 - .R2</strong> block as above, you may
 541safely ignore the message.
 542<p>
 543<strong>LIMITATION:</strong> You cannot combine "collected"
 544references (plain <strong>REF</strong>) with <strong>REF</strong>s
 545that are instructed to go into footnotes (with
 546<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong>) or endnotes (with
 547<strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>).  This is a limitation imposed by
 548<strong>refer</strong>, not <strong>mom</strong>.
 549
 550<a name="BIBLIO_REF"><h3><u>5. Creating bibliography pages</u></h3><a>
 551<p>
 552Bibliography pages are separate pages, like endnotes, on which
 553complete bibliographies are output.  And, like endnotes pages, just
 554about every element on them can be designed to your specifications
 555with control macros.  (See
 556<a href="#BIBLIO_CONTROL_MACROS">Control macros for bibliographies</a>.)
 557A bibliography page that uses <strong>mom</strong>'s defaults
 558begins with the macro,
 559<a href="BIBLIOGRAPHY">BIBLIOGRAPHY</a>,
 560like this:
 561<p>
 562<pre>
 563	.BIBLIOGRAPHY
 564</pre>
 565
 566<p>
 567Following <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong>, you have three choices of
 568how to proceed.
 569<p>
 570If you have elected to have references collected from within the
 571body of a document (see above,
 572<a href="#COLLECTED_REF">Collected references</a>, 
 573for instructions), which assumes you have a <strong>refer</strong>
 574command block like the one
 575<a href="#REFER_BLOCK2">here</a>
 576at the top of your document, you need only do
 577<p>
 578<pre>
 579	.BIBLIOGRAPHY
 580	.[
 581	$LIST$
 582	.]
 583</pre>
 584
 585If you want to create the bibliography by hand (which may be the
 586case if you've used footnote and/or endnote references throughout
 587your document), follow this recipe, which assumes you already have a
 588<strong>refer</strong> block like the one
 589<a href="#REFER_BLOCK1">here</a>
 590at the top of your document:
 591<p>
 592<pre>
 593	.BIBLIOGRAPHY
 594	.R1
 595	sort
 596	accumulate
 597	.R2
 598	.[          -+
 599	keyword(s)   |
 600	.]           | "keyword(s)" are keywords identifying the
 601	.[           | particular bibliographic reference you want
 602	keyword(s)   | from your database.  Order doesn't matter here;
 603	.]           | the refer command, sort, takes care of that.
 604	.[           |
 605	keyword(s)   |
 606	.]          -+
 607	.[
 608	$LIST$
 609	.]
 610</pre>
 611
 612Your final choice is to output your whole database.  Again,
 613assuming you have a <strong>refer</strong> block like the one
 614<a href="#REFER_BLOCK1">here</a> at the top of your file, you need
 615only do:
 616<p>
 617<pre>
 618	.BIBLIOGRAPHY
 619	.R1
 620	bibliography &lt;full path to database&gt;
 621	.R2
 622</pre>
 623
 624If you haven't put a <strong>refer</strong> block in
 625your file already, you can put the whole thing after
 626<strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong>, like this:
 627<p>
 628<pre>
 629	.BIBLIOGRAPHY
 630	.R1
 631	no-label-in-text                       -+
 632	no-label-in-reference                   | These are actually optional
 633	database &lt;full path to the database&gt;   -+ 
 634	join-authors ", and " ", " ", and "
 635	bibliography &lt;full path to database&gt;
 636	.R2
 637</pre>
 638
 639Whichever option you choose, <strong>mom</strong> will output a
 640full bibliography page, complete with a title (BIBLIOGRAPHY by
 641default, but that can be changed).
 642
 643<a name="INVOKING_REF"><h3><u>6. Invoking groff with mom and refer</u></h3><a>
 644<p>
 645So, now you've got a document, formatted properly to use
 646references processed with <strong>refer</strong>, what do you do to
 647output the document?
 648<p>
 649It's simple.  Instead of invoking <strong>groff</strong> with just
 650the -mom option, as explained
 651<a href="using.html#USING_INVOKING">here</a>,
 652invoke groff with the -R option as well, like this:
 653<p>
 654<pre>
 655	groff -R -mom filename
 656</pre>
 657
 658<hr width="66%">
 659
 660<p>
 661<a name="MACROS_REF"><h3><u>Index of bibliography and reference macros</u></h3></a>
 662<ul>
 663    <li><a href="#REF">Tag: REF</a> -- collected, footnote or endnote references tag
 664    <li><a href="#FOOTNOTE_REFS">FOOTNOTE_REFS</a> -- REFs go to footnotes
 665    <li><a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a> -- REFs go to endnotes
 666    <li><a href="#BRACKET_REFS">REF(</a> -- references embedded in text between parentheses
 667    <li><a href="#BRACKET_REFS">REF[</a> -- references embedded in text between square brackets
 668    <li><a href="#BRACKET_REFS">REF{</a> -- references embedded in text between braces
 669    <li><a href="#INDENT_REFS">INDENT_REFS</a> -- manage the 2nd line indent of references
 670    <li><a href="#HYPHENATE_REFS">HYPHENATE_REFS</a> -- en/disable hyphenation of references
 671    <li><a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY">BIBLIOGRAPHY</a> -- begin a bibliography page
 672    <li><a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE">BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE</a> -- plain, or numbered list bibliography
 673    <li><a href="#BIBLIO_CONTROL">Bibliography page style control</a>
 674</ul>
 675<p>
 676
 677<!---REF--->
 678
 679<hr width="66%" align="left">
 680<a name="REF"><h3><u>Marking off references for footnotes, endnotes, or collection</u></h3></a>
 681<p>
 682
 683Tag: <strong>REF</strong>
 684<p>
 685The macro, <strong>REF</strong>, tells <strong>mom</strong> that
 686what follows is <strong>refer</strong>-specific, a
 687keyword-identified reference from a
 688<strong>refer</strong> database.  Depending on whether you've
 689issued a
 690<a href="#FOOTNOTE_REFS">FOOTNOTE_REFS</a>
 691or
 692<a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a>
 693instruction, <strong>REF</strong> also tells <strong>mom</strong>
 694where to place the reference.  If <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong>,
 695the reference will be formatted and placed in a footnote.  If
 696<strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>, the reference will be collected for
 697output as an endnote.  If you have issued neither instruction, the
 698reference will be collected for later output, most likely on a
 699<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY">bibliography page</a>.
 700<p>
 701Before you use <strong>REF</strong>, you must create a
 702<strong>refer</strong> block containing <strong>refer</strong>
 703commands (see
 704<a href="#RCOMMANDS_REF">Required refer commands</a>
 705in the tutorial, above).
 706<p>
 707<strong>REF</strong> usage always looks like this:
 708<p>
 709<pre>
 710	.REF
 711	.[
 712	keyword(s)
 713	.]
 714	.REF
 715</pre>
 716
 717Notice that <strong>REF</strong> "brackets" the
 718<strong>refer</strong> call, and never takes an argument.
 719<p>
 720What <strong>REF</strong> really is is a convenience.  One could,
 721for example, put a reference in a footnote by doing
 722<p>
 723<pre>
 724	.FOOTNOTE
 725	.[
 726	keyword(s)
 727	.]
 728	.FOOTNOTE OFF
 729</pre>
 730
 731However, if you have a lot of references going into footnotes (or
 732endnotes), it's much shorter to type <kbd>.REF/.REF</kbd> than
 733<kbd>.FOOTNOTE/.FOOTNOTE OFF</kbd>.  It also helps you
 734distinguish--visually, in your input file--between footnotes (or
 735endnotes) which are references, and footnotes (or endnotes) which
 736are explanatory, or expand on the text.
 737<p>
 738<strong>Additional arguments:</strong> If you're using
 739<strong>REF</strong> to put references in footnotes and your
 740footnotes need to be indented, you may (indeed, should) pass
 741<strong>REF</strong> the same arguments used to indent footnotes.
 742See
 743<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE">FOOTNOTE</a>.
 744<p>
 745<strong>Note:</strong>
 746When <strong>REF</strong> is used with
 747<a href="#FOOTNOTE_REFS">FOOTNOTE_REFS</a>,
 748it behaves identically to
 749<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE">FOOTNOTE</a>,
 750so please read the
 751<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE_NOTE">HYPER IMPORTANT NOTE</a>
 752found in the document entry for <strong>FOOTNOTE</strong>.
 753<p>
 754When <strong>REF</strong> is used with
 755<a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a>,
 756it behaves identically to
 757<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTE">ENDNOTE</a>,
 758so please read the
 759<a href="docelement.html#ENDNOTE_NOTE">HYPER IMPORTANT NOTE</a>
 760found in the document entry for <strong>ENDNOTE</strong>.
 761
 762<br>
 763
 764<!---FOOTNOTE_REFS--->
 765
 766<hr width="33%" align="left">
 767<a name="FOOTNOTE_REFS"><h3><u>Instruct REF to put references in footnotes</u></h3></a>
 768<p>
 769
 770Macro: <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong>
 771<p>
 772<strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> is an instruction to
 773<a href="#REF">REF</a>,
 774saying, "put all subsequent references bracketed by the
 775<strong>REF</strong> macro into footnotes."  You invoke it by
 776itself, with no argument.
 777<p>
 778When <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> is in effect, regular
 779footnotes, (i.e. those introduced with <kbd>.FOOTNOTE</kbd> and
 780terminated with <kbd>.FOOTNOTE OFF</kbd>) continue to behave
 781normally.
 782<p>
 783You may switch between <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong> and
 784<a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a>
 785at any time.
 786<p>
 787If you have a lot of footnote references, and are identifying
 788footnotes by line number rather than by markers in the text, you may
 789want to enable
 790<a href="docelement.html#FOOTNOTES_RUN_ON">FOOTNOTES_RUN_ON</a>
 791in conjunctions with <strong>FOOTNOTE_REFS</strong>.
 792
 793<br>
 794
 795<!---ENDNOTE_REFS--->
 796
 797<hr width="33%" align="left">
 798<a name="ENDNOTE_REFS"><h3><u>Instruct REF to put references in endnotes</u></h3></a>
 799<p>
 800
 801Macro: <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong>
 802<p>
 803<strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong> is an instruction to
 804<a href="#REF">REF</a>,
 805saying, "add all subsequent references bracketed by the
 806<strong>REF</strong> macro to endnotes."  You invoke it by
 807itself, with no argument.
 808<p>
 809When <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong> is in effect,
 810<strong>mom</strong> continues to format regular endnotes, (i.e.
 811those introduced with <kbd>.ENDNOTE</kbd> and terminated with
 812<kbd>.ENDNOTE OFF</kbd>) in the normal way.
 813<p>
 814You may switch between <strong>ENDNOTE_REFS</strong> and
 815<a href="#FOOTNOTE_REFS">FOOTNOTE_REFS</a>
 816at any time.
 817
 818<br>
 819
 820<!---BRACKET_REFS--->
 821
 822<hr width="33%" align="left">
 823<a name="BRACKET_REFS"><h3><u>References embedded in text</u></h3></a>
 824<p>
 825
 826Macro pair: <strong>REF(</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;...&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>REF)</strong>
 827<br>
 828Macro pair: <strong>REF[</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;...&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>REF]</strong>
 829<br>
 830Macro pair: <strong>REF{</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;...&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>REF}</strong>
 831<p>
 832You may sometimes want to embed references directly into the body
 833of your documents, typically, but not always, inside parentheses.
 834<strong>Mom</strong> makes this possible through the use of the
 835<strong>REF&lt;bracket&nbsp;type&gt;</strong> macros.
 836<p>
 837All three macro pairs, above, are invoked the same way, namely by
 838introducing the reference with the first ("open") macro of
 839the <strong>REF&lt;bracket&nbsp;type&gt;</strong> pair, and
 840terminating it with the second ("close")
 841<strong>REF&lt;bracket&nbsp;type&gt;</strong> of the pair.  For
 842example
 843<p>
 844<pre>
 845	.REF(
 846	.[
 847	keyword(s)
 848	.]
 849	.REF)
 850</pre>
 851
 852will embed a reference in the body of your document, surrounded by
 853parentheses.  <strong>.REF[</strong>&nbsp;...&nbsp;<strong>.REF]</strong> will
 854surround the reference with square brackets.
 855<strong>.REF{</strong>&nbsp;...&nbsp;<strong>.REF}</strong> will surround it with
 856curly braces.
 857<br>
 858
 859<!---INDENT_REFS--->
 860
 861<hr width="33%" align="left">
 862<a name="INDENT_REFS"><h3><u>Manage the second-line indent of references</u></h3></a>
 863<p>
 864
 865<nobr>Macro: <strong>INDENT_REFS</strong> FOOTNOTE | ENDNOTE | BIBLIO &lt;indent&gt; </nobr>
 866<br>
 867<em>*&lt;indent&gt; requires a <a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a></em>
 868<p>
 869Proper MLA-style references should have their second, and subsequent
 870lines, if any, indented.  Since <strong>mom</strong> formats
 871references in MLA style, she automatically indents second lines.
 872By default, the indent for the second line of references,
 873regardless of whether the references appear in footnotes, endnotes,
 874or bibliographies, is 1.5
 875<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_EM">ems</a>
 876for
 877<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINSTYLE</a>
 878<strong>TYPESET</strong>
 879and 2 ems for
 880<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINSTYLE</a>
 881<strong>TYPEWRITE</strong>.
 882<p>
 883If you'd like to change the indent for footnotes, endnotes or
 884bibliographies, just invoke <strong>INDENT_REFS</strong> with a
 885first argument telling <strong>mom</strong> for which you want the
 886indent changed, and a second argument saying what you'd like the
 887indent to be.  For example, if you want the second-line indent of
 888references on a bibliography page to be 3
 889<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PICAS_POINTS">picas</a>,
 890<p>
 891<pre>
 892	.INDENT_REFS BIBLIO 3P
 893</pre>
 894
 895is how you'd set it up.
 896<p>
 897<strong>Tip:</strong> if you are identifying endnotes by line
 898number
 899(<a href="docelement.html#ENDNOTE_MARKER_STYLE">ENDNOTE_MARKER_STYLE</a> <strong>LINE</strong>)
 900and you have instructed <strong>mom</strong> to put references
 901bracketed by
 902<a href="#REF">REF</a>
 903into endnotes (with
 904<a href="#ENDNOTE_REFS">ENDNOTE_REFS</a>),
 905you will probably want to adjust the second-line indent for
 906references in endnotes, owing to the way <strong>mom</strong>
 907formats line-numbered endnotes.  Study the output of such
 908documents to see whether an indent adjustment is required.
 909<br>
 910
 911<!---HYPHENATE_REFS--->
 912
 913<hr width="33%" align="left">
 914<a name="HYPHENATE_REFS"><h3><u>Enable/disable hyphenation of references</u></h3></a>
 915<p>
 916
 917<nobr>Macro: <strong>HYPHENATE_REFS</strong> &lt;toggle&gt;</nobr>
 918<p>
 919If you have hyphenation turned on for a document (see <a
 920href="typesetting.html#HY">HY</a>),
 921and in most cases you probably do, <strong>mom</strong> will
 922hyphenate references bracketed by the
 923<a href="#REF">REF</a>
 924macro.  Since references typically contain quite a lot of proper
 925names, which shouldn't be hyphenated, you may want to disable
 926hyphenation for references.
 927<p>
 928<strong>HYPHENATE_REFS</strong> is a toggle macro;
 929invoking it by itself will turn automatic hyphenation of
 930<strong>REF</strong>-bracketed references on (the default).
 931Invoking it with any other argument (<strong>OFF</strong>,
 932<strong>NO</strong>, <strong>X</strong>, etc.) will disable
 933automatic hyphenation for references bracketed by
 934<strong>REF</strong>.
 935<p>
 936An alternative to turning reference hyphenation off is to prepend
 937to selected proper names in your <strong>refer</strong> database
 938the <strong>groff</strong>
 939<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_DISCRETIONARYHYPHEN">discretionary hyphen</a>
 940character, <strong>\%</strong>.  (See
 941<a href="#REF_DISC_HY">here</a>
 942in the tutorial for an example.)
 943<p>
 944<strong>Note:</strong> references embedded in the body of a document
 945with
 946<a href="#BRACKET_REFS">REF</a><strong>&lt;bracket&nbsp;type&gt;</strong>
 947are considered part of
 948<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_RUNNING">running text</a>,
 949and are hyphenated (or not) according to whether hyphenation
 950is turned on or off for running text.  Therefore, if you want to
 951disable hyphenation for such references, you must do so
 952temporarily, with <strong>HY</strong>, like this:
 953<p>
 954<pre>
 955	.HY OFF
 956	.REF(
 957	.[
 958	keyword(s)
 959	.]
 960	.REF)
 961	.HY
 962</pre>
 963
 964Alternatively, sprinkle your database fields liberally with
 965<strong>\%</strong>.
 966<br>
 967
 968<!---BIBLIOGRAPHY--->
 969
 970<hr width="33%" align="left">
 971<a name="BIBLIOGRAPHY"><h3><u>Begin a bibliography page</u></h3></a>
 972<p>
 973
 974Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong>
 975<br>
 976<p>
 977If you want to append a bibliography to your document, all you need
 978do is invoke <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong> at the place you want
 979it.  <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong> breaks to a new page, prints the
 980title (BIBLIOGRAPHY by default, but that can be changed), and awaits
 981<strong>refer</strong> instructions.  How to create bibliographies
 982is covered in the tutorial section,
 983<a href="#BIBLIO_REF">Creating bibliography pages</a>.
 984<p>
 985See the
 986<a href="#BIBLIO_CONTROL">Bibliography page style control macros</a>
 987for macros to tweak, design and control the appearance of
 988bibliography pages.
 989<br>
 990
 991<!---BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE--->
 992
 993<hr width="33%" align="left">
 994<a name="BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE"><h3><u>Plain, or numbered list bibliography</u></h3></a>
 995<p>
 996
 997<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE</strong> PLAIN | LIST [ &lt;list separator&gt; ] [ &lt;list prefix&gt; ]</nobr>
 998<p>
 999<strong>Mom</strong> offers two styles of bibliography output: plain,
1000or numbered list style.  With <strong>PLAIN</strong>, bibliography
1001entries are output with no enumerators.  With <strong>LIST</strong>,
1002each entry is numbered.  
1003<p>
1004Entering <kbd>.BIBLIOGRPHY_TYPE PLAIN</kbd> gives you a plain
1005bibliography.
1006<p>
1007Entering <kbd>.BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE LIST</kbd> gives you an enumerated
1008bibliography.  The two optional arguments,
1009<strong>&lt;list&nbsp;separator&gt;</strong> and
1010<strong>&lt;list&nbsp;prefix&gt;</strong> have the same meaning as
1011the equivalent arguments to
1012<a href="docelement.html#LIST">LIST</a>
1013(i.e. <strong>&lt;separator&gt;</strong> and <strong>&lt;prefix&gt;</strong>).
1014<p>
1015You may enter <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE</strong> either before or
1016after <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong>.  It must, however, always come
1017before the <strong>refer</strong> command to output bibliographies.
1018(See the tutorial section,
1019<a href="#BIBLIO_REF">Creating bibliography pages</a>,
1020for instructions on how to output bibliographies.)
1021<p>
1022<strong>Mom</strong>'s default <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_TYPE</strong>
1023is <strong>LIST</strong>, with a period (dot) as the separator, and
1024no prefix.
1025
1026<br>
1027
1028<!---BIBLIO_CONTROL--->
1029
1030<hr width="66%" align="left">
1031<a name="BIBLIO_CONTROL"><h3><u>Bibliography page style control</u></h3></a> 
1032
1033<p>
1034<strong>Mom</strong> processes bibliography pages in a manner very
1035similar to the way she processes endnotes pages.  The bibliography
1036page control macros, therefore, behave in the same way as their
1037endnotes pages equivalents.
1038<br>
1039<ol>
1040	<li><a href="#BIBLIO_GENERAL"><strong>General bibliography page style control</strong></a>
1041		<ul>
1042			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_STYLE">Base family/font/quad for bibliographies</a>
1043			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_PT_SIZE">Base point size for bibliographies</a>
1044			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_LEAD">Leading of bibliographies</a>
1045			<li><a href="#SINGLESPACE_BIBLIO">Singlespace bibliographies (for TYPEWRITE only)</a>
1046			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_NO_COLUMNS">Turning off column mode during bibliography output</a>
1047			<li>Pagination of bibliographies:
1048			<ul>
1049				<li><a href="#BIBLIO_PAGENUM_STYLE">Bibliography pages page numbering style</a>
1050				<li><a href="#BIBLIO_FIRST_PAGENUMBER">Setting the first page number of bibliography pages</a>
1051				<li><a href="#BIBLIO_NO_FIRST_PAGENUM">Omitting a page number on the first page of bibliographies</a>
1052			</ul>
1053			<li><a href="#SUSPEND_PAGINATION">Suspending pagination of bibliographies</a>
1054		</ul>
1055	<li><a href="#BIBLIO_HEADER_CONTROL"><strong>Bibliography pages header/footer control</strong></a>
1056		<ul>
1057			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_MODIFY_HDRFTR">Modifying what goes in the bibliography pages header/footer</a>
1058			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_HDRFTR_CENTER">Enabling a header/footer centre when doctype is CHAPTER</a>
1059			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_ALLOWS_HEADERS">Allow headers on bibliography pages</a>
1060		</ul>
1061	<li><a href="#BIBLIO_MAIN_TITLE"><strong>Bibliography page head (i.e. the title at the top) control</strong></a>
1062		<ul>
1063			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_STRING">Creating/modifying the bibliography page head</a>
1064			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_STRING_CONTROL">Bibliography page head control</a>
1065			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_STRING_UNDERSCORE">Bibliography page head underscoring</a>
1066			<li><a href="#BIBLIO_STRING_CAPS">Bibliography page head capitalization</a>
1067		</ul>
1068    </ul>
1069</ol>
1070<hr>
1071
1072<a name="BIBLIO_GENERAL"><h2><u>1. General bibliography page style control</u></h2>
1073
1074<a name="BIBLIO_STYLE"><h3><u>*Bibliography family/font/quad</u></h3></a>
1075<p>
1076See
1077<a href="#CONTROL_MACRO_ARGS">Arguments to the control macros</a>.
1078<p>
1079<pre>
1080.BIBLIOGRAPHY_FAMILY    default = prevailing document family; default is Times Roman
1081.BIBLIOGRAPHY_FONT      default = roman
1082.BIBLIOGRAPHY_QUAD*     default = justified
1083
1084*Note: BIBLIOGRAPHY_QUAD must be set to either L or J
1085</pre>
1086
1087<!---BIBLIO_PT_SIZE--->
1088
1089<a name="BIBLIO_PT_SIZE"><h3><u>*Bibliography point size</u></h3></a>
1090<p>
1091<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_PT_SIZE</strong> &lt;base type size of bibliography&gt;</nobr>
1092
1093<p>
1094Unlike most other control macros that deal with size of document
1095elements, <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_PT_SIZE</strong> takes as its argument an
1096absolute value, relative to nothing.  Therefore, the argument represents
1097the size of bibliography type in
1098<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>,
1099unless you append an alternative
1100<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a>.
1101For example,
1102<p>
1103<pre>
1104	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_PT_SIZE 12
1105</pre>
1106
1107sets the base point size of type on the bibliography page to 12
1108points, whereas
1109<p>
1110<pre>
1111	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_PT_SIZE .6i
1112</pre>
1113
1114sets the base point size of type on the bibliography page to 1/6 of an
1115inch.
1116<p>
1117The type size set with <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_PT_SIZE</strong> is the size of
1118type used for the text of the bibliographies, and forms the basis from which
1119the point size of other bibliography page elements is calculated.
1120<p>
1121The default for
1122<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPESET</a>
1123is 12.5 points (the same default size used in the body of the document).
1124<p>
1125
1126<!---BIBLIO_LEAD--->
1127
1128<a name="BIBLIO_LEAD"><h3><u>*Bibliography lead</u></h3></a>
1129<p>
1130<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD</strong> &lt;base leading of bibliographies&gt; [ ADJUST ]</nobr>
1131<br>
1132<em>*Does not require a <a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a>; points is assumed</em>
1133
1134<p>
1135Unlike most other control macros that deal with leading of document
1136elements, <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD</strong> takes as its argument an
1137absolute value, relative to nothing.  Therefore, the argument represents
1138the
1139<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_LEADING">leading</a>
1140of endnotes in
1141<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>
1142unless you append an alternative
1143<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a>.
1144For example,
1145<p>
1146<pre>
1147	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD 14
1148</pre>
1149
1150sets the base leading of type on the bibliography page to 14
1151points, whereas
1152<p>
1153<pre>
1154	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD .5i
1155</pre>
1156
1157sets the base leading of type on the bibliography page to 1/2 inch.
1158<p>
1159If you want the leading of bibliographies adjusted to fill the page,
1160pass <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD</strong> the optional argument
1161<strong>ADJUST</strong>.  (See
1162<a href="docprocessing.html#DOC_LEAD_ADJUST">DOC_LEAD_ADJUST</a>
1163for an explanation of leading adjustment.)
1164<p>
1165The default for
1166<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPESET</a>
1167is 14 points, adjusted.
1168<p>
1169<strong>NOTE:</strong> Even if you give <strong>mom</strong> a
1170<strong>DOC_LEAD_ADJUST OFF</strong> command, she will still, by
1171default, adjust bibliography leading.  You MUST enter
1172<strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_LEAD &lt;lead&gt;</strong> with no
1173<strong>ADJUST</strong> argument to disable this default behaviour.
1174<p>
1175
1176<!---SINGLESPACE_BIBLIO--->
1177
1178<a name="SINGLESPACE_BIBLIO"><h3><u>*Singlespace bibliographies (TYPEWRITE only)</u></h3></a>
1179<p>
1180<nobr>Macro: <strong>SINGLESPACE_BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong> &lt;toggle&gt;</nobr>
1181
1182<p>
1183If your 
1184<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE</a>
1185is <strong>TYPEWRITE</strong> and you use TYPEWRITE's default
1186double-spacing, bibliographies are double-spaced.  If your document
1187is single-spaced, bibliographies are single-spaced.
1188<p>
1189If, for some reason, you'd prefer that bibliographies be single-spaced
1190in an otherwise double-spaced document (including double-spaced
1191<a href="rectoverso.html#COLLATE">collated</a>
1192documents), invoke <strong>SINGLESPACE_BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong> with
1193with no argument.
1194<p>
1195
1196<!---BIBLIO_SPACING--->
1197
1198<a name="BIBLIO_SPACING"><h3><u>*Adjusting the space between bibliography entries</u></h3></a>
1199<p>
1200<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_SPACING</strong> &lt;amount of space&gt; </nobr>
1201<br>
1202<em>*Requires a <a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a></em>
1203
1204<p>
1205By default, <strong>mom</strong> inserts 1 linespaces between
1206bibliography entries on bibliography pages.  If you'd prefer she
1207add a different amount of space, instruct her to do so with the
1208macro, <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_SPACING</strong>.  Say, for example,
1209you'd prefer only 1/2 linespace.  That would be done with
1210<p>
1211<pre>
1212	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_SPACING .5v
1213</pre>
1214
1215As with endnotes pages, owing to the space inserted between bibliography
1216entries, bibliography pages may have hanging bottom margins.
1217Unlike endnotes pages, <strong>mom</strong> is sad to report that
1218there's nothing you can do about this, except a) pray things work
1219out, or b) set your <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_SPACING</strong> to zero.
1220
1221<!---BIBLIO_NO_COLUMNS--->
1222
1223<a name="BIBLIO_NO_COLUMNS"><h3><u>*Turning off column mode during bibliography output</u></h3></a>
1224<p>
1225<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_NO_COLUMNS</strong> &lt;toggle&gt;</nobr>
1226
1227<p>
1228By default, if your document is
1229<a href="columns.html#COLUMNS">set in columns</a>,
1230<strong>mom</strong> sets the bibliographies in columns, too.  However,
1231if your document is set in columns and you'd like the bibliographies not
1232to be, just invoke <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_NO_COLUMNS</strong> with no
1233argument.  The bibliography pages will be set to the full page measure
1234of your document.
1235<p>
1236If you output bibliographies at the end of each document in a
1237<a href="rectoverso.html#COLLATE">collated</a>
1238document set in columns, column mode will automatically
1239be reinstated for each document, even with
1240<strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_NO_COLUMNS</strong> turned on.
1241<p>
1242
1243<!---BIBLIO_PAGENUM_STYLE--->
1244
1245<a name="BIBLIO_PAGENUM_STYLE"><h3><u>*Bibliography-page page numbering style</u></h3></a>
1246<p>
1247<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_PAGENUM_STYLE</strong> DIGIT | ROMAN | roman | ALPHA | alpha</nobr>
1248
1249<p>
1250Use this macro to set the page numbering style of bibliography pages.
1251The arguments are identical to those for
1252<a href="headfootpage.html#PAGENUM_STYLE">PAGENUM_STYLE</a>.
1253The default is <strong>digit</strong>.  You may want to change it
1254to, say, <strong>alpha</strong>, which you would do with
1255<p>
1256<pre>
1257	.BIBLIOGRAPHY_PAGENUM_STYLE alpha
1258</pre>
1259
1260<!---BIBLIO_FIRST_PAGENUMBER--->
1261
1262<a name="BIBLIO_FIRST_PAGENUMBER"><h3><u>*Setting the first page number of bibliography pages</u></h3></a>
1263<p>
1264<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBILOGRAPHY_FIRST_PAGENUMBER</strong> &lt;page # that appears on page 1 of bibliographies&gt;</nobr>
1265
1266<p>
1267Use this macro with caution.  If all bibliographies for several
1268<a href="rectoverso.html#COLLATE">collated</a>
1269documents are to be output at once, i.e. not at the end of each
1270separate doc, <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_FIRST_PAGENUMBER</strong> tells
1271<strong>mom</strong> what page number to put on the first page of
1272the bibliography.
1273<p>
1274If you set <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_FIRST_PAGENUMBER</strong> in collated
1275documents where the bibliographies are output after each separate doc,
1276you have to reset every separate document's first page number after
1277<a href="rectoverso.html#COLLATE">COLLATE</a>
1278and before
1279<a href="docprocessing.html#START">START</a>.
1280<p>
1281
1282<!---BIBLIO_NO_FIRST_PAGENUN--->
1283
1284<a name="BIBLIO_NO_FIRST_PAGENUM"><h3><u>*Omitting a page number on the first page of bibliographies</u></h3></a>
1285<p>
1286<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_NO_FIRST_PAGENUM</strong> &lt;toggle&gt;</nobr>
1287
1288<p>
1289This macro is for use only if <strong>FOOTERS</strong> are on.  It
1290tells
1291<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY">BIBLIOGRAPHY</a>
1292not to print a page number on the first bibliography page.
1293<strong>Mom</strong>'s default is to print the page number.
1294<p>
1295
1296<!---SUSPEND_PAGINATION--->
1297
1298<a name="SUSPEND_PAGINATION"><h3><u>*Suspending pagination of bibliography pages</u></h3></a>
1299<p>
1300Macro: <strong>SUSPEND_PAGINATION</strong>
1301<br>
1302Macro: <strong>RESTORE_PAGINATION</strong>
1303
1304<p>
1305<strong>SUSPEND_PAGINATION</strong> doesn't take an argument.
1306Invoked immediately prior to
1307<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY">BIBLIOGRAPHY</a>,
1308it turns off pagination for the duration of the bibliography.
1309<strong>Mom</strong> continues, however to increment page numbers
1310silently.
1311<p>
1312To restore normal document pagination after bibliographies, invoke
1313<strong>RESTORE_PAGINATION</strong> (again, with no argument)
1314immediately after you've finished with your bibliography.
1315
1316<a name="BIBLIO_HEADER_CONTROL"><h2><u>2. Bibliography page header/footer control</u></h2></a>
1317<p>
1318<a name="BIBLIO_MODIFY_HDRFTR"></a>
1319If you wish to modify what appears in the header/footer that appears
1320on bibliography pages, make the changes before you invoke
1321<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY">BIBLIOGRAPHY</a>,
1322not afterwards.
1323<p>
1324Except in the case of
1325<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCTYPE">DOCTYPE CHAPTER</a>,
1326<strong>mom</strong> prints the same header or footer used throughout
1327the document on bibliography pages.  Chapters get treated differently
1328in that, by default, <strong>mom</strong> does not print the
1329header/footer centre string (normally the chapter number or chapter
1330title.)  In most cases, this is what you want.  However, should you
1331<em>not</em> want <strong>mom</strong> to remove the centre string from
1332the bibliography pages headers/footers, invoke
1333<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY_HDRFTR_CENTER">BIBLIOGRAPHY_HEADER_CENTER</a>
1334with no argument. 
1335<p>
1336An important change you may want to make is to put the word
1337&quot;Bibliography&quot; in the header/footer centre position.
1338To do so, do
1339<p>
1340<pre>
1341	.HEADER_CENTER "Bibliography"
1342	           or
1343	.FOOTER_CENTER "Bibliography"
1344</pre>
1345
1346prior to invoking <strong>.BIBLIOGRAPHY</strong>.  If your
1347<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCTYPE">DOCTYPE</a>
1348is <kbd>CHAPTER</kbd>, you must also invoke
1349<a href="#BIBLIOGRAPHY_HDRFTR_CENTER">BIBLIOGRAPHY_HEADER_CENTER</a>
1350for the <strong>HEADER_CENTER</strong> to appear.
1351<p>
1352
1353<a name="BIBLIO_HDRFTR_CENTER"><h3><u>*Bibliography page header/footer centre string</u></h3></a>
1354<p>
1355<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_HEADER_CENTER</strong> toggle</nobr>
1356
1357<p>
1358If your
1359<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCTYPE">DOCTYPE</a>
1360is <kbd>CHAPTER</kbd> and you want <strong>mom</strong> to include
1361a centre string in the headers/footers that appear on bibliography pages,
1362invoke <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_HEADER_CENTER</strong> (or
1363<strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_FOOTER_CENTER</strong>) with no argument.
1364<strong>Mom</strong>'s default is NOT to print the centre string.
1365<p>
1366If, for some reason, having enabled the header/footer centre string
1367on bibliography pages, you wish to disable it, invoke the same macro
1368with any argument (<strong>OFF, QUIT, Q, X</strong>...).
1369<p>
1370
1371<a name="BIBLIO_ALLOWS_HEADERS"><h3><u>*Allow headers on bibliography pages</u></h3></a>
1372<p>
1373<nobr>Macro: <strong>BIBLIOGRAPHY_ALLOWS_HEADERS</strong> &lt;none&gt; | ALL</nobr>
1374
1375<p>
1376By default, if <strong>HEADERS</strong> are on, <strong>mom</strong>
1377prints page headers on all bibliography pages except the first…

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