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/contrib/bsnmp/lib/bsnmpagent.3

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  1.\"
  2.\" Copyright (c) 2004-2005
  3.\"	Hartmut Brandt.
  4.\"	All rights reserved.
  5.\" Copyright (c) 2001-2003
  6.\"	Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FhG Fokus).
  7.\"	All rights reserved.
  8.\"
  9.\" Author: Harti Brandt <harti@FreeBSD.org>
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 32.\" $Begemot: bsnmp/lib/bsnmpagent.3,v 1.10 2005/10/04 08:46:49 brandt_h Exp $
 33.\"
 34.Dd October 4, 2005
 35.Dt BSNMPAGENT 3
 36.Os
 37.Sh NAME
 38.Nm bsnmpagent ,
 39.Nm snmp_depop_t ,
 40.Nm snmp_op_t ,
 41.Nm tree ,
 42.Nm tree_size ,
 43.Nm snmp_trace ,
 44.Nm snmp_debug ,
 45.Nm snmp_get ,
 46.Nm snmp_getnext ,
 47.Nm snmp_getbulk ,
 48.Nm snmp_set ,
 49.Nm snmp_make_errresp ,
 50.Nm snmp_dep_lookup ,
 51.Nm snmp_init_context ,
 52.Nm snmp_dep_commit ,
 53.Nm snmp_dep_rollback ,
 54.Nm snmp_dep_finish
 55.Nd "SNMP agent library"
 56.Sh LIBRARY
 57Begemot SNMP library
 58.Pq libbsnmp, -lbsnmp
 59.Sh SYNOPSIS
 60.In asn1.h
 61.In snmp.h
 62.In snmpagent.h
 63.Ft typedef int
 64.Fn (*snmp_depop_t) "struct snmp_context *ctx" "struct snmp_dependency *dep" "enum snmp_depop op"
 65.Ft typedef int
 66.Fn (*snmp_op_t) "struct snmp_context *ctx" "struct snmp_value *val" "u_int len" "u_int idx" "enum snmp_op op"
 67.Vt extern struct snmp_node *tree ;
 68.Vt extern u_int tree_size ;
 69.Vt extern u_int snmp_trace ;
 70.Vt extern void (*snmp_debug)(const char *fmt, ...) ;
 71.Ft enum snmp_ret
 72.Fn snmp_get "struct snmp_pdu *pdu" "struct asn_buf *resp_b" "struct snmp_pdu *resp" "void *data"
 73.Ft enum snmp_ret
 74.Fn snmp_getnext "struct snmp_pdu *pdu" "struct asn_buf *resp_b" "struct snmp_pdu *resp" "void *data"
 75.Ft enum snmp_ret
 76.Fn snmp_getbulk "struct snmp_pdu *pdu" "struct asn_buf *resp_b" "struct snmp_pdu *resp" "void *data"
 77.Ft enum snmp_ret
 78.Fn snmp_set "struct snmp_pdu *pdu" "struct asn_buf *resp_b" "struct snmp_pdu *resp" "void *data"
 79.Ft enum snmp_ret
 80.Fn snmp_make_errresp "const struct snmp_pdu *pdu" "struct asn_buf *req_b" "struct asn_buf *resp_b"
 81.Ft struct snmp_dependency *
 82.Fn snmp_dep_lookup "struct snmp_context *ctx" "const struct asn_oid *base" "const struct asn_oid *idx" "size_t alloc" "snmp_depop_t func"
 83.Ft struct snmp_context *
 84.Fn snmp_init_context "void"
 85.Ft int
 86.Fn snmp_dep_commit "struct snmp_context *ctx"
 87.Ft int
 88.Fn snmp_dep_rollback "struct snmp_context *ctx"
 89.Ft void
 90.Fn snmp_dep_finish "struct snmp_context *ctx"
 91.Sh DESCRIPTION
 92The SNMP library contains routines to easily build SNMP agent applications
 93that use SNMP versions 1 or 2.
 94Note, however, that it may be even easier to build an
 95.Xr bsnmpd 1
 96loadable module, that handles the new MIB (see
 97.Xr snmpmod 3 ) .
 98.Pp
 99Most of the agent routines operate on a global array that the describes the
100complete MIB served by the agent.
101This array is held in the two variables:
102.Bd -literal -offset indent
103extern struct snmp_node *tree;
104extern u_int  tree_size;
105.Ed
106.Pp
107The elements of the array are of type
108.Vt struct snmp_node :
109.Bd -literal -offset indent
110typedef int (*snmp_op_t)(struct snmp_context *, struct snmp_value *,
111    u_int, u_int, enum snmp_op);
112
113struct snmp_node {
114	struct asn_oid oid;
115	const char	*name;		/* name of the leaf */
116	enum snmp_node_type type;	/* type of this node */
117	enum snmp_syntax syntax;
118	snmp_op_t	op;
119	u_int		flags;
120	u_int32_t	index;		/* index data */
121	void		*data;		/* application data */
122	void		*tree_data;	/* application data */
123};
124.Ed
125.Pp
126The fields of this structure are described below.
127.Bl -tag -width "syntax"
128.It Va oid
129Base OID of the scalar or table column.
130.It Va name
131Name of this variable.
132.It Va type
133Type of this variable.
134One of:
135.Bd -literal -offset indent
136enum snmp_node_type {
137	SNMP_NODE_LEAF = 1,
138	SNMP_NODE_COLUMN
139};
140.Ed
141.It Va syntax
142The SNMP syntax of this variable.
143.It Va op
144The user supplied handler for this variable.
145The handler is called with the following arguments:
146.Bl -tag -width "ctx"
147.It Fa ctx
148A pointer to the context (see below).
149.Li NULL .
150.It Fa val
151The value to be set or retrieved.
152For GETNEXT and GETBULK operations the oid in
153this value is the current OID.
154The function (called in this case only for
155table rows) must find the lexically next existing OID within the same column and
156set the oid and value subfields accordingly.
157If the table column is exhausted the
158function must return
159.Li SNMP_ERR_NOSUCHNAME .
160For all other operations the oid in
161.Fa val
162is the oid to fetch or set.
163.It Fa len
164The length of the base oid without index.
165.It Fa idx
166For table columns this is the index expression from the node (see below).
167.It Fa op
168This is the operation to execute, one of:
169.Bd -literal -offset indent
170enum snmp_op {
171	SNMP_OP_GET 	= 1,
172	SNMP_OP_GETNEXT,
173	SNMP_OP_SET,
174	SNMP_OP_COMMIT,
175	SNMP_OP_ROLLBACK,
176};
177.Ed
178.El
179.Pp
180The user handler must return an appropriate SNMP v2 error code.
181If the original
182PDU was a version 1 PDU, the error code is mapped automatically.
183.It Va flags
184Currently only the flag
185.Li SNMP_NODE_CANSET is defined and set for nodes, that can be written or
186created.
187.It Va index
188This word describes the index for table columns.
189Each part of the index takes 4 bits starting at bit 4.
190Bits 0 to 3 hold the number of index parts.
191This arrangement allows for tables with up to seven indexes.
192Each bit group contains the syntax for the index part.
193There are a number of macros to help in parsing this field:
194.Bd -literal -offset indent
195#define SNMP_INDEXES_MAX	7
196#define SNMP_INDEX_SHIFT	4
197#define SNMP_INDEX_MASK	0xf
198#define SNMP_INDEX_COUNT(V)	((V) & SNMP_INDEX_MASK)
199#define SNMP_INDEX(V,I) \e
200	(((V) >> (((I) + 1) * SNMP_INDEX_SHIFT)) & \e
201	SNMP_INDEX_MASK)
202.Ed
203.It Va data
204This field may contain arbitrary data and is not used by the library.
205.El
206.Pp
207The easiest way to construct the node table is
208.Xr gensnmptree 1 .
209Note, that one must be careful when changing the tree while executing a SET
210operation.
211Consult the sources for
212.Xr bsnmpd 1 .
213.Pp
214The global variable
215.Va snmp_trace
216together with the function pointed to by
217.Va snmp_debug
218help in debugging the library and the agent.
219.Va snmp_trace is a bit mask with the following bits:
220.Bd -literal -offset indent
221enum {
222	SNMP_TRACE_GET,
223	SNMP_TRACE_GETNEXT,
224	SNMP_TRACE_SET,
225	SNMP_TRACE_DEPEND,
226	SNMP_TRACE_FIND,
227};
228.Ed
229.Pp
230Setting a bit to true causes the library to call
231.Fn snmp_debug
232in strategic places with a debug string.
233The library contains a default
234implementation for the debug function that prints a message to standard error.
235.Pp
236Many of the functions use a so called context:
237.Bd -literal -offset indent
238struct snmp_context {
239	u_int	var_index;
240	struct snmp_scratch *scratch;
241	struct snmp_dependency *dep;
242	void	*data;		/* user data */
243	enum snmp_ret code;	/* return code */
244};
245
246struct snmp_scratch {
247	void		*ptr1;
248	void		*ptr2;
249	uint32_t	int1;
250	uint32_t	int2;
251};
252.Ed
253.Pp
254The fields are used as follows:
255.Bl -tag -width ".It Va var_index"
256.It Va va_index
257For the node operation callback this is the
258index of the variable binding that should be returned if an error occurs.
259Set by the library.
260In all other functions this is undefined.
261.It Va scratch
262For the node operation callback this is a pointer to a per variable binding
263scratch area that can be used to implement the commit and rollback.
264Set by the library.
265.It Va dep
266In the dependency callback function (see below) this is a pointer to the
267current dependency.
268Set by the library.
269.It Va data
270This is the
271.Fa data
272argument from the call to the library and is not used by the library.
273.El
274.Pp
275The next three functions execute different kinds of GET requests.
276The function
277.Fn snmp_get
278executes an SNMP GET operation, the function
279.Fn snmp_getnext
280executes an SNMP GETNEXT operation and the function
281.Fn snmp_getbulk
282executes an SNMP GETBULK operation.
283For all three functions the response PDU is constructed and encoded
284on the fly.
285If everything is ok, the response PDU is returned in
286.Fa resp
287and
288.Fa resp_b .
289The caller must call
290.Fn snmp_pdu_free
291to free the response PDU in this case.
292One of the following values may be returned:
293.Bl -tag -width ".It Li SNMP_RET_ERR"
294.It Li SNMP_RET_OK
295Operation successful, response PDU may be sent.
296.It Li SNMP_RET_IGN
297Operation failed, no response PDU constructed.
298Request is ignored.
299.It Li SNMP_RET_ERR
300Error in operation.
301The error code and index have been set in
302.Fa pdu .
303No response PDU has been constructed.
304The caller may construct an error response PDU via
305.Fn snmp_make_errresp .
306.El
307.Pp
308The function
309.Fn snmp_set
310executes an SNMP SET operation.
311The arguments are the same as for the previous
312three functions.
313The operation of this functions is, however, much more complex.
314.Pp
315The SET operation occurs in several stages:
316.Bl -enum -offset indent
317.It
318For each binding search the corresponding nodes, check that the
319variable is writeable and the syntax is ok.
320The writeable check can be done only for scalars.
321For columns it must be done in the node's operation callback function.
322.It
323For each binding call the node's operation callback with function SNMP_OP_SET.
324The callback may create dependencies or finalizers (see below).
325For simple
326scalars the scratch area may be enough to handle commit and rollback, for
327interdependent table columns dependencies may be necessary.
328.It
329If the previous step fails at any point, the node's operation callback
330functions are called for all bindings for which SNMP_OP_SET was executed
331with SNMP_OP_ROLLBACK, in the opposite order.
332This allows all variables to undo the effect of the SET operation.
333After this all the dependencies are freed
334and the finalizers are executed with a fail flag of 1.
335Then the function
336returns to the caller with an appropriate error indication.
337.It
338If the SET step was successful for all bindings, the dependency callbacks
339are executed in the order in which the dependencies were created with an
340operation of SNMP_DEPOP_COMMIT.
341If any of the dependencies fails, all the
342committed dependencies are called again in the opposite order
343with SNMP_DEPOP_ROLLBACK.
344Than for all bindings from the last to the first
345the node's operation callback is called with SNMP_OP_ROLLBACK to undo
346the effect of SNMP_OP_SET.
347At the end the dependencies are freed and the finalizers are called with
348a fail flag of 1 and the function returns to the caller with an appropriate
349error indication.
350.It
351If the dependency commits were successful, for each binding the node's
352operation callback is called with SNMP_OP_COMMIT.
353Any error returned from
354the callbacks is ignored (an error message is generated via
355.Fn snmp_error ).
356.It
357Now the dependencies are freed and the finalizers are called
358with a fail flag of 0.
359For each dependency just before freeing it
360its callback is called with
361.Li SNMP_DEPOP_FINISH.
362Then the function returns
363.Li SNMP_ERR_OK .
364.El
365.Pp
366There are to mechanisms to help in complex SET operations: dependencies and
367finalizers.
368A dependency is used if several bindings depend on each other.
369A typical example is the creation of a conceptual row, which requires
370the setting of several columns to succeed.
371A dependency is identified by
372two OIDs.
373In the table case, the first oid is typically the table's base OID
374and the second one the index.
375Both of these can easily be generated from the
376variables OID with
377.Fn asn_slice_oid .
378The function
379.Fn snmp_dep_lookup
380tries to find a dependency based on these two OIDs and, if it cannot find one
381creates a new one.
382This means for the table example, that the function
383returns the same dependency for each of the columns of the same table row.
384This allows during the SNMP_OP_SET processing to collect all information
385about the row into the dependency.
386The arguments to
387.Fn snmp_dep_lookup
388are: the two OIDs to identify the dependency (they are copied into newly
389created dependencies), the size of the structure to allocate and
390the dependency callback.
391.Pp
392When all SNMP_OP_SET operations have succeeded the dependencies are executed.
393At this stage the dependency callback has all information about the given
394table row that was available in this SET PDU and can operate accordingly.
395.Pp
396It is guaranteed that each dependency callback is executed at minimum once
397- with an operation of
398.Li SNMP_OP_ROLLBACK .
399This ensures that all dynamically allocated resources in a callback can be
400freed correctly.
401.Pp
402The function
403.Fn snmp_make_errresp
404makes an error response if an operation has failed.
405It takes the original request PDU (it will look only on the error code and
406index fields), the buffer containing the original PDU and a buffer for the
407error PDU.
408It copies the bindings field from the original PDUs buffer directly to
409the response PDU and thus does not depend on the decodability of this field.
410It may return the same values as the operation functions.
411.Pp
412The next four functions allow some parts of the SET operation to be executed.
413This is only used in
414.Xr bsnmpd 1
415to implement the configuration as a single transaction.
416The function
417.Fn snmp_init_context
418creates and initializes a context.
419The function
420.Fn snmp_dep_commit
421executes SNMP_DEPOP_COMMIT for all dependencies in the context stopping at
422the first error.
423The function
424.Fn snmp_dep_rollback
425executes SNMP_DEPOP_ROLLBACK starting at the previous of the current
426dependency in the context.
427The function
428.Fn snmp_dep_finish
429executes SNMP_DEPOP_FINISH for all dependencies.
430.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
431If an error occurs in any of the function an error indication as described
432above is returned.
433Additionally the functions may call snmp_error on unexpected errors.
434.Sh SEE ALSO
435.Xr gensnmptree 1 ,
436.Xr bsnmpd 1 ,
437.Xr bsnmpclient 3 ,
438.Xr bsnmplib 3 ,
439.Xr snmpmod 3
440.Sh STANDARDS
441This implementation conforms to the applicable IETF RFCs and ITU-T
442recommendations.
443.Sh AUTHORS
444.An Hartmut Brandt Aq harti@FreeBSD.org