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  1.\" Copyright (C) 2004-2010 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
  2.\" Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
  3.\" 
  4.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
  5.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
  6.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
  7.\" 
  8.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
  9.\" REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
 10.\" AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
 11.\" INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
 12.\" LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
 13.\" OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
 14.\" PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 15.\"
 16.\" $Id$
 17.\"
 18.hy 0
 19.ad l
 20.\"     Title: dig
 21.\"    Author: 
 22.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.71.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
 23.\"      Date: Jun 30, 2000
 24.\"    Manual: BIND9
 25.\"    Source: BIND9
 26.\"
 27.TH "DIG" "1" "Jun 30, 2000" "BIND9" "BIND9"
 28.\" disable hyphenation
 29.nh
 30.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
 31.ad l
 32.SH "NAME"
 33dig \- DNS lookup utility
 34.SH "SYNOPSIS"
 35.HP 4
 36\fBdig\fR [@server] [\fB\-b\ \fR\fB\fIaddress\fR\fR] [\fB\-c\ \fR\fB\fIclass\fR\fR] [\fB\-f\ \fR\fB\fIfilename\fR\fR] [\fB\-k\ \fR\fB\fIfilename\fR\fR] [\fB\-m\fR] [\fB\-p\ \fR\fB\fIport#\fR\fR] [\fB\-q\ \fR\fB\fIname\fR\fR] [\fB\-t\ \fR\fB\fItype\fR\fR] [\fB\-x\ \fR\fB\fIaddr\fR\fR] [\fB\-y\ \fR\fB\fI[hmac:]\fR\fIname:key\fR\fR] [\fB\-4\fR] [\fB\-6\fR] [name] [type] [class] [queryopt...]
 37.HP 4
 38\fBdig\fR [\fB\-h\fR]
 39.HP 4
 40\fBdig\fR [global\-queryopt...] [query...]
 41.SH "DESCRIPTION"
 42.PP
 43\fBdig\fR
 44(domain information groper) is a flexible tool for interrogating DNS name servers. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried. Most DNS administrators use
 45\fBdig\fR
 46to troubleshoot DNS problems because of its flexibility, ease of use and clarity of output. Other lookup tools tend to have less functionality than
 47\fBdig\fR.
 48.PP
 49Although
 50\fBdig\fR
 51is normally used with command\-line arguments, it also has a batch mode of operation for reading lookup requests from a file. A brief summary of its command\-line arguments and options is printed when the
 52\fB\-h\fR
 53option is given. Unlike earlier versions, the BIND 9 implementation of
 54\fBdig\fR
 55allows multiple lookups to be issued from the command line.
 56.PP
 57Unless it is told to query a specific name server,
 58\fBdig\fR
 59will try each of the servers listed in
 60\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR.
 61.PP
 62When no command line arguments or options are given,
 63\fBdig\fR
 64will perform an NS query for "." (the root).
 65.PP
 66It is possible to set per\-user defaults for
 67\fBdig\fR
 68via
 69\fI${HOME}/.digrc\fR. This file is read and any options in it are applied before the command line arguments.
 70.PP
 71The IN and CH class names overlap with the IN and CH top level domains names. Either use the
 72\fB\-t\fR
 73and
 74\fB\-c\fR
 75options to specify the type and class, use the
 76\fB\-q\fR
 77the specify the domain name, or use "IN." and "CH." when looking up these top level domains.
 78.SH "SIMPLE USAGE"
 79.PP
 80A typical invocation of
 81\fBdig\fR
 82looks like:
 83.sp
 84.RS 4
 85.nf
 86 dig @server name type 
 87.fi
 88.RE
 89.sp
 90where:
 91.PP
 92\fBserver\fR
 93.RS 4
 94is the name or IP address of the name server to query. This can be an IPv4 address in dotted\-decimal notation or an IPv6 address in colon\-delimited notation. When the supplied
 95\fIserver\fR
 96argument is a hostname,
 97\fBdig\fR
 98resolves that name before querying that name server. If no
 99\fIserver\fR
100argument is provided,
101\fBdig\fR
102consults
103\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR
104and queries the name servers listed there. The reply from the name server that responds is displayed.
105.RE
106.PP
107\fBname\fR
108.RS 4
109is the name of the resource record that is to be looked up.
110.RE
111.PP
112\fBtype\fR
113.RS 4
114indicates what type of query is required \(em ANY, A, MX, SIG, etc.
115\fItype\fR
116can be any valid query type. If no
117\fItype\fR
118argument is supplied,
119\fBdig\fR
120will perform a lookup for an A record.
121.RE
122.SH "OPTIONS"
123.PP
124The
125\fB\-b\fR
126option sets the source IP address of the query to
127\fIaddress\fR. This must be a valid address on one of the host's network interfaces or "0.0.0.0" or "::". An optional port may be specified by appending "#<port>"
128.PP
129The default query class (IN for internet) is overridden by the
130\fB\-c\fR
131option.
132\fIclass\fR
133is any valid class, such as HS for Hesiod records or CH for Chaosnet records.
134.PP
135The
136\fB\-f\fR
137option makes
138\fBdig \fR
139operate in batch mode by reading a list of lookup requests to process from the file
140\fIfilename\fR. The file contains a number of queries, one per line. Each entry in the file should be organized in the same way they would be presented as queries to
141\fBdig\fR
142using the command\-line interface.
143.PP
144The
145\fB\-m\fR
146option enables memory usage debugging.
147.PP
148If a non\-standard port number is to be queried, the
149\fB\-p\fR
150option is used.
151\fIport#\fR
152is the port number that
153\fBdig\fR
154will send its queries instead of the standard DNS port number 53. This option would be used to test a name server that has been configured to listen for queries on a non\-standard port number.
155.PP
156The
157\fB\-4\fR
158option forces
159\fBdig\fR
160to only use IPv4 query transport. The
161\fB\-6\fR
162option forces
163\fBdig\fR
164to only use IPv6 query transport.
165.PP
166The
167\fB\-t\fR
168option sets the query type to
169\fItype\fR. It can be any valid query type which is supported in BIND 9. The default query type is "A", unless the
170\fB\-x\fR
171option is supplied to indicate a reverse lookup. A zone transfer can be requested by specifying a type of AXFR. When an incremental zone transfer (IXFR) is required,
172\fItype\fR
173is set to
174ixfr=N. The incremental zone transfer will contain the changes made to the zone since the serial number in the zone's SOA record was
175\fIN\fR.
176.PP
177The
178\fB\-q\fR
179option sets the query name to
180\fIname\fR. This useful do distinguish the
181\fIname\fR
182from other arguments.
183.PP
184Reverse lookups \(em mapping addresses to names \(em are simplified by the
185\fB\-x\fR
186option.
187\fIaddr\fR
188is an IPv4 address in dotted\-decimal notation, or a colon\-delimited IPv6 address. When this option is used, there is no need to provide the
189\fIname\fR,
190\fIclass\fR
191and
192\fItype\fR
193arguments.
194\fBdig\fR
195automatically performs a lookup for a name like
19611.12.13.10.in\-addr.arpa
197and sets the query type and class to PTR and IN respectively. By default, IPv6 addresses are looked up using nibble format under the IP6.ARPA domain. To use the older RFC1886 method using the IP6.INT domain specify the
198\fB\-i\fR
199option. Bit string labels (RFC2874) are now experimental and are not attempted.
200.PP
201To sign the DNS queries sent by
202\fBdig\fR
203and their responses using transaction signatures (TSIG), specify a TSIG key file using the
204\fB\-k\fR
205option. You can also specify the TSIG key itself on the command line using the
206\fB\-y\fR
207option;
208\fIhmac\fR
209is the type of the TSIG, default HMAC\-MD5,
210\fIname\fR
211is the name of the TSIG key and
212\fIkey\fR
213is the actual key. The key is a base\-64 encoded string, typically generated by
214\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR(8). Caution should be taken when using the
215\fB\-y\fR
216option on multi\-user systems as the key can be visible in the output from
217\fBps\fR(1)
218or in the shell's history file. When using TSIG authentication with
219\fBdig\fR, the name server that is queried needs to know the key and algorithm that is being used. In BIND, this is done by providing appropriate
220\fBkey\fR
221and
222\fBserver\fR
223statements in
224\fInamed.conf\fR.
225.SH "QUERY OPTIONS"
226.PP
227\fBdig\fR
228provides a number of query options which affect the way in which lookups are made and the results displayed. Some of these set or reset flag bits in the query header, some determine which sections of the answer get printed, and others determine the timeout and retry strategies.
229.PP
230Each query option is identified by a keyword preceded by a plus sign (+). Some keywords set or reset an option. These may be preceded by the string
231no
232to negate the meaning of that keyword. Other keywords assign values to options like the timeout interval. They have the form
233\fB+keyword=value\fR. The query options are:
234.PP
235\fB+[no]tcp\fR
236.RS 4
237Use [do not use] TCP when querying name servers. The default behavior is to use UDP unless an AXFR or IXFR query is requested, in which case a TCP connection is used.
238.RE
239.PP
240\fB+[no]vc\fR
241.RS 4
242Use [do not use] TCP when querying name servers. This alternate syntax to
243\fI+[no]tcp\fR
244is provided for backwards compatibility. The "vc" stands for "virtual circuit".
245.RE
246.PP
247\fB+[no]ignore\fR
248.RS 4
249Ignore truncation in UDP responses instead of retrying with TCP. By default, TCP retries are performed.
250.RE
251.PP
252\fB+domain=somename\fR
253.RS 4
254Set the search list to contain the single domain
255\fIsomename\fR, as if specified in a
256\fBdomain\fR
257directive in
258\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR, and enable search list processing as if the
259\fI+search\fR
260option were given.
261.RE
262.PP
263\fB+[no]search\fR
264.RS 4
265Use [do not use] the search list defined by the searchlist or domain directive in
266\fIresolv.conf\fR
267(if any). The search list is not used by default.
268.RE
269.PP
270\fB+[no]showsearch\fR
271.RS 4
272Perform [do not perform] a search showing intermediate results.
273.RE
274.PP
275\fB+[no]defname\fR
276.RS 4
277Deprecated, treated as a synonym for
278\fI+[no]search\fR
279.RE
280.PP
281\fB+[no]aaonly\fR
282.RS 4
283Sets the "aa" flag in the query.
284.RE
285.PP
286\fB+[no]aaflag\fR
287.RS 4
288A synonym for
289\fI+[no]aaonly\fR.
290.RE
291.PP
292\fB+[no]adflag\fR
293.RS 4
294Set [do not set] the AD (authentic data) bit in the query. This requests the server to return whether all of the answer and authority sections have all been validated as secure according to the security policy of the server. AD=1 indicates that all records have been validated as secure and the answer is not from a OPT\-OUT range. AD=0 indicate that some part of the answer was insecure or not validated.
295.RE
296.PP
297\fB+[no]cdflag\fR
298.RS 4
299Set [do not set] the CD (checking disabled) bit in the query. This requests the server to not perform DNSSEC validation of responses.
300.RE
301.PP
302\fB+[no]cl\fR
303.RS 4
304Display [do not display] the CLASS when printing the record.
305.RE
306.PP
307\fB+[no]ttlid\fR
308.RS 4
309Display [do not display] the TTL when printing the record.
310.RE
311.PP
312\fB+[no]recurse\fR
313.RS 4
314Toggle the setting of the RD (recursion desired) bit in the query. This bit is set by default, which means
315\fBdig\fR
316normally sends recursive queries. Recursion is automatically disabled when the
317\fI+nssearch\fR
318or
319\fI+trace\fR
320query options are used.
321.RE
322.PP
323\fB+[no]nssearch\fR
324.RS 4
325When this option is set,
326\fBdig\fR
327attempts to find the authoritative name servers for the zone containing the name being looked up and display the SOA record that each name server has for the zone.
328.RE
329.PP
330\fB+[no]trace\fR
331.RS 4
332Toggle tracing of the delegation path from the root name servers for the name being looked up. Tracing is disabled by default. When tracing is enabled,
333\fBdig\fR
334makes iterative queries to resolve the name being looked up. It will follow referrals from the root servers, showing the answer from each server that was used to resolve the lookup.
335.RE
336.PP
337\fB+[no]cmd\fR
338.RS 4
339Toggles the printing of the initial comment in the output identifying the version of
340\fBdig\fR
341and the query options that have been applied. This comment is printed by default.
342.RE
343.PP
344\fB+[no]short\fR
345.RS 4
346Provide a terse answer. The default is to print the answer in a verbose form.
347.RE
348.PP
349\fB+[no]identify\fR
350.RS 4
351Show [or do not show] the IP address and port number that supplied the answer when the
352\fI+short\fR
353option is enabled. If short form answers are requested, the default is not to show the source address and port number of the server that provided the answer.
354.RE
355.PP
356\fB+[no]comments\fR
357.RS 4
358Toggle the display of comment lines in the output. The default is to print comments.
359.RE
360.PP
361\fB+[no]stats\fR
362.RS 4
363This query option toggles the printing of statistics: when the query was made, the size of the reply and so on. The default behavior is to print the query statistics.
364.RE
365.PP
366\fB+[no]qr\fR
367.RS 4
368Print [do not print] the query as it is sent. By default, the query is not printed.
369.RE
370.PP
371\fB+[no]question\fR
372.RS 4
373Print [do not print] the question section of a query when an answer is returned. The default is to print the question section as a comment.
374.RE
375.PP
376\fB+[no]answer\fR
377.RS 4
378Display [do not display] the answer section of a reply. The default is to display it.
379.RE
380.PP
381\fB+[no]authority\fR
382.RS 4
383Display [do not display] the authority section of a reply. The default is to display it.
384.RE
385.PP
386\fB+[no]additional\fR
387.RS 4
388Display [do not display] the additional section of a reply. The default is to display it.
389.RE
390.PP
391\fB+[no]all\fR
392.RS 4
393Set or clear all display flags.
394.RE
395.PP
396\fB+time=T\fR
397.RS 4
398Sets the timeout for a query to
399\fIT\fR
400seconds. The default timeout is 5 seconds. An attempt to set
401\fIT\fR
402to less than 1 will result in a query timeout of 1 second being applied.
403.RE
404.PP
405\fB+tries=T\fR
406.RS 4
407Sets the number of times to try UDP queries to server to
408\fIT\fR
409instead of the default, 3. If
410\fIT\fR
411is less than or equal to zero, the number of tries is silently rounded up to 1.
412.RE
413.PP
414\fB+retry=T\fR
415.RS 4
416Sets the number of times to retry UDP queries to server to
417\fIT\fR
418instead of the default, 2. Unlike
419\fI+tries\fR, this does not include the initial query.
420.RE
421.PP
422\fB+ndots=D\fR
423.RS 4
424Set the number of dots that have to appear in
425\fIname\fR
426to
427\fID\fR
428for it to be considered absolute. The default value is that defined using the ndots statement in
429\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR, or 1 if no ndots statement is present. Names with fewer dots are interpreted as relative names and will be searched for in the domains listed in the
430\fBsearch\fR
431or
432\fBdomain\fR
433directive in
434\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR.
435.RE
436.PP
437\fB+bufsize=B\fR
438.RS 4
439Set the UDP message buffer size advertised using EDNS0 to
440\fIB\fR
441bytes. The maximum and minimum sizes of this buffer are 65535 and 0 respectively. Values outside this range are rounded up or down appropriately. Values other than zero will cause a EDNS query to be sent.
442.RE
443.PP
444\fB+edns=#\fR
445.RS 4
446Specify the EDNS version to query with. Valid values are 0 to 255. Setting the EDNS version will cause a EDNS query to be sent.
447\fB+noedns\fR
448clears the remembered EDNS version.
449.RE
450.PP
451\fB+[no]multiline\fR
452.RS 4
453Print records like the SOA records in a verbose multi\-line format with human\-readable comments. The default is to print each record on a single line, to facilitate machine parsing of the
454\fBdig\fR
455output.
456.RE
457.PP
458\fB+[no]onesoa\fR
459.RS 4
460Print only one (starting) SOA record when performing an AXFR. The default is to print both the starting and ending SOA records.
461.RE
462.PP
463\fB+[no]fail\fR
464.RS 4
465Do not try the next server if you receive a SERVFAIL. The default is to not try the next server which is the reverse of normal stub resolver behavior.
466.RE
467.PP
468\fB+[no]besteffort\fR
469.RS 4
470Attempt to display the contents of messages which are malformed. The default is to not display malformed answers.
471.RE
472.PP
473\fB+[no]dnssec\fR
474.RS 4
475Requests DNSSEC records be sent by setting the DNSSEC OK bit (DO) in the OPT record in the additional section of the query.
476.RE
477.PP
478\fB+[no]sigchase\fR
479.RS 4
480Chase DNSSEC signature chains. Requires dig be compiled with \-DDIG_SIGCHASE.
481.RE
482.PP
483\fB+trusted\-key=####\fR
484.RS 4
485Specifies a file containing trusted keys to be used with
486\fB+sigchase\fR. Each DNSKEY record must be on its own line.
487.sp
488If not specified,
489\fBdig\fR
490will look for
491\fI/etc/trusted\-key.key\fR
492then
493\fItrusted\-key.key\fR
494in the current directory.
495.sp
496Requires dig be compiled with \-DDIG_SIGCHASE.
497.RE
498.PP
499\fB+[no]topdown\fR
500.RS 4
501When chasing DNSSEC signature chains perform a top\-down validation. Requires dig be compiled with \-DDIG_SIGCHASE.
502.RE
503.PP
504\fB+[no]nsid\fR
505.RS 4
506Include an EDNS name server ID request when sending a query.
507.RE
508.SH "MULTIPLE QUERIES"
509.PP
510The BIND 9 implementation of
511\fBdig \fR
512supports specifying multiple queries on the command line (in addition to supporting the
513\fB\-f\fR
514batch file option). Each of those queries can be supplied with its own set of flags, options and query options.
515.PP
516In this case, each
517\fIquery\fR
518argument represent an individual query in the command\-line syntax described above. Each consists of any of the standard options and flags, the name to be looked up, an optional query type and class and any query options that should be applied to that query.
519.PP
520A global set of query options, which should be applied to all queries, can also be supplied. These global query options must precede the first tuple of name, class, type, options, flags, and query options supplied on the command line. Any global query options (except the
521\fB+[no]cmd\fR
522option) can be overridden by a query\-specific set of query options. For example:
523.sp
524.RS 4
525.nf
526dig +qr www.isc.org any \-x 127.0.0.1 isc.org ns +noqr
527.fi
528.RE
529.sp
530shows how
531\fBdig\fR
532could be used from the command line to make three lookups: an ANY query for
533www.isc.org, a reverse lookup of 127.0.0.1 and a query for the NS records of
534isc.org. A global query option of
535\fI+qr\fR
536is applied, so that
537\fBdig\fR
538shows the initial query it made for each lookup. The final query has a local query option of
539\fI+noqr\fR
540which means that
541\fBdig\fR
542will not print the initial query when it looks up the NS records for
543isc.org.
544.SH "IDN SUPPORT"
545.PP
546If
547\fBdig\fR
548has been built with IDN (internationalized domain name) support, it can accept and display non\-ASCII domain names.
549\fBdig\fR
550appropriately converts character encoding of domain name before sending a request to DNS server or displaying a reply from the server. If you'd like to turn off the IDN support for some reason, defines the
551\fBIDN_DISABLE\fR
552environment variable. The IDN support is disabled if the variable is set when
553\fBdig\fR
554runs.
555.SH "FILES"
556.PP
557\fI/etc/resolv.conf\fR
558.PP
559\fI${HOME}/.digrc\fR
560.SH "SEE ALSO"
561.PP
562\fBhost\fR(1),
563\fBnamed\fR(8),
564\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR(8),
565RFC1035.
566.SH "BUGS"
567.PP
568There are probably too many query options.
569.SH "COPYRIGHT"
570Copyright \(co 2004\-2010 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
571.br
572Copyright \(co 2000\-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
573.br