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  11<a href="inlines.html#TOP">Next</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
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  14<p>
  15<a name="TOP"></a>
  16<a name="GOODIES">
  17	<h1 align="center"><u>Goodies</u></h1>
  18</a>
  19<p>
  20<a name="INTRO_GOODIES"></a>
  21The macros in this section are a collection of useful (and sometimes
  22nearly indispensable) routines to simplify typesetting.
  23<p>
  24<a name="INDEX_GOODIES">
  25	<h3><u>Goodies list</u></h3>
  26</a>
  27
  28<ul>
  29	<li><a href="#ALIAS">ALIAS</a> (rename macros)
  30	<li><a href="#SILENT">SILENT</a> (&quot;hide&quot; input lines from output)
  31	<li><a href="#TRAP">TRAP</a> (suspend/re-invoke traps)
  32	<li><a href="#SMARTQUOTES">SMARTQUOTES</a> (convert typewriter doublequotes to proper doublequotes)
  33	<li><a href="#CAPS">CAPS</a> (convert to upper case)
  34	<li><a href="#STRING">STRING</a> (user-definable strings)
  35	<br>
  36	<li><strong>Underscore/underline</strong>
  37	<ul>
  38		<li><a href="#UNDERSCORE">UNDERSCORE</a> (single underscore)
  39		<li><a href="#UNDERSCORE2">UNDERSCORE2</a> (double underscore)
  40		<li><a href="#UNDERLINE">UNDERLINE</a> (underline -- Courier only!)
  41		<li><a href="#UL">\*[UL]</a> (inline escape to underline -- Courier only!)
  42	</ul>
  43	<li><strong>Padding</strong>
  44	<ul>
  45		<li><a href="#PAD">PAD</a> (insert equalized space into lines)
  46		<li><a href="#PAD_MARKER">PAD_MARKER</a> (change/set the marker used with <strong>PAD</strong>)
  47	</ul>
  48	<li><strong>Leaders</strong>
  49	<ul>
  50		<li><a href="#LEADER">\*[LEADER]</a> (inline escape to add leaders to a line)
  51		<li><a href="#LEADER_CHARACTER">LEADER_CHARACTER</a> (change/set the leader character)
  52	</ul>
  53	<li><strong>Drop caps</strong>
  54	<ul>
  55		<li><a href="#DROPCAP">DROPCAP</a> (set a drop cap)
  56		<li><strong>Support macros for DROPCAP</strong>
  57		<ul>
  58			<li><a href="#DROPCAP_FAMILY">DROPCAP_FAMILY</a> (change drop cap family)
  59			<li><a href="#DROPCAP_FONT">DROPCAP_FONT</a> (change drop cap font)
  60			<li><a href="#DROPCAP_ADJUST">DROPCAP_ADJUST</a> (alter size of drop cap)
  61			<li><a href="#DROPCAP_COLOR">DROPCAP_COLOR</a> (change colour of drop cap) 
  62			<li><a href="#DROPCAP_GUTTER">DROPCAP_GUTTER</a> (change space between drop cap and running text) 
  63		</ul>
  64	</ul>
  65	<li><strong>Superscripts</strong>
  66	<ul>
  67		<li><a href="#SUP">\*[SUP]</a> (set superscript)
  68		<li><a href="#CONDSUP">\*[CONDSUP]</a> (set condensed superscript)
  69		<li><a href="#EXTSUP">\*[EXTSUP]</a> (set extended superscript)
  70	</ul>
  71	<li><strong>Lists</strong>
  72	<ul>
  73		<li><a href="docelement.html#LIST_INTRO">Introduction to lists</a>
  74		<li><a href="docelement.html#LIST">LIST</a>
  75		<li><a href="docelement.html#ITEM">ITEM</a>
  76		<li><a href="docelement.html#SHIFT_LIST">SHIFT_LIST</a>
  77		<li><a href="docelement.html#RESET_LIST">RESET_LIST</a>
  78		<li><a href="docelement.html#PAD_LIST_DIGITS">PAD_LIST_DIGITS</a>
  79	</ul>
  80</ul>
  81
  82<!---ALIAS--->
  83
  84<hr width="66%" align="left">
  85<a name="ALIAS"><h3><u>Rename macros</u></h3></a>
  86<br>
  87<nobr>Macro: <strong>ALIAS</strong> &lt;new name&gt; &lt;old name&gt;</nobr>
  88
  89<p>
  90The <strong>ALIAS</strong> macro may well be your best friend.  With it,
  91you can change the name of a macro to anything you like
  92(provided the new name is not already being used by
  93<strong>mom</strong>; see the
  94<a href="reserved.html#RESERVED">list of reserved words</a>).
  95<p>
  96Groff has always been a bit intimidating for new users because
  97its standard macro packages use very terse macro names.
  98<strong>Mom</strong> doesn't like people to feel intimidated; she wants
  99them to feel welcome.  Consequently, she tries for easy-to-grasp,
 100self-explanatory macro names.  However, <strong>mom</strong> knows
 101that people have their own ways of thinking, their own preferences,
 102their own habits.  Some of her macro names may not suit you; they
 103might be too long, or aren't what you automatically think of
 104when you want to do a particular thing, or might conflict with habits
 105you've developed over the years.
 106<p>
 107If you don't like one of <strong>mom</strong>'s macro names,
 108say, PAGEWIDTH, change it, like this:
 109<p>
 110<pre>
 111	.ALIAS PW PAGEWIDTH
 112	       |      |
 113	  new__|      |__official
 114	 name            name
 115</pre>
 116
 117The first argument to <strong>ALIAS</strong> is the new name you want
 118for a macro.  The second is the &quot;official&quot; name by
 119which the macro is normally invoked.  After <strong>ALIAS</strong>,
 120either can be used.
 121<p>
 122Note that in <strong>ALIAS</strong>, you do NOT include the period
 123(dot) that precedes the macro when it's a
 124<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_CONTROLLINES">control line</a>.
 125<p>
 126<strong>NOTE:</strong> If you use <strong>ALIAS</strong> a lot,
 127and always for the same things, consider creating an aliases
 128file of the form
 129<p>
 130<pre>
 131	.ALIAS &lt;new name&gt; &lt;old name&gt;
 132	.ALIAS &lt;new name&gt; &lt;old name&gt;
 133	.ALIAS &lt;new name&gt; &lt;old name&gt;
 134	...etc
 135</pre>
 136
 137Put the file someplace convenient and source it at the
 138beginning of your documents using the groff
 139<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PRIMITIVES">primitive</a>
 140<strong>.so</strong>.  Assuming that you've created an aliases file
 141called mom_aliases in your home directory under a directory
 142called <code>Mom</code>, you'd source it by placing
 143<p>
 144<pre>
 145	.so /home/&lt;username&gt;/Mom/mom_aliases
 146</pre>
 147
 148at the top of your documents.
 149<p>
 150If you share documents that make use of an alias file, remember that
 151other people don't have the file!  Paste the whole thing at the top
 152of your documents, please.
 153<p>
 154<strong>EXPERTS:</strong> <strong>ALIAS</strong> is an alias of
 155<code>.als</code>.  You can use either, or mix 'n' match with
 156impunity.
 157<p>
 158
 159<!---SILENT--->
 160
 161<hr width="66%" align="left">
 162<a name="SILENT"><h3><u>Hide input lines from output</u></h3></a>
 163<br>
 164<nobr>Macro: <strong>SILENT</strong> toggle</nobr>
 165<br>
 166Alias: <strong>COMMENT</strong>
 167
 168<p>
 169Sometimes, you want to &quot;hide&quot;
 170<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INPUTLINE">input lines</a>
 171from final output.  This is most likely to be the case when setting
 172up string tabs (see the
 173<a href="STRING_TABS_TUT">quickie tutorial on string tabs</a>
 174for an example), but there are other places where you might want input
 175lines to be invisible as well.  Any place you don't want input lines
 176to appear in the output, use the <strong>SILENT</strong> macro.
 177<p>
 178<strong>SILENT</strong> is a toggle.  Invoking it without an argument
 179turns it on; any argument turns it off.  E.g.,
 180<p>
 181<pre>
 182	.SILENT
 183	A line of text
 184	.SILENT OFF
 185</pre>
 186
 187The line &quot;A line of text&quot; will not appear in the
 188output copy.
 189<p>
 190<strong>SILENT</strong> is aliased as <strong>COMMENT</strong>.
 191If you want to insert non-printing comments into your documents,
 192you may prefer this.
 193<p>
 194<strong>NOTE: SILENT</strong> does not automatically break an
 195<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INPUTLINE">input line</a>
 196(see
 197<a href="typesetting.html#BR">BR</a>)
 198when you're in one of the
 199<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_FILLED">fill modes</a>
 200(<a href="typesetting.html#JUSTIFY">JUSTIFY</a>
 201or
 202<a href="typesetting.html#QUAD">QUAD L | R | C | J</a>).
 203The same applies to tabs
 204(<a href="typesetting.html#TAB_SET">typesetting</a>
 205or
 206<a href="typesetting.html#ST">string</a>)
 207to which you've passed the <strong>J</strong> or <strong>QUAD</strong>
 208argument.  You must insert <code>.BR</code> yourself, or risk a
 209portion of your text disappearing into a black hole.
 210<p>
 211
 212<!---TRAP--->
 213
 214<hr width="66%" align="left">
 215<a name="TRAP"><h3><u>Suspend/re-invoke traps</u></h3></a>
 216<br>
 217<nobr>Macro: <strong>TRAP</strong> toggle</nobr>
 218
 219<p>
 220Traps are vertical positions on the output page at which you or
 221<strong>mom</strong> have instructed groff to start doing
 222something automatically.  Commonly, this is near the bottom of
 223the page, where automatic behind-the-scenes processing is needed
 224in order for one page to finish and another to start.
 225<p>
 226Sometimes, traps get sprung when you don't want them.  If this
 227happens, surround just the offending macros and input lines with
 228<p>
 229<pre>
 230	.TRAP OFF
 231	...
 232	.TRAP
 233</pre>
 234
 235<strong>TRAP</strong> is a toggle, therefore any argument 
 236turns it off (i.e. suspends the trap), and no argument turns it
 237(back) on.
 238<p>
 239
 240<!---SMARTQUOTES--->
 241
 242<hr width="66%" align="left">
 243<a name="SMARTQUOTES"><h3><u>Convert typewriter doublequotes to proper doublequotes</u></h3></a>
 244<br>
 245<nobr>Macro: <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> [&lt;off&gt;] [ ,, | &gt;&gt; | &lt;&lt; ]</nobr>
 246<br>
 247or
 248<br>
 249<nobr>Macro: <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> DA | DE | ES | FR | IT | NL | NO | PT | SV</nobr>
 250
 251<p>
 252If you invoke <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> without an argument,
 253<strong>mom</strong> converts all instances of the inch-mark,
 254(<kbd>"</kbd> -- also called a &quot;doublequote&quot;), into
 255the appropriate instances of true Anglo-American open- and
 256close-doublequotes.  (See
 257<a href="#SQ_INTERNATIONAL">Internationalization</a>
 258for how to get SMARTQUOTES to behave correctly for non-English
 259quoting styles.)
 260<p>
 261Typographically, there is a difference between the inch-mark and
 262doublequotes -- a BIG difference.  Sadly, typewriters and computer
 263keyboards supply only one: the inch-mark.  While using inches for
 264doublequotes is, and always has been, acceptable in typewriter-style
 265copy, it has never been, and, God willing, never will be acceptable in
 266typeset copy.  Failure to turn inches into quotes is the first thing
 267a professional typesetter notices in documents prepared by amateurs.
 268And you don't want to look like an amateur, do you?
 269<p>
 270<a name="SQ_INTERNATIONAL"><h3>Internationalization</h3></a>
 271<p>
 272If you invoke <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> with one of the optional
 273arguments (<kbd>,,</kbd> or <kbd>&gt;&gt;</kbd> or
 274<kbd>&lt;&lt;</kbd>) you can use <kbd>&quot;</kbd> as &quot;cheap&quot;
 275open- and close-quotes when inputting text in a language other than
 276English, and have <strong>mom</strong> convert them, on output,
 277into the chosen open- and close-quote style.
 278<p>
 279<kbd>,,</kbd> opens quotes with &quot;lowered doublequotes&quot; and
 280closes them with &quot;raised doublequotes&quot;, as in this ascii
 281approximation:
 282<p>
 283<pre>
 284	,,Hilfe !``
 285</pre>
 286
 287<kbd>&gt;&gt;</kbd> opens quotes with guillemets pointing to the
 288right, and closes them with guillemets pointing to the left, as in
 289this ascii approximation:
 290<p>
 291<pre>
 292	&gt;&gt;Zurück !&lt;&lt;
 293</pre>
 294
 295<kbd>&lt;&lt;</kbd> opens quotes with guillemets pointing to the
 296left, and closes them with guillemets pointing to the right, as in
 297this ascii approximation:
 298<p>
 299<pre>
 300	&lt;&lt;Mais monsieur! Je ne suis pas ce genre de fille!&gt;&gt;
 301</pre>
 302
 303Please note: the above arguments to <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong>
 304are literal ASCII characters. <kbd>,,</kbd> is two commas,
 305<kbd>&lt;&lt;</kbd> is two less-than signs and <kbd>&gt;&gt;</kbd>
 306is two greater-than signs.
 307<p>
 308Alternatively, you can pass <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> the
 309two-letter, ISO 639 abbreviation for the language you're writing in,
 310and <strong>mom</strong> will output the correct quotes.
 311<p>
 312<pre>
 313	.SMARTQUOTES DA     = Danish      &gt;&gt;text&lt;&lt;
 314	.SMARTQUOTES DE     = German      ,,text``
 315	.SMARTQUOTES ES     = Spanish     ``text´´
 316	.SMARTQUOTES FR     = French      &lt;&lt; text &gt;&gt;
 317	.SMARTQUOTES IT     = Italian     &lt;&lt; text &gt;&gt;
 318	.SMARTQUOTES NL     = Dutch       ´´text´´
 319	.SMARTQUOTES NO     = Norwegian   &lt;&lt;text&gt;&gt;
 320	.SMARTQUOTES PT     = Portuguese  &lt;&lt;text&gt;&gt;
 321	.SMARTQUOTES SV     = Swedish     &gt;&gt;text&gt;&gt;
 322</pre>
 323<p>
 324Turn <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> off by passing it any argument
 325<em>not</em> in the argument list (e.g. <strong>OFF</strong>,
 326<strong>QUIT</strong>, <strong>X</strong>, etc.)
 327<p>
 328If you're using the
 329<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCPROCESSING">document processing macros</a>
 330with
 331<a href="#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPESET</a>,
 332<strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> is on by default (in the Anglo-American
 333style); with
 334<a href="#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE</a>,
 335it's off by default (and should probably stay that way).
 336<p>
 337Finally, if you're fussy about the kerning of quote marks in
 338relation to the text they surround, or have special quoting needs,
 339you have to enter quote marks by hand using groff's native
 340<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline escapes</a>
 341for special characters (see man groff_char for a complete list of
 342special characters).  Entering quote marks this way allows you to
 343use <strong>mom</strong>'s
 344<a href="inlines.html#INLINE_KERNING_MOM">inline kerning escapes</a>
 345to fine-tune the look of quotes.
 346<p>
 347<strong>NOTE:</strong> <strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> does not work on
 348single quotes, which most people input with the apostrophe (found at
 349the right-hand end of the &quot;home row&quot; on a QWERTY keyboard).
 350Groff will interpret all instances of the apostrophe as an apostrophe,
 351making the symbol useless as an open-single-quote.  For open single
 352quotes, input the backtick character typically found under the tilde
 353on most keyboards.  (Pour nous autres, &quot;backtick&quot; veut dire
 354l'accent grave.)
 355Here's an example of correct input copy with single quotes:
 356<p>
 357<pre>
 358	"But she said, `I don't want to!'"	
 359</pre>
 360
 361<strong>ADDITIONAL NOTE:</strong> Whether or not you have
 362<strong>SMARTQUOTES</strong> turned on, get into the habit of entering
 363the foot- and inch-marks, when you need them, with the
 364<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline escapes</a>
 365<strong>\*[FOOT]</strong> and <strong>\*[INCH]</strong>, instead
 366of <kbd>'</kbd> and <kbd>"</kbd>.
 367<p>
 368
 369<!---CAPS--->
 370
 371<hr width="66%" align="left">
 372<a name="CAPS"><h3><u>Convert to upper case</u></h3></a>
 373<br>
 374<nobr>Macro: <strong>CAPS</strong> toggle</nobr>
 375
 376<p>
 377<strong>CAPS</strong> converts all lower case letters to upper
 378case.  Primarily, it's a support macro used by the
 379<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCPROCESSING">document processing macros</a>,
 380but you may find it helpful on occasion.  <strong>CAPS</strong>
 381is a toggle, therefore no argument turns it on, any argument
 382turns it off.
 383<p>
 384<pre>
 385	.CAPS
 386	All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
 387	.CAPS OFF
 388</pre>
 389
 390produces, on output
 391<p>
 392<pre>
 393	ALL WORK AND NO PLAY MAKES JACK A DULL BOY.
 394</pre>
 395
 396<!---STRING--->
 397
 398<hr width="66%" align="left">
 399<a name="STRING"><h3><u>User-defined strings</u></h3></a>
 400<br>
 401<nobr>Macro: <strong>STRING</strong> &lt;name&gt; &lt;what you want in the string&gt;</nobr>
 402
 403<p>
 404You may find sometimes that you have to type out portions of text
 405repeatedly.  If you'd like not to wear out your fingers, you can
 406define a &quot;string&quot; that, whenever you call it by name,
 407outputs whatever you put into it.
 408<p>
 409For example, say you're creating a document that repeatedly uses
 410the phrase &quot;the Montreal/Windsor corridor&quot;.  Instead of
 411typing all that out every time, you could define a string, like
 412this:
 413<p>
 414<pre>
 415	.STRING mw the Montreal/Windsor corridor
 416</pre>
 417
 418Once a string is defined, you can call it any time with the
 419<a href="definitions.html#INLINES">inline escape</a>
 420<kbd>\*[&lt;stringname&gt;]</kbd>.  Using the example string above
 421<p>
 422<pre>
 423	The schedule for trains along \*[mw]:
 424</pre>
 425
 426produces, on output
 427<p>
 428<pre>
 429	The schedule for trains along the Montreal/Windsor corridor:
 430</pre>
 431
 432<strong>NOTE:</strong> Be very careful not to put any spaces at the
 433ends of strings you're defining, unless you want them.  Everything
 434after the name argument you pass to <strong>STRING</strong> goes
 435into the string, including trailing spaces.
 436<p>
 437<strong>Experts: STRING</strong> is an alias for <strong>ds</strong>.
 438You can use either, or mix 'n' match with impunity.
 439<p>
 440
 441<!---UNDERSCORE--->
 442
 443<hr width="66%" align="left">
 444<a name="UNDERSCORE"><h3><u>Single underscore</u></h3></a>
 445<br>
 446<nobr>Macro: <strong>UNDERSCORE</strong> [ &lt;distance below baseline&gt; ] &quot;&lt;string&gt;&quot;</nobr>
 447<br>
 448<em>*Optional argument requires a <a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a></em>
 449
 450<p>
 451By default, <strong>UNDERSCORE</strong> places an underscore 2 points
 452beneath the required
 453<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_STRINGARGUMENT">string argument</a>.
 454The string must be enclosed in double-quotes, like this:
 455<p>
 456<pre>
 457	.UNDERSCORE "Unmonitored monopolies breed high prices and poor products."
 458</pre>
 459
 460If you wish to change the distance of the rule from the
 461baseline, use the optional argument <i>&lt;distance below
 462baseline&gt;</i> (with a unit of measure).
 463<p>
 464<pre>
 465	.UNDERSCORE 3p "Unmonitored monopolies breed high prices and poor products."
 466</pre>
 467
 468The above places the underscore 3 points below the baseline.
 469<p>
 470<a name="NOTES_UNDERSCORE"></a>
 471<strong>NOTES:</strong>
 472<br>
 473<strong>UNDERSCORE</strong> does not work across line breaks in output
 474copy, which is to say that you can't underscore a multi-line passage
 475simply by putting the text of the whole thing in the string you pass
 476to <strong>UNDERSCORE</strong>.  Each
 477<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_OUTPUTLINE">output line</a>
 478or portion of an output line you want underscored must be plugged
 479separately into <strong>UNDERSCORE</strong>.  Bear in mind, though,
 480that underscoring should at best be an occasional effect in typeset
 481copy.  If you want to emphasize an entire passage, it's much, much
 482better to change fonts (e.g. to italic or bold).
 483<p>
 484You can easily and successfully underline entire passages in simulated
 485typewriter-style copy (i.e. if your font is Courier, or you're using
 486the document processing macro
 487<a href="#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE</a>),
 488with the
 489<a href="#UNDERLINE">UNDERLINE</a>
 490macro.  <strong>UNDERLINE</strong> is designed specifically for this
 491purpose, but works only with the Courier font.
 492<p>
 493<strong>Mom</strong> doesn't always get the position and length
 494of the underscore precisely right in
 495<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_JUST">justified</a>
 496copy, although she's fine with all the other
 497<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_FILLED">fill modes</a>,
 498as well as with the no-fill modes.  As of this writing, I have
 499no solution to the occasional problems with justified copy.
 500<p>
 501<strong>UNDERSCORE</strong> tends to confuse
 502<strong>gxditview</strong>, even though the output, when
 503printed, looks fine.  Generally, I recommend using <strong>gv</strong>
 504to preview files anyway.  See the section on
 505<a href="#PREVIEWING">previewing</a>.
 506<p>
 507
 508<!---UNDERSCORE2--->
 509
 510<hr width="66%" align="left">
 511<a name="UNDERSCORE2"><h3><u>Double underscore</u></h3></a>
 512<br>
 513<nobr>Macro: <strong>UNDERSCORE2</strong> [ &lt;distance below baseline&gt; [ &lt;distance between rules&gt; ] ] &quot;&lt;string&gt;&quot;</nobr>
 514<br>
 515<em>*Optional arguments require a <a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a></em>
 516
 517<p>
 518By default, <strong>UNDERSCORE2</strong> places a double underscore
 5192 points beneath the required
 520<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_STRINGARGUMENT">string argument</a>.
 521The string must be enclosed in double-quotes, like this:
 522<p>
 523<pre>
 524	.UNDERSCORE2 "Unmonitored monopolies breed high prices and poor products."
 525</pre>
 526
 527The default distance between the two rules is 2 points.
 528<p>
 529If you wish to change the distance of the double underscore from
 530the baseline, use the optional argument <i>&lt;distance below
 531baseline&gt;</i> (with a unit of measure), e.g.,
 532<p>
 533<pre>
 534	.UNDERSCORE2 3p "Unmonitored monopolies breed high prices and poor products."
 535</pre>
 536
 537which places the double underscore 3 points below the baseline.
 538<p>
 539If you wish to change the distance between the two rules as
 540well, use the second optional argument <i>&lt;distance between
 541rules&gt;</i> (with a unit of measure).  Be aware that you must
 542give a value for the first optional argument if you want to use
 543the second.
 544<p>
 545<strong>NOTE:</strong> the same restrictions and caveats apply
 546to <strong>UNDERSCORE2</strong> as to
 547<strong>UNDERSCORE</strong>.  See the
 548<a href="#NOTES_UNDERSCORE">NOTES</a>
 549for <strong>UNDERSCORE</strong>.
 550<p>
 551
 552<!---UNDERLINE--->
 553
 554<hr width="66%" align="left">
 555<a name="UNDERLINE"><h3><u>Underline text -- Courier font only!</u></h3></a>
 556<br>
 557<nobr>Macro: <strong>UNDERLINE</strong> toggle</nobr>
 558
 559<p>
 560If your font is Courier, or you're using the document processing macro
 561<a href="#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE</a>,
 562<strong>UNDERLINE</strong> allows you to underline words and
 563passages that, in typeset copy, would be italicized.  You invoke
 564<strong>UNDERLINE</strong> as you do with all toggle macros --
 565by itself (i.e. with no argument) to initiate underlining, and
 566with any argument to turn underlining off.
 567<p>
 568When on, <strong>UNDERLINE</strong> underlines letters, words
 569and numbers, but not punctuation or spaces.  This makes for more
 570readable copy than a solid underline.
 571<p>
 572<strong>NOTE:</strong> Underlining may also be turned on and off
 573<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline</a>
 574with the escapes
 575<a href="#UL">\*[UL]...\*[ULX].</a>
 576<p>
 577
 578<!---UL--->
 579
 580<hr width="66%" align="left">
 581<a name="UL"><h3><u>Inline escape for underlining -- Courier font only!</u></h3></a>
 582<br>
 583Inline: <strong>\*[UL]...\*[ULX]</strong>
 584
 585<p>
 586If your font is Courier, or you're using the document processing macro
 587<a href="#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE TYPEWRITE</a>,
 588<strong>\*[UL]...\*[ULX]</strong> underlines words and
 589passages that, in typeset copy, would be italicized.
 590<p>
 591<strong>\*[UL]</strong> underlines all letters, words and numbers
 592following it, but not punctuation or spaces.  This makes for more
 593readable copy than a solid underline.  When you no longer want
 594underlining, <strong>\*[ULX]</strong> turns underlining off.
 595<p>
 596The macro
 597<a href="#UNDERLINE">UNDERLINE</a>
 598and the inline escape <strong>\*[UL]</strong> are functionally
 599identical, hence
 600<p>
 601<pre>
 602	.FAM     C
 603	.FT      R
 604	.PT_SIZE 12
 605	.LS      24
 606	.SS      0
 607	.QUAD    LEFT
 608	Which should I heed?
 609	.UNDERLINE
 610	Just do it
 611	.UNDERLINE OFF
 612	or
 613	.UNDERLINE
 614	just say no?
 615	.UNDERLINE OFF
 616</pre>
 617
 618produces the same result as
 619<p>
 620<pre>
 621	.FAM     C
 622	.FT      R
 623	.PT_SIZE 12
 624	.LS      24
 625	.SS      0
 626	.QUAD    LEFT
 627	Which should I heed? \*[UL]Just do it\*[ULX] or \*[UL]just say no?\*[ULX]
 628</pre>
 629
 630<!---PAD--->
 631
 632<hr width="66%" align="left">
 633<a name="PAD"><h3><u>Insert space into lines</u></h3></a>
 634<br>
 635<nobr>Macro: <strong>PAD</strong> &quot;&lt;string with pad markers inserted&gt;&quot; [NOBREAK]</nobr>
 636
 637<p>
 638With <strong>PAD</strong>, you can insert unspecified amounts of
 639whitespace into a line.  The optional <strong>NOBREAK</strong>
 640argument tells <strong>mom</strong> not to advance on the page
 641after the <strong>PAD</strong> macro has been invoked.
 642<p>
 643<strong>PAD</strong> calculates the difference between the length of
 644text on the line and the distance remaining to its end, then inserts
 645the difference (as whitespace) at the place(s) you specify.
 646<p>
 647Take, for example, the following relatively common typesetting
 648situation, found at the bottom of legal agreements:
 649<p>
 650<pre>
 651	Date             Signature                               |
 652</pre>
 653
 654The person signing the agreement is supposed to fill in the date
 655as well as a signature.  Space needs to be left for both, but
 656the exact amount is neither known, nor important.  All that
 657matters is that there be a little space after Date, and rather
 658more space after Signature.  (In the above, | represents
 659the end of the line at the prevailing line length.)
 660<p>
 661The
 662<a href="#PADMARKER">pad marker</a>
 663(see below) is # (the pound or number sign on your keyboard) and
 664can be used multiple times in a line.  With that in mind, here's how
 665you'd input the Date/Signature line (assuming a length of 30 picas):
 666<p>
 667<pre>
 668	.LL 30P
 669	.PAD "Date#Signature###"
 670</pre>
 671
 672When the line is output, the space remaining on the line, after
 673&quot;Date&quot; and &quot;Signature&quot; have been taken into
 674account, is split into four (because there are four # signs).
 675One quarter of the space is inserted between Date and Signature,
 676the remainder is inserted after Signature.
 677<a name="PAD_EXAMPLE"></a>
 678<p>
 679One rarely wants merely to insert space in a line; one usually
 680wants to fill it with something, hence <strong>PAD</strong> is
 681particularly useful in conjunction with
 682<a href="#STRING_TABS">string tabs</a>.
 683The following uses the Date/Signature example above, but adds
 684rules into the whitespace through the use of string tabs and
 685<strong>mom</strong>'s
 686<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline escape</a>
 687<a href="inlines.html#INLINE_RULE_MOM">\*[RULE]</a>.
 688(Instead of <strong>\*[RULE]</strong>,
 689groff's line drawing function,
 690<a href="inlines.html#INLINE_LINEDRAWING_GROFF">\l</a>
 691could be used.)
 692<p>
 693<pre>
 694	.LL 30P
 695	.PAD "Date \*[ST1]#\*[ST1X] Signature \*[ST2]###\*[ST2X]" NOBREAK
 696	.ST 1 J
 697	.ST 2 J
 698	.TAB 1
 699	\*[RULE]
 700	.TN
 701	\*[RULE]
 702	.TQ
 703</pre>
 704
 705If you're not a typesetter, and if you're new to groff, the
 706example probably looks like gibberish.  My apologies.  However,
 707remember that typesetting is a craft, and without having studied
 708the craft, it takes a while to grasp its concepts.
 709<p>
 710Basically, what the example does is:
 711<br>
 712<ol>
 713	<li>Pads the Date/Signature line (using the pad marker #),
 714		encloses the padded space with two string tabs markers,
 715		and outputs the line.
 716	<br>
 717	<li>Sets the two string tabs (notice the use of
 718		<a href="#EL">EL</a>
 719		beforehand; you don't want <strong>mom</strong>
 720		to advance a line at this point).
 721	<br>
 722	<li>Calls the first string tab and draws a rule to its full
 723		length.
 724	<br>
 725	<li>Calls the second tab with
 726		<a href="#TN">TN</a>
 727		(which moves to tab 2 and stays on the same baseline)
 728		then draws a rule to the full length of string tab 2.
 729</ol>
 730<br>
 731Often, when setting up string tabs this way, you don't want the
 732padded line to print immediately.  To accomplish this, use
 733<a href="#SILENT">SILENT</a>.
 734See the <a href="#STRING_TABS_TUT">quickie tutorial on string tabs</a>
 735for an example.
 736<p>
 737<strong>NOTE:</strong> Because the pound sign (#) is used as the pad
 738marker, you can't use it as a literal part of the pad string.  If you
 739need the sign to appear in the text of a padded line, change the pad
 740marker with <a href="#PAD_MARKER">PAD_MARKER</a>.  Also, be aware
 741that # as a pad marker only applies within the <strong>PAD</strong>
 742macro; at all other times it prints literally, just as you'd expect.
 743<p>
 744Another important consideration when using <strong>PAD</strong> is that
 745because the string must be enclosed in double-quotes, you can't use the
 746double-quote (&quot;) as part of the string.  The way to circumvent
 747this is to use the groff
 748<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline escapes</a>
 749<strong>\(lq</strong> and <strong>\(rq</strong> (leftquote and
 750rightquote respectively) whenever double-quotes are required in the
 751string passed to <strong>PAD</strong>.
 752<p>
 753
 754<!---PAD_MARKER--->
 755
 756<hr width="66%" align="left">
 757<a name="PAD_MARKER"><h3><u>Change/set the marker used with PAD</u></h3></a>
 758<br>
 759<nobr>Macro: <strong>PAD_MARKER</strong> &lt;character to use as the pad marker&gt;</nobr>
 760
 761<p>
 762If you need to change <strong>mom</strong>'s default pad marker
 763(#), either because you want a literal # in the padded line,
 764or simply because you want to use another character instead, use
 765<strong>PAD_MARKER</strong>, whose argument is the new pad marker
 766character you want.
 767<p>
 768<pre>
 769	.PAD_MARKER @
 770</pre>
 771
 772changes the pad marker to @.
 773<p>
 774Once you've changed the pad marker, the new marker remains in
 775effect for every instance of
 776<a href="#PAD">PAD</a>
 777until you change it again (say, back to the pound sign).
 778<p>
 779
 780<!---\*[LEADER]--->
 781
 782<hr width="66%" align="left">
 783<a name="LEADER"><h3><u>Inline escape to add leaders to a line</u></h3></a>
 784<br>
 785Inline: <strong>\*[LEADER]</strong>
 786
 787<p>
 788Whenever you want to fill a line or tab with
 789<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_LEADER">leaders</a>,
 790use the
 791<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline escape</a>
 792<strong>\*[LEADER]</strong>.  The remainder of the line or tab will be
 793filled with the leader character.  <strong>Mom</strong>'s
 794default leader character is a period (dot), but you can change
 795it to any character you like with
 796<a href="#LEADER_CHARACTER">LEADER_CHARACTER</a>.
 797<p>
 798<strong>NOTE:</strong> <strong>\*[LEADER]</strong> fills lines
 799or tabs right to their end.  You cannot insert leaders into a
 800line or tab and have text following the leader on the same line
 801or in the same tab.  Should you wish to achieve such an effect
 802typographically, create tabs for each element of the line and
 803fill them appropriately with the text and leaders you need.
 804<a href="#STRING_TABS">String tabs</a> are perfect for this.  An
 805example follows.
 806<p>
 807<pre>
 808	.LL 30P
 809	.PAD "Date\*[ST1]#\*[ST1X]Signature\*[ST2]###\*[ST2X]"
 810	.EL
 811	.ST 1 J
 812	.ST 2 J
 813	.TAB 1
 814	\*[LEADER]
 815	.TN
 816	\*[LEADER]
 817	.TQ
 818</pre>
 819
 820The <strong>PAD</strong> line sets the words Date and Signature,
 821and marks string tabs around the pad space inserted in the line.
 822The string tabs are then &quot;set&quot;, called, and filled
 823with leaders.  The result looks like this:
 824<p>
 825<pre>
 826	Date.............Signature.....................................
 827</pre>
 828
 829<!---LEADER_CHARACTER--->
 830
 831<hr width="66%" align="left">
 832<a name="LEADER_CHARACTER"><h3><u>Change/set the leader character</u></h3></a>
 833<br>
 834<nobr>Macro: <strong>LEADER_CHARACTER</strong> &lt;character&gt;</nobr>
 835
 836<p>
 837<strong>LEADER_CHARACTER</strong> takes one argument: a single
 838character you would like to be used for
 839<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_LEADER">leaders</a>.
 840(See
 841<a href="#LEADER">\*[LEADER]</a> for an explanation of how to
 842fill lines with leaders.)
 843<p>
 844For example, to change the leader character from <strong>mom</strong>'s
 845default (a period) to the underscore character, enter
 846<p>
 847<pre>
 848	.LEADER_CHARACTER _
 849</pre>
 850
 851<!---DROPCAP--->
 852
 853<hr width="66%" align="left">
 854<a name="DROPCAP"><h3><u>Drop caps</u></h3></a>
 855<br>
 856<nobr>Macro: <strong>DROPCAP</strong> &lt;dropcap letter&gt; &lt;number of lines to drop&gt; [ COND &lt;percentage&gt; | EXT &lt;percentage&gt; ]</nobr>
 857
 858<p>
 859The first two arguments to <strong>DROPCAP</strong> are the letter you
 860want to be the
 861<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_DROPCAP">drop cap</a>
 862and the number of lines you want it to drop.  By default,
 863<strong>mom</strong> uses the current family and font for the drop cap.
 864<p>
 865The optional argument (COND or EXT) indicates that you want the
 866drop cap condensed (narrower) or extended (wider).  If you use
 867<strong>COND</strong> or <strong>EXT</strong>, you must follow the
 868argument with the percentage of the letter's normal width you want
 869it condensed or extended.  No percent sign (%) is required.
 870<p>
 871<strong>Mom</strong> will do her very best to get the drop cap to
 872line up with the first line of text indented beside it, then set
 873the correct number of indented lines, and restore your left margin
 874when the number of drop cap lines has been reached.
 875<p>
 876Beginning a paragraph with a drop cap &quot;T&quot; looks
 877like this:
 878<p>
 879<pre>
 880	.DROPCAP T 3 COND 90
 881	he thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I
 882	could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.
 883	You who so well know the nature of my soul will not suppose,
 884	however, that I gave utterance to a threat...
 885</pre>
 886
 887The drop cap, slightly condensed but in the current family and font,
 888will be three lines tall, with whatever text fills those three
 889lines indented to the right of the letter.  The remainder of the
 890paragraph's text will revert to the left margin.
 891<p>
 892<strong>NOTE:</strong> When using the
 893<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCPROCESSING">document processing macro</a>
 894<a href="#PP">PP</a>,
 895<strong>DROPCAP</strong> only works
 896<br>
 897<ul>
 898	<li>with initial paragraphs (i.e. at the start of the document,
 899		or after
 900		<a href="#HEAD">HEAD</a>),
 901	<li>when <strong>DROPCAP</strong> comes immediately after <strong>PP</strong>,
 902	<li>and when the
 903		<a href="docprocessing.html#PRINTSTYLE">PRINTSTYLE</a>
 904		is TYPESET.
 905</ul>
 906<br>
 907If these conditions aren't met, <strong>DROPCAP</strong> is silently ignored.
 908<p>
 909<strong>WARNING:</strong> <strong>DROPCAP</strong> puts a bit of
 910a strain on resource-challenged systems.  If you have such a
 911system and use drop caps extensively in a document, be prepared
 912for a wait while <strong>mom</strong> does her thing.
 913
 914<h3><a name="DROPCAP_SUPPORT"><u>Support macros for DROPCAP</u></a></h3>
 915Drop caps are the bane of most typesetters' existence.  It's
 916very difficult to get the size of the drop cap right for the
 917number of drop lines, especially if the drop cap is in a
 918different family from the prevailing family of running text.
 919Not only that, but there's the gutter around the drop cap to
 920take into account, plus the fact that the letter may be too wide
 921or too narrow to look anything but odd or misplaced.
 922<p>
 923<strong>Mom</strong> solves the last of these problems with the
 924<strong>COND</strong> and <strong>EXT</strong> arguments.  The
 925rest she solves with macros that change the default behaviour of
 926<strong>DROPCAP</strong>, namely
 927<p>
 928<a href="#DROPCAP_FAMILY">DROPCAP_FAMILY</a>,
 929<br>
 930<a href="#DROPCAP_FONT">DROPCAP_FONT</a>,
 931<br>
 932<a href="#DROPCAP_COLOR">DROPCAP_COLOR</a>,
 933<br>
 934<a href="#DROPCAP_ADJUST">DROPCAP_ADJUST</a>
 935<br>
 936and
 937<br>
 938<a href="#DROPCAP_GUTTER">DROPCAP_GUTTER</a>.
 939<p>
 940These macros must, of course, come before you invoke
 941<strong>DROPCAP</strong>.
 942
 943<h3><a name="DROPCAP_FAMILY"><u>DROPCAP_FAMILY</u></a></h3>
 944
 945Set the drop cap family by giving
 946<strong>DROPCAP_FAMILY</strong> the name of the family you want,
 947e.g.
 948<p>
 949<pre>
 950	.DROPCAP_FAMILY H
 951</pre>
 952
 953which will set the family to Helvetica for the drop cap only.
 954
 955<h3><a name="DROPCAP_FONT"><u>DROPCAP_FONT</u></a></h3>
 956
 957Set the drop cap font by giving
 958<strong>DROPCAP_FONT</strong> the name of the font you want,
 959e.g.
 960<p>
 961<pre>
 962	.DROPCAP_FONT I
 963</pre>
 964
 965which will set the font to italic for the drop cap only.
 966
 967<h3><a name="DROPCAP_ADJUST"><u>DROPCAP_ADJUST</u></a></h3>
 968
 969If the size <strong>mom</strong> calculates for the drop cap
 970isn't precisely what you want, you can increase or decrease it
 971with <strong>DROPCAP_ADJUST</strong>, like this:
 972e.g.
 973<p>
 974<pre>
 975	.DROPCAP_ADJUST +1
 976	    or
 977	.DROPCAP_ADJUST -.75
 978</pre>
 979
 980<strong>DROPCAP_ADJUST</strong> only understands
 981<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_PICASPOINTS">points</a>,
 982therefore do not append any
 983<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_UNITOFMEASURE">unit of measure</a>
 984to the argument.  And always be sure to prepend the plus or
 985minus sign, depending on whether you want the drop cap larger or
 986smaller.
 987
 988
 989<h3><a name="DROPCAP_COLOR"><u>DROPCAP_COLOR</u></a></h3>
 990
 991If you'd like your drop cap colourized, simply invoke
 992<strong>DROPCAP_COLOR</strong> with the name of a colour you've already
 993created (&quot;initialized&quot;) with
 994<a href="color.html#NEWCOLOR">NEWCOLOR</a>
 995or
 996<a href="color.html#XCOLOR">XCOLOR</a>.  Only the drop cap will be
 997colourized; all other text will remain at the current colour
 998default (usually black).
 999
1000<h3><a name="DROPCAP_GUTTER"><u>DROPCAP_GUTTER</u></a></h3>
1001
1002By default, <strong>mom</strong> puts three points of space
1003between the drop cap and the text indented beside it.  If you
1004want another value, use <strong>DROPCAP_GUTTER</strong> (with a
1005unit of measure), like this:
1006<p>
1007<pre>
1008	.DROPCAP_GUTTER 6p
1009</pre>
1010
1011<!---\*[SUP]--->
1012
1013<hr width="66%" align="left">
1014<a name="SUP"><h3><u>Superscript</u></h3></a>
1015<br>
1016Inlines: <strong>\*[SUP]...\*[SUPX]</strong>
1017
1018<p>
1019Superscripts are accomplished
1020<a href="definitions.html#TERMS_INLINES">inline</a>.
1021Whenever you need one, typically for numerals, all you need to
1022do is surround the superscript with the inlines above.
1023<strong>\*[SUP]</strong> begins superscripting;
1024<strong>\*[SUPX]</strong> turns it off.
1025<a name="CONDSUP"></a>
1026<a name="EXTSUP"></a>
1027<p>
1028If your running type is
1029<a href="#COND_INLINE">pseudo-condensed</a>
1030or
1031<a href="#EXT_INLINE">pseudo-extended</a>
1032and you want your superscripts to be equivalently pseudo-condensed or
1033-extended, use <strong>\*[CONDSUP]...\*[CONDSUPX]</strong> or
1034<strong>\*[EXTSUP]...\*[EXTSUPX]</strong>.
1035<p>
1036The superscript inlines are primarily used by the
1037<a href="docprocessing.html#DOCPROCESSING">document processing macros</a>
1038for automatic generation of numbered footnotes.  However, you may
1039find them useful for other purposes.
1040<p>
1041<strong>NOTE:</strong> <strong>Mom</strong> does a pretty fine job of
1042making superscripts look good in any font and at any size.  If you're
1043fussy, though (and I am), about precise vertical placement, kerning,
1044weight, size, and so on, you may want to roll your own solution.
1045And sorry, there's no <strong>mom</strong> equivalent for subscripts.
1046I'm neither a mathematician nor a chemist, so I don't need them.
1047Of course, anyone who wishes to contribute a subscript routine to
1048<strong>mom</strong> will receive eternal blessings not only in this
1049lifetime, but in all lifetimes to come.
1050<p>
1051<hr>
1052<a href="inlines.html#TOP">Next</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1053<a href="typesetting.html#TOP">Prev</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1054<a href="#TOP">Top</a>&nbsp;&nbsp;
1055<a href="toc.html">Back to Table of Contents</a>
1056</body>
1057</html>