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   1.\" Copyright (c) 1986 The Regents of the University of California.
   2.\" All rights reserved.
   3.\"
   4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted
   5.\" provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   6.\" duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation,
   7.\" advertising materials, and other materials related to such
   8.\" distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed
   9.\" by the University of California, Berkeley.  The name of the
  10.\" University may not be used to endorse or promote products derived
  11.\" from this software without specific prior written permission.
  12.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'' AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
  13.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
  14.\" WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  15.\"
  16.\"	@(#)ref.me	6.4 (Berkeley) 7/17/89
  17.\"
  18.\" Modified by jjc@jclark.com for groff.
  19.\"UC 7
  20.ll 6.5i
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  23.ds MO @VERSION@
  24.de TL			\" *** title line
  25.lp
  26.di XX
  27..
  28.ie \n(.g \{\
  29.de DE
  30\?\h'|\\n(DIu'\c\?
  31..
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  33.el \{\
  34.de DE
  35\\\\h'|\\\\n(DIu'\\\\c
  36..
  37.\}
  38.am DE
  39.br
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  43.cu 1000
  44.XX
  45.rm XX
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  47..
  48.ds G \s-1GROFF\s0
  49.ds N \s-1NROFF\s0
  50.ds T \s-1TROFF\s0
  51.nr DI 1.5i
  52.he '\-ME REFERENCE MANUAL''%'
  53.de NR
  54.b "\en\\$1" "\\$2"
  55..
  56.de ST
  57.b "\e*\\$1" "\\$2"
  58..
  59.\"sc
  60.\"eh 'USD:23-%''\-me Reference Manual'
  61.\"oh '\-me Reference Manual''USD:23-%'
  62.+c
  63.ce 20
  64.sz 14
  65.b "\-ME REFERENCE MANUAL"
  66.sz
  67.sp
  68.i "\*G Version \*(MO\(dg"
  69.(f
  70\(dgBased on Berkeley Release 2.31.
  71.)f
  72.sp 2
  73.ul
  74Eric P. Allman*
  75.(f
  76*Author's current address:
  77Britton Lee, Inc.,
  781919 Addison Suite 105,
  79Berkeley, California 94704.
  80.)f
  81.sp
  82Project INGRES
  83Electronics Research Laboratory
  84University of California, Berkeley
  85Berkeley, California  94720
  86.sp 2
  87.i "Modified for \*G by James Clark"
  88.ce 0
  89.sp 4
  90.pp
  91This document describes
  92in extremely terse form
  93the features
  94of the
  95.b \-me
  96macro package
  97for \*G.
  98Some familiarity is assumed
  99with
 100\*G.
 101Specifically,
 102the reader should understand
 103breaks,
 104fonts,
 105pointsizes,
 106the use and definition of number registers
 107and strings,
 108how to define macros,
 109and scaling factors for ens, points,
 110.b v 's
 111(vertical line spaces),
 112etc.
 113.pp
 114For a more casual introduction
 115to text processing
 116using \*G,
 117refer to the document
 118.ul
 119Writing Papers with \*G using \-me.
 120.pp
 121There are a number of macro parameters
 122that may be adjusted.
 123Fonts may be set to a font number only.
 124Font 0 is no font change;
 125the font of the surrounding text
 126is used instead.
 127Notice that font 0 is a
 128.q pseudo-font ;
 129that is,
 130it is simulated by the macros.
 131This means that although it is legal to set a font register
 132to zero,
 133it is not legal to use the escape character form,
 134such as:
 135.(b
 136\ef0
 137.)b
 138.pp
 139All distances
 140are in basic units,
 141so it is nearly always necessary
 142to use a scaling factor.
 143For example,
 144the request
 145to set the paragraph indent
 146to eight one-en spaces is:
 147.(b
 148\&.nr pi 8n
 149.)b
 150and not
 151.(b
 152\&.nr pi 8
 153.)b
 154which would set the paragraph indent to eight basic units,
 155or about 0.02 inch.
 156Default parameter values are given in brackets
 157in the remainder of this document.
 158.pp
 159Registers and strings
 160of the form
 161.b $ \c
 162.i x
 163may be used in expressions
 164but should not be changed.
 165Macros of the form
 166.b $ \c
 167.i x
 168perform some function
 169(as described)
 170and may be redefined
 171to change this function.
 172This may be a sensitive operation;
 173look at the body of the original macro
 174before changing it.
 175.pp
 176All names in \-me
 177follow a rigid naming convention.
 178The user may define number registers,
 179strings,
 180and macros,
 181provided that s/he
 182uses single character upper case names
 183or double character names
 184consisting of letters and digits,
 185with at least one upper case letter.
 186In no case should special characters
 187be used in user-defined names.
 188Locally defined macros
 189should all be of the form
 190.b .* \c
 191.i X ,
 192where
 193.i X
 194is any letter
 195(upper or lower case)
 196or digit.
 197.pp
 198This documentation applies to \*G version
 199\*(MO
 200of the \-me macros.
 201.sh 1 "Paragraphing"
 202.pp
 203These macros are used
 204to begin paragraphs.
 205The standard paragraph macro
 206is
 207.b .pp ;
 208the others are all variants
 209to be used for special purposes.
 210.pp
 211After the first call to one of the paragraphing macros
 212defined in this section
 213or the
 214.b .sh
 215macro
 216(defined in the next session),
 217the effects of changing parameters
 218which will have a global effect
 219on the format of the page
 220(notably page length and header and footer margins)
 221are not well defined
 222and should be avoided.
 223.TL
 224.b .lp
 225.DE
 226Begin left-justified paragraph.
 227Centering and underlining
 228are turned off if they were on,
 229the font is set to
 230.NR (pf
 231[1]
 232the type size
 233is set to
 234.NR (pp
 235[10p],
 236and a
 237.NR (ps
 238space is inserted
 239before the paragraph
 240[0.35v]
 241The indent is reset
 242to
 243.NR ($i
 244[0]
 245plus
 246.NR (po
 247[0]
 248unless the paragraph
 249is inside a display.
 250(see
 251.b .ba ).
 252At least
 253the first two lines
 254of the paragraph
 255are kept together
 256on a page.
 257.TL
 258.b .pp
 259.DE
 260Like
 261.b .lp ,
 262except that it puts
 263.NR (pi
 264[5n]
 265units of indent.
 266This is the standard paragraph macro.
 267.TL
 268.b .ip
 269.i T
 270.i I
 271.DE
 272Indented paragraph
 273with hanging tag.
 274The body of the following paragraph
 275is indented
 276.i I
 277spaces
 278(or
 279.NR (ii
 280[5n]
 281spaces
 282if
 283.i I
 284is not specified)
 285more than a non-indented paragraph
 286(such as with
 287.b .pp )
 288is.
 289The title
 290.i T
 291is exdented (opposite of indented).
 292The result is a paragraph
 293with an even left edge
 294and
 295.i T
 296printed in the margin.
 297Any spaces in
 298.i T
 299must be unpaddable.
 300If
 301.i T
 302will not fit in the space provided,
 303.b .ip
 304will start a new line.
 305.TL
 306.b .np
 307.DE
 308A variant of .ip which numbers paragraphs.
 309Numbering is reset
 310after a
 311.b .lp ,
 312.b .pp ,
 313or
 314.b .sh .
 315The current paragraph number
 316is in
 317.NR ($p .
 318.TL
 319.b .bu
 320.DE
 321Like
 322.b .np
 323except that paragraphs are marked with bullets (\(bu).
 324Leading space is eliminated to create compact lists.
 325.sh 1 "Section Headings"
 326.pp
 327Numbered sections
 328are similar to paragraphs
 329except that a
 330section number
 331is automatically
 332generated for each one.
 333The section numbers are of the form
 334.b 1.2.3 .
 335The
 336.i depth
 337of the section
 338is the count of numbers
 339(separated by decimal points)
 340in the section number.
 341.pp
 342Unnumbered section headings are similar,
 343except that no number is attached
 344to the heading.
 345.TL
 346.b .sh
 347.i +N
 348.i T
 349.i "a b c d e f"
 350.DE
 351Begin numbered section
 352of depth
 353.i N .
 354If
 355.i N
 356is missing
 357the current depth
 358(maintained in
 359the number register
 360.NR ($0 )
 361is used.
 362The values of
 363the individual parts of the section number
 364are maintained in
 365.NR ($1
 366through
 367.NR ($6 .
 368There is a
 369.NR (ss
 370[1v]
 371space before the section.
 372.i T
 373is printed
 374as a section title
 375in font
 376.NR (sf
 377[8]
 378and size
 379.NR (sp
 380[10p].
 381The
 382.q name
 383of the section may be accessed via
 384.ST ($n .
 385If
 386.NR (si
 387is non-zero,
 388the base indent
 389is set to
 390.NR (si
 391times the section depth,
 392and the section title
 393is exdented.
 394(See
 395.b .ba .)
 396Also,
 397an additional indent of
 398.NR (so
 399[0]
 400is added to the section title
 401(but not to the body of the section).
 402The font is then set
 403to the paragraph font,
 404so that more information may occur
 405on the line
 406with the section number
 407and title.
 408.b .sh
 409insures that there is enough room
 410to print the section head
 411plus the beginning of a paragraph
 412(about 3 lines total).
 413If
 414.i a
 415through
 416.i f
 417are specified,
 418the section number is set to that number
 419rather than incremented automatically.
 420If any of
 421.i a
 422through
 423.i f
 424are a hyphen
 425that number is not reset.
 426If
 427.i T
 428is a single underscore
 429(\c
 430.q _ )
 431then the section depth and numbering is reset,
 432but the base indent is not reset
 433and nothing is printed out.
 434This is useful to automatically
 435coordinate section numbers with
 436chapter numbers.
 437.TL
 438.b .sx
 439.i +N
 440.DE
 441Go to section depth
 442.i N
 443[\c
 444.b \-1 ],
 445but do not print the number
 446and title,
 447and do not increment the section number
 448at level
 449.i N .
 450This has the effect
 451of starting a new paragraph
 452at level
 453.i N .
 454.TL
 455.b .uh
 456.i T
 457.DE
 458Unnumbered section heading.
 459The title
 460.i T
 461is printed
 462with the same rules for spacing,
 463font, etc.,
 464as for
 465.b .sh .
 466.TL
 467.b .$p
 468.i T
 469.i B
 470.i N
 471.DE
 472Print section heading.
 473May be redefined
 474to get fancier headings.
 475.i T
 476is the title passed on the
 477.b .sh
 478or
 479.b .uh
 480line;
 481.i B
 482is the section number for this section,
 483and
 484.i N
 485is the depth of this section.
 486These parameters are not always present;
 487in particular,
 488.b .sh
 489passes all three,
 490.b .uh
 491passes only the first,
 492and
 493.b .sx
 494passes three,
 495but the first two
 496are null strings.
 497Care should be taken if this macro
 498is redefined;
 499it is quite complex and subtle.
 500.TL
 501.b .$0
 502.i T
 503.i B
 504.i N
 505.DE
 506This macro is called automatically
 507after every call to
 508.b .$p .
 509It is normally undefined,
 510but may be used
 511to automatically put
 512every section title
 513into the table of contents
 514or for some similar function.
 515.i T
 516is the section title
 517for the section title which was just printed,
 518.i B
 519is the section number,
 520and
 521.i N
 522is the section depth.
 523.TL
 524.b .$1
 525\-
 526.b .$6
 527.DE
 528Traps called just before printing that depth section.
 529May be defined to
 530(for example)
 531give variable spacing
 532before sections.
 533These macros are called from
 534.b .$p ,
 535so if you redefine that macro
 536you may lose this feature.
 537.sh 1 "Headers and Footers"
 538.ds TP \fI\(aal\|\(aam\^\(aar\^\(aa\fP
 539.pp
 540Headers and footers
 541are put at the top and bottom
 542of every page
 543automatically.
 544They are set in font
 545.NR (tf
 546[3]
 547and size
 548.NR (tp
 549[10p].
 550Each of the definitions
 551apply as of the
 552.i next
 553page.
 554Three-part titles
 555must be quoted
 556if there are two blanks adjacent
 557anywhere in the title
 558or more than eight blanks total.
 559.pp
 560The spacing
 561of headers and footers
 562are controlled by three number registers.
 563.NR (hm
 564[4v]
 565is the distance from the top of the page
 566to the top of the header,
 567.NR (fm
 568[3v]
 569is the distance from the bottom of the page
 570to the bottom of the footer,
 571.NR (tm
 572[7v]
 573is the distance from the top of the page
 574to the top of the text,
 575and
 576.NR (bm
 577[6v]
 578is the distance from the bottom of the page
 579to the bottom of the text
 580(nominal).
 581The macros
 582.b .m1 ,
 583.b .m2 ,
 584.b .m3 ,
 585and
 586.b .m4
 587are also supplied for compatibility
 588with
 589\s-1ROFF\s0 documents.
 590.TL
 591.b .he
 592\*(TP
 593.DE
 594Define three-part header,
 595to be printed on the top
 596of every page.
 597.TL
 598.b .fo
 599\*(TP
 600.DE
 601Define footer,
 602to be printed at the bottom
 603of every page.
 604.TL
 605.b .eh
 606\*(TP
 607.DE
 608Define header,
 609to be printed at the top of every
 610even-numbered page.
 611.TL
 612.b .oh
 613\*(TP
 614.DE
 615Define header,
 616to be printed at the top of every
 617odd-numbered page.
 618.TL
 619.b .ef
 620\*(TP
 621.DE
 622Define footer,
 623to be printed at the bottom
 624of every even-numbered page.
 625.TL
 626.b .of
 627\*(TP
 628.DE
 629Define footer,
 630to be printed at the bottom
 631of every odd-numbered page.
 632.TL
 633.b .hx
 634.DE
 635Suppress headers and footers
 636on the next page.
 637.TL
 638.b .m1
 639.i +N
 640.DE
 641Set the space between the top of the page
 642and the header
 643[4v].
 644.TL
 645.b .m2
 646.i +N
 647.DE
 648Set the space between the header
 649and the first line of text
 650[2v].
 651.TL
 652.b .m3
 653.i +N
 654.DE
 655Set the space
 656between the bottom of the text
 657and the footer
 658[2v].
 659.TL
 660.b .m4
 661.i +N
 662.DE
 663Set the space
 664between the footer
 665and the bottom of the page
 666[4v].
 667.TL
 668.b .ep
 669.DE
 670End this page,
 671but do not begin the next page.
 672Useful for forcing out footnotes,
 673but other than
 674that hardly every used.
 675Must be followed by a
 676.b .bp
 677or the end of input.
 678.TL
 679.b .$h
 680.DE
 681Called at every page
 682to print the header.
 683May be redefined
 684to provide fancy
 685(e.g.,
 686multi-line)
 687headers,
 688but doing so
 689loses the function of the
 690.b .he ,
 691.b .fo ,
 692.b .eh ,
 693.b .oh ,
 694.b .ef ,
 695and
 696.b .of
 697requests,
 698as well as the chapter-style title feature
 699of
 700.b .+c .
 701.TL
 702.b .$f
 703.DE
 704Print footer;
 705same comments apply
 706as in
 707.b .$h .
 708.TL
 709.b .$H
 710.DE
 711A normally undefined macro
 712which is called
 713at the top of each page
 714(after putting out
 715the header,
 716initial saved floating keeps,
 717etc.);
 718in other words,
 719this macro is called immediately before
 720printing text
 721on a page.
 722It can be used for column headings
 723and the like.
 724.sh 1 "Displays"
 725.pp
 726All displays except centered blocks
 727and block quotes
 728are preceded and followed
 729by an extra
 730.NR (bs
 731[same as
 732.NR (ps ]
 733space.
 734Quote spacing is stored in a separate register;
 735centered blocks have no default initial or trailing space.
 736The vertical spacing of all displays except quotes
 737and centered blocks
 738is stored in register
 739.NR ($V
 740instead of
 741.NR ($v .
 742.TL
 743.b .(l
 744.i m
 745.i f
 746.DE
 747Begin list.
 748Lists are single spaced,
 749unfilled text.
 750If
 751.i f
 752is
 753.b F ,
 754the list will be filled.
 755If
 756.i m
 757[\c
 758.b I ]
 759is
 760.b I
 761the list is indented by
 762.NR (bi
 763[4m];
 764if
 765.b M
 766the list is indented to the left margin;
 767if
 768.b L
 769the list is left justified with respect to the text
 770(different from
 771.b M
 772only if the base indent
 773(stored in
 774.NR ($i
 775and set with
 776.b .ba )
 777is not zero);
 778and if
 779.b C
 780the list is centered on a line-by-line basis.
 781The list is set in font
 782.NR (df
 783[0].
 784Must be matched by a
 785.b .)l .
 786This macro is almost like
 787.b .(b
 788except that no attempt is made
 789to keep the display on one page.
 790.TL
 791.b .)l
 792.DE
 793End list.
 794.TL
 795.b .(q
 796.DE
 797Begin major quote.
 798These are single spaced,
 799filled,
 800moved in from the text
 801on both sides
 802by
 803.NR (qi
 804[4n],
 805preceded and followed
 806by
 807.NR (qs
 808[same as
 809.NR (bs ]
 810space,
 811and are set in point size
 812.NR (qp
 813[one point smaller than surrounding text].
 814.TL
 815.b .)q
 816.DE
 817End major quote.
 818.TL
 819.b .(b
 820.i m
 821.i f
 822.DE
 823Begin block.
 824Blocks are a form of
 825.i keep ,
 826where the text of a keep
 827is kept together on one page
 828if possible
 829(keeps are useful
 830for tables and figures
 831which should not be broken
 832over a page).
 833If the block will not fit
 834on the current page
 835a new page is begun,
 836.i unless
 837that would leave more than
 838.NR (bt
 839[0]
 840white space
 841at the bottom of the text.
 842If
 843.NR (bt
 844is zero, the threshold feature
 845is turned off.
 846Blocks are not filled
 847unless
 848.i f
 849is
 850.b F ,
 851when they are filled.
 852The block will be left-justified
 853if
 854.i m
 855is
 856.b L ,
 857indented by
 858.NR (bi
 859[4m]
 860if
 861.i m
 862is
 863.b I
 864or absent,
 865centered
 866(line-for-line)
 867if
 868.i m
 869is
 870.b C ,
 871and left justified to the margin
 872(not to the base indent)
 873if
 874.i m
 875is
 876.b M .
 877The block is set in font
 878.NR (df
 879[0].
 880.TL
 881.b .)b
 882.DE
 883End block.
 884.TL
 885.b .(z
 886.i m
 887.i f
 888.DE
 889Begin floating keep.
 890Like
 891.b .(b
 892except that the keep is
 893.i floated
 894to the bottom of the page
 895or the top of the next page.
 896Therefore,
 897its position relative to the text changes.
 898The floating keep is preceded and followed
 899by
 900.NR (zs
 901[1v]
 902space.
 903Also,
 904it defaults to mode
 905.b M .
 906.TL
 907.b .)z
 908.DE
 909End floating keep.
 910.TL
 911.b .(c
 912.DE
 913Begin centered block.
 914The next keep
 915is centered as a block,
 916rather than on a line-by-line basis
 917as with
 918.b ".(b C" .
 919This call may be nested
 920inside keeps.
 921.TL
 922.b .)c
 923.DE
 924End centered block.
 925.sh 1 Annotations
 926.TL
 927.b .(d
 928.DE
 929Begin delayed text.
 930Everything in the next keep
 931is saved for output
 932later with
 933.b .pd ,
 934in a manner
 935similar to footnotes.
 936.TL
 937.b .)d
 938.i n
 939.DE
 940End delayed text.
 941The delayed text number register
 942.NR ($d
 943and the associated string
 944.ST #
 945are incremented if
 946.ST #
 947has been referenced.
 948.TL
 949.b .pd
 950.DE
 951Print delayed text.
 952Everything diverted via
 953.b .(d
 954is printed and truncated.
 955This might be used
 956at the end of each chapter.
 957.TL
 958.b .(f
 959.DE
 960Begin footnote.
 961The text of the footnote
 962is floated to the bottom
 963of the page
 964and set in font
 965.NR (ff
 966[1]
 967and size
 968.NR (fp
 969[8p].
 970Each entry
 971is preceded by
 972.NR (fs
 973[0.2v]
 974space,
 975is indented
 976.NR (fi
 977[3n]
 978on the first line,
 979and is indented
 980.NR (fu
 981[0]
 982from the right margin.
 983Footnotes line up underneath
 984two column output.
 985If the text of the footnote
 986will not all fit on one page
 987it will be carried over
 988to the next page.
 989.TL
 990.b .)f
 991.i n
 992.DE
 993End footnote.
 994The number register
 995.NR ($f
 996and the associated string
 997.ST *
 998are incremented
 999if they have been referenced.
1000.TL
1001.b .$s
1002.DE
1003The macro to output the footnote separator.
1004This macro may be redefined
1005to give other size lines or other types
1006of separators.
1007Currently
1008it draws a 1.5i line.
1009.TL
1010.b .(x
1011.i x
1012.DE
1013Begin index entry.
1014Index entries are saved in the index
1015.i x
1016[\c
1017.b x ]
1018until called up with
1019.b .xp.
1020Each entry is preceded
1021by a
1022.NR (xs
1023[0.2v]
1024space.
1025Each entry is
1026.q undented
1027by
1028.NR (xu
1029[0.5i];
1030this register tells how far the page number
1031extends into the right margin.
1032.TL
1033.b .)x
1034.i P
1035.i A
1036.DE
1037End index entry.
1038The index entry
1039is finished with a row of dots
1040with
1041.i A
1042[null]
1043right justified on the last line
1044(such as for an author's name),
1045followed by P
1046[\c
1047.NR % ].
1048If
1049.i A
1050is specified,
1051.i P
1052must be specified;
1053.NR %
1054can be used to print the current page number.
1055If
1056.i P
1057is an underscore,
1058no page number
1059and no row of dots
1060are printed.
1061.TL
1062.b .xp
1063.i x
1064.DE
1065Print index
1066.i x
1067[\c
1068.b x ].
1069The index is formatted in the font, size, and so forth
1070in effect at the time it is printed,
1071rather than at the time it is collected.
1072.sh 1 "Columned Output"
1073.TL
1074.b .2c
1075.i +S
1076.i N
1077.DE
1078Enter two-column mode.
1079The column separation is set to
1080.i +S
1081[4n, 0.5i in ACM mode]
1082(saved in
1083.NR ($s ).
1084The column width,
1085calculated to fill the single column line length
1086with both columns,
1087is stored in
1088.NR ($l .
1089The current column
1090is in
1091.NR ($c .
1092You can test register
1093.NR ($m
1094[1]
1095to see if you are in single column
1096or double column mode.
1097Actually,
1098the request enters
1099.i N
1100[2]
1101column output.
1102.TL
1103.b .1c
1104.DE
1105Revert to single-column mode.
1106.TL
1107.b .bc
1108.DE
1109Begin column.
1110This is like
1111.b .bp
1112except that it begins a new column
1113on a new page
1114only if necessary,
1115rather than forcing a whole new page
1116if there is another column left
1117on the current page.
1118.sh 1 "Fonts and Sizes"
1119.TL
1120.b .sz
1121.i +P
1122.DE
1123The pointsize is set to
1124.i P
1125[10p],
1126and the line spacing is set proportionally.
1127The line spacing as a percentage of the pointsize expressed in units
1128is stored in
1129.NR ($v .
1130The percentage used internally
1131by displays and annotations
1132is stored in
1133.NR ($V
1134(although this is not used by
1135.b .sz ).
1136This size is
1137.i not
1138sticky beyond many macros:
1139in particular,
1140.NR (pp
1141(paragraph pointsize)
1142modifies the pointsize every time a new paragraph is begun
1143using the
1144.b \&.pp ,
1145.b \&.lp ,
1146.b \&.ip ,
1147.b \&.np ,
1148or
1149.b \&.bu
1150macros.
1151Also,
1152.NR (fp
1153(footnote pointsize),
1154.NR (qp
1155(quote pointsize),
1156.NR (sp
1157(section header pointsize),
1158and
1159.NR (tp
1160(title pointsize)
1161may modify the pointsize.
1162.TL
1163.b .r
1164.i W
1165.i X
1166.DE
1167Set
1168.i W
1169in roman font,
1170appending
1171.i X
1172in the previous font.
1173To append different font requests,
1174use
1175.i X
1176=
1177.b \ec .
1178If no parameters,
1179change to roman font.
1180.TL
1181.b .i
1182.i W
1183.i X
1184.DE
1185Set
1186.i W
1187in italics,
1188appending
1189.i X
1190in the previous font.
1191If no parameters,
1192change to italic font.
1193.TL
1194.b .b
1195.i W
1196.i X
1197.DE
1198Set
1199.i W
1200in bold font
1201and append
1202.i X
1203in the previous font.
1204If no parameters,
1205switch to bold font.
1206.TL
1207.b .u
1208.i W
1209.i X
1210.DE
1211Underline
1212.i W
1213and append
1214.i X .
1215This is a true underlining,
1216as opposed to the
1217.b .ul
1218request,
1219which changes to
1220.q "underline font"
1221(usually italics in \*G).
1222It won't work right
1223if
1224.i W
1225is spread or broken (including hyphenated).
1226In other words,
1227it is safe in nofill mode only.
1228.TL
1229.b .q
1230.i W
1231.i X
1232.DE
1233Quote
1234.i W
1235and append
1236.i X .
1237In \*G
1238this surrounds
1239.i W
1240with
1241.b \*(lq ,
1242and
1243.b \*(rq .
1244.TL
1245.b .bi
1246.i W
1247.i X
1248.DE
1249Set
1250.i W
1251in bold italics
1252and append
1253.i X .
1254.TL
1255.b .bx
1256.i W
1257.i X
1258.DE
1259Sets
1260.i W
1261in a box,
1262with
1263.i X
1264appended.
1265It won't work right
1266if
1267.i W
1268is spread or broken (including hyphenated).
1269In other words,
1270it is safe in nofill mode only.
1271.TL
1272.b .sm
1273.i W
1274.i X
1275.DE
1276Sets
1277.i W
1278in a smaller pointsize,
1279with
1280.i X
1281appended.
1282.sh 1 "Roff Support"
1283.TL
1284.b .ix
1285.i +N
1286.DE
1287Indent,
1288no break.
1289Equivalent to
1290.b \(aain
1291.i N .
1292.TL
1293.b .bl
1294.i N
1295.DE
1296Leave
1297.i N
1298contiguous white space,
1299on the next page if not enough room
1300on this page.
1301Equivalent to a
1302.b .sp
1303.i N
1304inside a block.
1305.TL
1306.b .pa
1307.i +N
1308.DE
1309Equivalent to
1310.b .bp .
1311.TL
1312.b .ro
1313.DE
1314Set page number
1315in roman numerals.
1316Equivalent to
1317.b ".af % i" .
1318.TL
1319.b .ar
1320.DE
1321Set page number in Arabic.
1322Equivalent to
1323.b ".af % 1" .
1324.TL
1325.b .n1
1326.DE
1327Number lines in margin from one
1328on each page.
1329.TL
1330.b .n2
1331.i N
1332.DE
1333Number lines from
1334.i N ,
1335stop if
1336.i N
1337= 0.
1338.TL
1339.b .sk
1340.DE
1341Leave the next output page blank,
1342except for headers and footers.
1343This is used to leave space
1344for a full-page diagram
1345which is produced externally
1346and pasted in later.
1347To get a partial-page paste-in display,
1348say
1349.b .sv \ \c
1350.i N ,
1351where
1352.i N
1353is the amount of space
1354to leave;
1355this space will be output immediately
1356if there is room,
1357and will otherwise be output
1358at the top of the next page.
1359However, be warned:
1360if
1361.i N
1362is greater than the amount of available space
1363on an empty page,
1364no space will ever be output.
1365.sh 1 "Preprocessor Support"
1366.TL
1367.b .EQ
1368.i m
1369.i T
1370.DE
1371Begin equation.
1372The equation is centered
1373if
1374.i m
1375is
1376.b C
1377or omitted,
1378indented
1379.NR (bi
1380[4m]
1381if
1382.i m
1383is
1384.b I ,
1385and left justified if
1386.i m
1387is
1388.b L .
1389.i T
1390is a title printed on the right margin
1391next to the equation.
1392See
1393.i "Typesetting Mathematics \- User's Guide"
1394by Brian W. Kernighan
1395and Lorinda L. Cherry.
1396.TL
1397.b .EN
1398.i c
1399.DE
1400End equation.
1401If
1402.i c
1403is
1404.b C
1405the equation must be continued
1406by immediately following
1407with another
1408.b .EQ ,
1409the text of which
1410can be centered
1411along with this one.
1412Otherwise,
1413the equation is printed,
1414always on one page,
1415with
1416.NR (es
1417[0.5v]
1418space
1419above and below it.
1420.TL
1421.b .TS
1422.i h
1423.DE
1424Table start.
1425Tables are single spaced
1426and kept on one page
1427if possible.
1428If you have a large table
1429which will not fit on one page,
1430use
1431.i h
1432=
1433.b H
1434and follow the header part
1435(to be printed on every page of the table)
1436with a
1437.b .TH .
1438See
1439.i "Tbl \- A Program to Format Tables"
1440by M. E. Lesk.
1441.TL
1442.b .TH
1443.DE
1444With
1445.b ".TS H" ,
1446ends the header portion of the table.
1447.TL
1448.b .TE
1449.DE
1450Table end.
1451Note that this table
1452does not float,
1453in fact,
1454it is not even guaranteed to stay on one page
1455if you use requests such as
1456.b .sp
1457intermixed with the text
1458of the table.
1459If you want it to float
1460(or if you use requests
1461inside the table),
1462surround the entire table
1463(including the
1464.b .TS
1465and
1466.b .TE
1467requests)
1468with the requests
1469.b .(z
1470and
1471.b .)z .
1472.TL
1473.b .PS
1474.i h
1475.i w
1476.DE
1477Begin
1478.i pic
1479picture.
1480.i H
1481is the height and
1482.i w
1483is the width,
1484both in basic units.
1485.TL
1486.b .PE
1487.DE
1488End picture.
1489.TL
1490.b .IS
1491.DE
1492Begin
1493.i ideal
1494picture.
1495.TL
1496.b .IE
1497.DE
1498End
1499.i ideal
1500picture.
1501.TL
1502.b .IF
1503.DE
1504End
1505.i ideal
1506picture (alternate form).
1507.TL
1508.b .GS
1509.i x
1510.DE
1511Begin
1512.i gremlin
1513picture.
1514.i X
1515can be either
1516.b C ,
1517.b L ,
1518or
1519.b R
1520to center, left, or right justify the
1521whole picture.
1522Default is centering the image.
1523.TL
1524.b .GE
1525.DE
1526End
1527.i gremlin
1528picture.
1529.TL
1530.b .GF
1531.DE
1532End
1533.i gremlin
1534picture (alternate form).
1535.sh 1 "Miscellaneous"
1536.TL
1537.b .re
1538.DE
1539Reset tabs every 0.5i.
1540.TL
1541.b .ba
1542.i +N
1543.DE
1544Set the base indent
1545to
1546.i +N
1547[0]
1548(saved in
1549.NR ($i ).
1550All paragraphs,
1551sections,
1552and displays
1553come out indented by this amount.
1554Titles and footnotes
1555are unaffected.
1556The
1557.b .sh
1558request performs a
1559.b .ba
1560request
1561if
1562.NR (si
1563[0] is not zero,
1564and sets the base indent to
1565.NR (si \c
1566.b * \c
1567.NR ($0 .
1568.TL
1569.b .xl
1570.i +N
1571.DE
1572Set the line length to
1573.i N
1574[6.0i].
1575This differs
1576from
1577.b .ll
1578because it only affects the current environment.
1579.TL
1580.b .ll
1581.i +N
1582.DE
1583Set line length in all environments
1584to
1585.i N
1586[6.0i].
1587This should not be used
1588after output has begun,
1589and particularly not in two-column output.
1590The current line length is stored in
1591.NR ($l .
1592.TL
1593.b .hl
1594.DE
1595Draws a horizontal line
1596the length of the page.
1597This is useful
1598inside floating keeps
1599to differentiate
1600between the text
1601and the figure.
1602.sh 1 "Standard Papers"
1603.TL
1604.b .tp
1605.DE
1606Begin title page.
1607Spacing at the top of the page
1608can occur,
1609and headers and footers are suppressed.
1610Also,
1611the page number
1612is not incremented
1613for this page.
1614.TL
1615.b .++
1616.i m
1617.i H
1618.DE
1619This request defines the section of the paper
1620which we are entering.
1621The section type is defined by
1622.i m .
1623.b C
1624means that we are entering the chapter portion
1625of the paper,
1626.b A
1627means that we are entering the appendix portion
1628of the paper,
1629.b P
1630means that the material following
1631should be the preliminary portion
1632(abstract, table of contents, etc.)
1633portion of the paper,
1634.b AB
1635means that we are entering the abstract
1636(numbered independently from 1
1637in Arabic numerals),
1638and
1639.b B
1640means that we are entering the bibliographic
1641portion at the end of the paper.
1642Also, the variants
1643.b RC
1644and
1645.b RA
1646are allowed,
1647which specify renumbering of pages
1648from one at the beginning of each
1649chapter or appendix,
1650respectively.
1651The section type is available in register
1652.NR (_M
1653[1]; value 1 is equivalent to type
1654.b C
1655or
1656.b RC ,
1657value 2 represents type
1658.b A
1659or
1660.b RA ,
1661and values 3 to 5 are type
1662.b P ,
1663.b B ,
1664and
1665.b AB ,
1666respectively.
1667The
1668.i H
1669parameter defines the new header.
1670If there are any spaces in it,
1671the entire header must be quoted.
1672If you want the header to have the chapter number
1673in it,
1674Use the string
1675.b "\e\e\e\en(ch" .
1676For example, to number appendixes
1677.b A.1
1678etc.,
1679type
1680.b ".++ RA \(aa\(aa\(aa\e\e\e\en(ch.%\(aa" .
1681Each section
1682(chapter, appendix, etc.)
1683should be preceded by the
1684.b .+c
1685request.
1686It should be mentioned
1687that it is easier when using
1688\*T to put the front material
1689at the end of the paper,
1690so that the table of contents
1691can be collected and put out;
1692this material can then be physically
1693moved to the beginning of the paper.
1694.TL
1695.b .+c
1696.i T
1697.DE
1698Begin chapter with title
1699.i T .
1700The chapter number
1701is maintained in
1702.NR (ch .
1703This register is incremented
1704every time
1705.b .+c
1706is called with a parameter.
1707The title and chapter number
1708are printed by
1709.b .$c .
1710The header is moved to the footer
1711on the first page
1712of each chapter.
1713If
1714.i T
1715is omitted,
1716.b .$c
1717is not called;
1718this is useful for doing your own
1719.q "title page"
1720at the beginning of papers
1721without a title page proper.
1722.b .$c
1723calls
1724.b .$C
1725as a hook so that chapter titles can be inserted
1726into a table of contents automatically.
1727The footnote numbering is reset to one.
1728.TL
1729.b .$c
1730.i T
1731.DE
1732Print chapter number
1733(from
1734.NR (ch )
1735and
1736.i T .
1737This macro can be redefined to your liking.
1738It is defined by default
1739to be acceptable
1740for a PhD thesis
1741at Berkeley.
1742This macro calls
1743.b $C ,
1744which can be defined to make index entries,
1745or whatever.
1746.TL
1747.b .$C
1748.i K
1749.i N
1750.i T
1751.DE
1752This macro is called by
1753.b .$c .
1754It is normally undefined,
1755but can be used to automatically insert
1756index entries,
1757or whatever.
1758.i K
1759is a keyword,
1760either
1761.q Chapter
1762or
1763.q Appendix
1764(depending on the
1765.b .++
1766mode);
1767.i N
1768is the chapter or appendix number,
1769and
1770.i T
1771is the chapter or appendix title.
1772.sh 1 "Predefined Strings"
1773.TL
1774.ST *
1775.DE
1776Footnote number, actually
1777.ST [ \c
1778.NR ($f \c
1779.ST ] .
1780This macro is incremented
1781after each call to
1782.b .)f .
1783.TL
1784.ST #
1785.DE
1786Delayed text number.
1787Actually
1788[\c
1789.NR ($d ].
1790.TL
1791.ST {
1792.DE
1793Superscript.
1794This string gives upward movement
1795and a change to a smaller point size.
1796Extra space is left above the line
1797to allow room for the superscript.
1798.TL
1799.ST }
1800.DE
1801Unsuperscript.
1802Inverse to
1803.ST { .
1804For example,
1805to produce a superscript
1806you might type
1807.b x \c
1808.ST { \c
1809.b 2 \c
1810.ST } ,
1811which will produce
1812.b x\*{2\*} .
1813.TL
1814.ST <
1815.DE
1816Subscript.
1817Extra space is left below the line
1818to allow for the subscript.
1819.TL
1820.ST >
1821.DE
1822Inverse to
1823.ST < .
1824.TL
1825.ST (dw
1826.DE
1827The day of the week,
1828as a word.
1829.TL
1830.ST (mo
1831.DE
1832The month,
1833as a word.
1834.TL
1835.ST (td
1836.DE
1837Today's date,
1838directly printable.
1839The date is of the form February 15, 2003.
1840Other forms of the date can be used
1841by using
1842.NR (dy
1843(the day of the month;
1844for example, 15),
1845.ST (mo
1846(as noted above)
1847or
1848.NR (mo
1849(the same,
1850but as an ordinal number;
1851for example, February is 2),
1852.NR (y4
1853(the current year),
1854and
1855.NR (y2
1856(the last two digits of the current year).
1857.TL
1858.ST (lq
1859.DE
1860Left quote marks.
1861.TL
1862.ST (rq
1863.DE
1864Right quote.
1865.TL
1866.ST \-
1867.DE
1868.ie \w'\(34'>0 \(34
1869.el 3/4
1870em dash.
1871.sh 1 "Special Characters and Marks"
1872.pp
1873There are a number of special characters
1874and diacritical marks
1875(such as accents)
1876available through \-me.
1877.ta 15 +5 +6
1878.nf
1879Name	Usage	Example
1880Acute accent	\e*\(aa	a\e*\(aa	a\*'
1881Grave accent	\e*\(ga	e\e*\(ga	e\*`
1882Umlaut	\e*:	u\e*:	u\*:
1883Tilde	\e*~	n\e*~	n\*~
1884Caret	\e*^	e\e*^	e\*^
1885Cedilla	\e*,	c\e*,	c\*,
1886Czech	\e*v	e\e*v	e\*v
1887Circle	\e*o	A\e*o	A\*o
1888There exists	\e*(qe		\*(qe
1889For all	\e*(qa		\*(qa
1890.fi
1891.sp 1i
1892.b Acknowledgments
1893.pp
1894I would like to thank
1895Bob Epstein,
1896Bill Joy,
1897and Larry Rowe
1898for having the courage
1899to use the \-me macros
1900to produce non-trivial papers
1901during the development stages;
1902Ricki Blau,
1903Pamela Humphrey,
1904and Jim Joyce
1905for their help with the documentation phase;
1906peter kessler
1907for numerous complaints,
1908most accompanied by fixes;
1909and the plethora of people who have contributed ideas
1910and have given support for the project.
1911.bp
1912.b Summary
1913.pp
1914This alphabetical list summarizes all macros, strings, and number registers
1915available in the \-me macros.
1916Selected
1917.i troff
1918commands, registers, and functions are included as well;
1919those listed can generally be used with impunity.
1920.pp
1921The columns are the name of the
1922command, macro, register, or string;
1923the type of the object,
1924and the description.
1925Types are
1926.b M
1927for macro or builtin command
1928(invoked with
1929.b \&.
1930or
1931.b \&\'
1932in the first input column),
1933.b S
1934for a string
1935(invoked with
1936.b \e*
1937or
1938.b \e*( ),
1939.b R
1940for a number register
1941(invoked with
1942.b \en
1943or
1944.b \en( ),
1945and
1946.b F
1947for a
1948.i troff
1949builtin function
1950(invoked by preceding it with a single backslash).
1951.pp
1952Lines marked with \(sc are
1953.i troff
1954internal codes.
1955Lines marked with \(dg or \(dd
1956may be defined by the user to get special functions;
1957\(dd indicates that these are defined by default
1958and changing them may have unexpected side effects.
1959Lines marked with \(de
1960are specific to
1961.i ditroff
1962(device-independent
1963.i troff ).
1964.de $H
1965.ev 1
1966.ta \w'\e(space)\(sc\ 'u +\w'TYPE  'u
1967NAME	TYPE	DESCRIPTION
1968.ev
1969..
1970.(l
1971.$H
1972\e(space)	F\(sc	unpaddable space
1973\e"	F\(sc	comment (to end of line)
1974\e*#	S	optional delayed text tag string
1975\e$\fI\&N\fP	F\(sc	interpolate argument \fI\&N\fP
1976\en($0	R	section depth
1977\&.$0	M\(dg	invoked after section title printed
1978\en($1	R	first section number
1979\&.$1	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 1 section
1980\en($2	R	second section number
1981\&.$2	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 2 section
1982\en($3	R	third section number
1983\&.$3	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 3 section
1984\en($4	R	fourth section number
1985\&.$4	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 4 section
1986\en($5	R	fifth section number
1987\&.$5	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 5 section
1988\en($6	R	sixth section number
1989\&.$6	M\(dg	invoked before printing depth 6 section
1990\&.$C	M\(dg	called at beginning of chapter
1991\&.$H	M\(dg	text header
1992\en($V	R\(dd	relative vertical spacing in displays
1993\en($c	R	current column number
1994\&.$c	M\(dd	print chapter title
1995\en($d	R	delayed text number
1996\en($f	R	footnote number
1997\&.$f	M\(dd	print footer
1998\&.$h	M\(dd	print header
1999\en($i	R	paragraph base indent
2000\en($l	R	column width
2001\en($m	R	number of columns in effect
2002\e*($n	S	section name
2003\en($p	R	numbered paragraph number
2004\&.$p	M\(dd	print section heading (internal macro)
2005\en($s	R	column indent
2006\&.$s	M\(dd	footnote separator (from text)
2007\en($v	R\(dd	relative vertical spacing in text
2008\en%	R\(sc	current page number
2009\e&	F\(sc	zero width character, useful for hiding controls
2010\e(\fI\&xx\fP	F\(sc	interpolate special character \fI\&xx\fP
2011\&.(b	M	begin block
2012\&.(c	M	begin centered block
2013\&.(d	M	begin delayed text
2014\&.(f	M	begin footnote
2015\&.(l	M	begin list
2016\&.(q	M	begin quote
2017\&.(x	M	begin index entry
2018\&.(z	M	begin floating keep
2019\&.)b	M	end block
2020\&.)c	M	end centered block
2021\&.)d	M	end delayed text
2022\&.)f	M	end footnote
2023\&.)l	M	end list
2024\&.)q	M	end quote
2025\&.)x	M	end index entry
2026\&.)z	M	end floating keep
2027\e*\fI\&x\fP	F\(sc	interpolate string \fI\&x\fP
2028\e*(\fI\&xx\fP	F\(sc	interpolate string \fI\&xx\fP
2029\e**	S	optional footnote tag string
2030\&.++	M	set paper section type
2031\&.+c	M	begin chapter
2032\e*,	S	cedilla
2033\e\-	F\(sc	minus sign
2034\e*\-	S	3/4 em dash
2035\e0	F\(sc	unpaddable digit-width space
2036\&.1c	M	revert to single column output
2037\&.2c	M	begin two column output
2038\e*:	S	umlaut
2039\e*<	S	begin subscript
2040\e*>	S	end subscript
2041\&.EN	M	end equation
2042\&.EQ	M	begin equation
2043\eL\'\fI\&d\fP\'	F\(sc	vertical line drawing function for distance \fI\&d\fP
2044\&.GE	M\(de	end \fIgremlin\fP picture
2045\&.GF	M\(de	end \fIgremlin\fP picture (with flyback)
2046\&.GS	M\(de	start \fIgremlin\fP picture
2047\&.IE	M\(de	end \fIideal\fP picture
2048\&.IF	M\(de	end \fIideal\fP picture (with flyback)
2049\&.IS	M\(de	start \fIideal\fP picture
2050\&.PE	M\(de	end \fIpic\fP picture
2051\&.PF	M\(de	end \fIpic\fP picture (with flyback)
2052\&.PS	M\(de	start \fIpic\fP picture
2053\&.TE	M	end table
2054\&.TH	M	end header of table
2055\&.TS	M	begin table
2056\e*{	S	begin superscript
2057\en(\&.$	R\(sc	number of arguments to macro
2058\en(\&.i	R\(sc	current indent
2059\en(\&.l	R\(sc	current line length
2060\en(\&.s	R\(sc	current point size
2061\e*(\&\'	S	acute accent
2062\e*(\&\`	S	grave accent
2063\e(\'	F\(sc	acute accent
2064\e(\`	F\(sc	grave accent
2065\e*}	S	end superscript
2066\e^	F\(sc	1/12 em narrow space
2067\e*^	S	caret
2068\&.ad	M\(sc	set text adjustment
2069\&.af	M\(sc	assign format to register
2070\&.am	M\(sc	append to macro
2071\&.ar	M	set page numbers in Arabic
2072\&.as	M\(sc	append to string
2073\&.b	M	bold font
2074\&.ba	M	set base indent
2075\&.bc	M	begin new column
2076\&.bi	M	bold italic
2077\en(bi	R	display (block) indent
2078\&.bl	M	blank lines (even at top of page)
2079\en(bm	R	bottom title margin
2080\&.bp	M\(sc	begin page
2081\&.br	M\(sc	break (start new line)
2082\en(bs	R	display (block) pre/post spacing
2083\en(bt	R	block keep threshold
2084\&.bx	M	boxed
2085\ec	F\(sc	continue input
2086\&.ce	M\(sc	center lines
2087\en(ch	R	current chapter number
2088\&.de	M\(sc	define macro
2089\en(df	R	display font
2090\&.ds	M\(sc	define string
2091\en(dw	R\(sc	current day of week
2092\e*(dw	S	current day of week
2093\en(dy	R\(sc	day of month
2094\ee	F\(sc	printable version of \e
2095\&.ef	M	set footer (even numbered pages only)
2096\&.eh	M	set header (even numbered pages only)
2097\&.el	M\(sc	else part of conditional
2098\&.ep	M	end page
2099\en(es	R	equation pre/post space
2100\ef\fI\&f\fP	F\(sc	inline font change to font \fI\&f\fP
2101\ef(\fI\&ff\fP	F\(sc	inline font change to font \fI\&ff\fP
2102\&.fc	M\(sc	set field characters
2103\en(ff	R	footnote font
2104\&.fi	M\(sc	fill output lines
2105\en(fi	R	footnote indent (first line only)
2106\en(fm	R	footer margin
2107\&.fo	M	set footer
2108\en(fp	R	footnote pointsize
2109\en(fs	R	footnote prespace
2110\en(fu	R	footnote undent (from right margin)
2111\eh\'\fI\&d\fP\'	F\(sc	local horizontal motion for distance \fI\&d\fP
2112\&.hc	M\(sc	set hyphenation character
2113\&.he	M	set header
2114\&.hl	M	draw horizontal line
2115\en(hm	R	header margin
2116\&.hx	M	suppress headers and footers on next page
2117\&.hy	M\(sc	set hyphenation mode
2118\&.i	M	italic font
2119\&.ie	M\(sc	conditional with else
2120\&.if	M\(sc	conditional
2121\en(ii	R	indented paragraph indent
2122\&.in	M\(sc	indent (transient, use .ba for pervasive)
2123\&.ip	M	begin indented paragraph
2124\&.ix	M	indent, no break
2125\el\'\fI\&d\fP\'	F\(sc	horizontal line drawing function for distance \fI\&d\fP
2126\&.lc	M\(sc	set leader repetition character
2127\&.ll	M	set line length
2128\&.lp	M	begin left justified paragraph
2129\e*(lq	S	left quote marks
2130\&.ls	M\(sc	set multi-line spacing
2131\&.m1	M	set space from top of page to header
2132\&.m2	M	set space from header to text
2133\&.m3	M	set space from text to footer
2134\&.m4	M	set space from footer to bottom of page
2135\&.mc	M\(sc	insert margin character
2136\&.mk	M\(sc	mark vertical position
2137\en(mo	R\(sc	month of year
2138\e*(mo	S	current month
2139\en\fI\&x\fP	F\(sc	interpolate number register \fI\&x\fP
2140\en(\fI\&xx\fP	F\(sc	interpolate number register \fI\&xx\fP
2141\&.n1	M	number lines in margin
2142\&.n2	M	number lines in margin
2143\&.na	M\(sc	turn off text adjustment
2144\&.ne	M\(sc	need vertical space
2145\&.nf	M\(sc	don't fill output lines
2146\&.nh	M\(sc	turn off hyphenation
2147\&.np	M	begin numbered paragraph
2148\&.nr	M\(sc	set number register
2149\&.ns	M\(sc	no space mode
2150\e*o	S	circle (e.g., for Norse A\*o)
2151\&.of	M	set footer (odd numbered pages only)
2152\&.oh	M	set header (odd numbered pages only)
2153\&.pa	M	begin page
2154\&.pd	M	print delayed text
2155\en(pf	R	paragraph font
2156\en(pi	R	paragraph indent
2157\&.pl	M\(sc	set page length
2158\&.pn	M\(sc	set next page number
2159\&.po	M\(sc	page offset
2160\en(po	R	simulated page offset
2161\&.pp	M	begin paragraph
2162\en(pp	R	paragraph pointsize
2163\en(ps	R	paragraph prespace
2164\&.q	M	quoted
2165\e*(qa	S	for all
2166\e*(qe	S	there exists
2167\en(qi	R	quote indent (also shortens line)
2168\en(qp	R	quote pointsize
2169\en(qs	R	quote pre/post space
2170\&.r	M	roman font
2171\&.rb	M	real bold font
2172\&.re	M	reset tabs
2173\&.rm	M\(sc	remove macro or string
2174\&.rn	M\(sc	rename macro or string
2175\&.ro	M	set page numbers in roman
2176\e*(rq	S	right quote marks
2177\&.rr	M\(sc	remove register
2178\&.rs	M\(sc	restore spacing
2179\&.rt	M\(sc	return to vertical position
2180\es\fI\&S\fP	F\(sc	inline size change to size \fI\&S\fP
2181\en(sf	R	section title font
2182\&.sh	M	begin numbered section
2183\en(si	R	relative base indent per section depth
2184\&.sk	M	skip next page
2185\&.sm	M	set argument in a smaller pointsize
2186\&.so	M\(sc	source input file
2187\en(so	R	additional section title offset
2188\&.sp	M\(sc	vertical space
2189\en(sp	R	section title pointsize
2190\en(ss	R	section prespace
2191\&.sx	M	change section depth
2192\&.sz	M	set pointsize and vertical spacing
2193\&.ta	M\(sc	set tab stops
2194\&.tc	M\(sc	set tab repetition character
2195\e*(td	S	today's date
2196\en(tf	R	title font
2197\&.ti	M\(sc	temporary indent (next line only)
2198\&.tl	M\(sc	three part title
2199\en(tm	R	top title margin
2200\&.tp	M	begin title page
2201\en(tp	R	title pointsize
2202\&.tr	M\(sc	translate
2203\&.u	M	underlined
2204\&.uh	M	unnumbered section
2205\&.ul	M\(sc	underline next line
2206\ev\'\fI\&d\fP\'	F\(sc	local vertical motion for distance \fI\&d\fP
2207\e*v	S	inverted `v' for czeck ``e\*v''
2208\ew\'\fI\&S\fP\'	F\(sc	return width of string \fI\&S\fP
2209\&.xl	M	set line length (local)
2210\&.xp	M	print index
2211\en(xs	R	index entry prespace
2212\en(xu	R	index undent (from right margin)
2213\en(y2	R	year (last two digits only)
2214\en(y4	R	year (all digits)
2215\en(yr	R\(sc	year minus 1900
2216\en(zs	R	floating keep pre/post space
2217\e{	F\(sc	begin conditional group
2218\e|	F\(sc	1/6 em narrow space
2219\e}	F\(sc	end conditional group
2220\e*~	S	tilde
2221\en(_M	R	section type (as set with .++ macro)
2222.)l
2223.rm $H