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/contrib/bind9/bin/nsupdate/nsupdate.docbook

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 21<!-- $Id: nsupdate.docbook,v 1.44 2010/07/09 23:46:51 tbox Exp $ -->
 22<refentry id="man.nsupdate">
 23  <refentryinfo>
 24    <date>Aug 25, 2009</date>
 25  </refentryinfo>
 26  <refmeta>
 27    <refentrytitle><application>nsupdate</application></refentrytitle>
 28    <manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
 29    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
 30  </refmeta>
 31  <refnamediv>
 32    <refname><application>nsupdate</application></refname>
 33    <refpurpose>Dynamic DNS update utility</refpurpose>
 34  </refnamediv>
 35
 36  <docinfo>
 37    <copyright>
 38      <year>2004</year>
 39      <year>2005</year>
 40      <year>2006</year>
 41      <year>2007</year>
 42      <year>2008</year>
 43      <year>2009</year>
 44      <year>2010</year>
 45      <holder>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")</holder>
 46    </copyright>
 47    <copyright>
 48      <year>2000</year>
 49      <year>2001</year>
 50      <year>2002</year>
 51      <year>2003</year>
 52      <holder>Internet Software Consortium.</holder>
 53    </copyright>
 54  </docinfo>
 55
 56  <refsynopsisdiv>
 57    <cmdsynopsis>
 58      <command>nsupdate</command>
 59      <arg><option>-d</option></arg>
 60      <arg><option>-D</option></arg>
 61      <group>
 62	<arg><option>-g</option></arg>
 63	<arg><option>-o</option></arg>
 64	<arg><option>-l</option></arg>
 65        <arg><option>-y <replaceable class="parameter"><optional>hmac:</optional>keyname:secret</replaceable></option></arg>
 66        <arg><option>-k <replaceable class="parameter">keyfile</replaceable></option></arg>
 67      </group>
 68      <arg><option>-t <replaceable class="parameter">timeout</replaceable></option></arg>
 69      <arg><option>-u <replaceable class="parameter">udptimeout</replaceable></option></arg>
 70      <arg><option>-r <replaceable class="parameter">udpretries</replaceable></option></arg>
 71      <arg><option>-R <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option></arg>
 72      <arg><option>-v</option></arg>
 73      <arg>filename</arg>
 74    </cmdsynopsis>
 75  </refsynopsisdiv>
 76
 77  <refsect1>
 78    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
 79    <para><command>nsupdate</command>
 80      is used to submit Dynamic DNS Update requests as defined in RFC 2136
 81      to a name server.
 82      This allows resource records to be added or removed from a zone
 83      without manually editing the zone file.
 84      A single update request can contain requests to add or remove more than
 85      one
 86      resource record.
 87    </para>
 88    <para>
 89      Zones that are under dynamic control via
 90      <command>nsupdate</command>
 91      or a DHCP server should not be edited by hand.
 92      Manual edits could
 93      conflict with dynamic updates and cause data to be lost.
 94    </para>
 95    <para>
 96      The resource records that are dynamically added or removed with
 97      <command>nsupdate</command>
 98      have to be in the same zone.
 99      Requests are sent to the zone's master server.
100      This is identified by the MNAME field of the zone's SOA record.
101    </para>
102    <para>
103      The
104      <option>-d</option>
105      option makes
106      <command>nsupdate</command>
107      operate in debug mode.
108      This provides tracing information about the update requests that are
109      made and the replies received from the name server.
110    </para>
111    <para>
112      The <option>-D</option> option makes <command>nsupdate</command>
113      report additional debugging information to <option>-d</option>.
114    </para>
115    <para>
116      The <option>-L</option> option with an integer argument of zero or
117      higher sets the logging debug level.  If zero, logging is disabled.
118    </para>
119    <para>
120      Transaction signatures can be used to authenticate the Dynamic
121      DNS updates.  These use the TSIG resource record type described
122      in RFC 2845 or the SIG(0) record described in RFC 2535 and
123      RFC 2931 or GSS-TSIG as described in RFC 3645.  TSIG relies on
124      a shared secret that should only be known to
125      <command>nsupdate</command> and the name server.  Currently,
126      the only supported encryption algorithm for TSIG is HMAC-MD5,
127      which is defined in RFC 2104.  Once other algorithms are
128      defined for TSIG, applications will need to ensure they select
129      the appropriate algorithm as well as the key when authenticating
130      each other.  For instance, suitable <type>key</type> and
131      <type>server</type> statements would be added to
132      <filename>/etc/named.conf</filename> so that the name server
133      can associate the appropriate secret key and algorithm with
134      the IP address of the client application that will be using
135      TSIG authentication.  SIG(0) uses public key cryptography.
136      To use a SIG(0) key, the public key must be stored in a KEY
137      record in a zone served by the name server.
138      <command>nsupdate</command> does not read
139      <filename>/etc/named.conf</filename>.
140    </para>
141    <para>
142      GSS-TSIG uses Kerberos credentials.  Standard GSS-TSIG mode
143      is switched on with the <option>-g</option> flag.  A
144      non-standards-compliant variant of GSS-TSIG used by Windows
145      2000 can be switched on with the <option>-o</option> flag.
146    </para>
147    <para><command>nsupdate</command>
148      uses the <option>-y</option> or <option>-k</option> option
149      to provide the shared secret needed to generate a TSIG record
150      for authenticating Dynamic DNS update requests, default type
151      HMAC-MD5.  These options are mutually exclusive. 
152    </para>
153    <para>
154      When the <option>-y</option> option is used, a signature is
155      generated from
156      <optional><parameter>hmac:</parameter></optional><parameter>keyname:secret.</parameter>
157      <parameter>keyname</parameter> is the name of the key, and
158      <parameter>secret</parameter> is the base64 encoded shared secret.
159      Use of the <option>-y</option> option is discouraged because the
160      shared secret is supplied as a command line argument in clear text.
161      This may be visible in the output from
162      <citerefentry>
163        <refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum>
164      </citerefentry>
165      or in a history file maintained by the user's shell.
166    </para>
167    <para>
168      With the
169      <option>-k</option> option, <command>nsupdate</command> reads
170      the shared secret from the file <parameter>keyfile</parameter>.
171      Keyfiles may be in two formats: a single file containing
172      a <filename>named.conf</filename>-format <command>key</command>
173      statement, which may be generated automatically by
174      <command>ddns-confgen</command>, or a pair of files whose names are
175      of the format <filename>K{name}.+157.+{random}.key</filename> and
176      <filename>K{name}.+157.+{random}.private</filename>, which can be
177      generated by <command>dnssec-keygen</command>.
178      The <option>-k</option> may also be used to specify a SIG(0) key used
179      to authenticate Dynamic DNS update requests.  In this case, the key
180      specified is not an HMAC-MD5 key.
181    </para>
182    <para>
183      <command>nsupdate</command> can be run in a local-host only mode
184      using the <option>-l</option> flag.  This sets the server address to
185      localhost (disabling the <command>server</command> so that the server
186      address cannot be overridden).  Connections to the local server will
187      use a TSIG key found in <filename>/var/run/named/session.key</filename>,
188      which is automatically generated by <command>named</command> if any
189      local master zone has set <command>update-policy</command> to
190      <command>local</command>.  The location of this key file can be
191      overridden with the <option>-k</option> option.
192    </para>
193    <para>
194      By default, <command>nsupdate</command>
195      uses UDP to send update requests to the name server unless they are too
196      large to fit in a UDP request in which case TCP will be used.
197      The
198      <option>-v</option>
199      option makes
200      <command>nsupdate</command>
201      use a TCP connection.
202      This may be preferable when a batch of update requests is made.
203    </para>
204    <para>
205      The <option>-p</option> sets the default port number to use for
206      connections to a name server.  The default is 53.
207    </para>
208    <para>
209      The <option>-t</option> option sets the maximum time an update request
210      can
211      take before it is aborted.  The default is 300 seconds.  Zero can be
212      used
213      to disable the timeout.
214    </para>
215    <para>
216      The <option>-u</option> option sets the UDP retry interval.  The default
217      is
218      3 seconds.  If zero, the interval will be computed from the timeout
219      interval
220      and number of UDP retries.
221    </para>
222    <para>
223      The <option>-r</option> option sets the number of UDP retries. The
224      default is
225      3.  If zero, only one update request will be made.
226    </para>
227    <para>
228      The <option>-R <replaceable
229      class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option> option
230      specifies a source of randomness.  If the operating system
231      does not provide a <filename>/dev/random</filename> or
232      equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard
233      input.  <filename>randomdev</filename> specifies the name of
234      a character device or file containing random data to be used
235      instead of the default.  The special value
236      <filename>keyboard</filename> indicates that keyboard input
237      should be used.  This option may be specified multiple times.
238    </para>
239  </refsect1>
240
241  <refsect1>
242    <title>INPUT FORMAT</title>
243    <para><command>nsupdate</command>
244      reads input from
245      <parameter>filename</parameter>
246      or standard input.
247      Each command is supplied on exactly one line of input.
248      Some commands are for administrative purposes.
249      The others are either update instructions or prerequisite checks on the
250      contents of the zone.
251      These checks set conditions that some name or set of
252      resource records (RRset) either exists or is absent from the zone.
253      These conditions must be met if the entire update request is to succeed.
254      Updates will be rejected if the tests for the prerequisite conditions
255      fail.
256    </para>
257    <para>
258      Every update request consists of zero or more prerequisites
259      and zero or more updates.
260      This allows a suitably authenticated update request to proceed if some
261      specified resource records are present or missing from the zone.
262      A blank input line (or the <command>send</command> command)
263      causes the
264      accumulated commands to be sent as one Dynamic DNS update request to the
265      name server.
266    </para>
267    <para>
268      The command formats and their meaning are as follows:
269      <variablelist>
270
271        <varlistentry>
272          <term>
273              <command>server</command>
274              <arg choice="req">servername</arg>
275              <arg choice="opt">port</arg>
276            </term>
277          <listitem>
278            <para>
279              Sends all dynamic update requests to the name server
280              <parameter>servername</parameter>.
281              When no server statement is provided,
282              <command>nsupdate</command>
283              will send updates to the master server of the correct zone.
284              The MNAME field of that zone's SOA record will identify the
285              master
286              server for that zone.
287              <parameter>port</parameter>
288              is the port number on
289              <parameter>servername</parameter>
290              where the dynamic update requests get sent.
291              If no port number is specified, the default DNS port number of
292              53 is
293              used.
294            </para>
295          </listitem>
296        </varlistentry>
297
298        <varlistentry>
299          <term>
300              <command>local</command>
301              <arg choice="req">address</arg>
302              <arg choice="opt">port</arg>
303            </term>
304          <listitem>
305            <para>
306              Sends all dynamic update requests using the local
307              <parameter>address</parameter>.
308
309              When no local statement is provided,
310              <command>nsupdate</command>
311              will send updates using an address and port chosen by the
312              system.
313              <parameter>port</parameter>
314              can additionally be used to make requests come from a specific
315              port.
316              If no port number is specified, the system will assign one.
317            </para>
318          </listitem>
319        </varlistentry>
320
321        <varlistentry>
322          <term>
323              <command>zone</command>
324              <arg choice="req">zonename</arg>
325            </term>
326          <listitem>
327            <para>
328              Specifies that all updates are to be made to the zone
329              <parameter>zonename</parameter>.
330              If no
331              <parameter>zone</parameter>
332              statement is provided,
333              <command>nsupdate</command>
334              will attempt determine the correct zone to update based on the
335              rest of the input.
336            </para>
337          </listitem>
338        </varlistentry>
339
340        <varlistentry>
341          <term>
342              <command>class</command>
343              <arg choice="req">classname</arg>
344            </term>
345          <listitem>
346            <para>
347              Specify the default class.
348              If no <parameter>class</parameter> is specified, the
349              default class is
350              <parameter>IN</parameter>.
351            </para>
352          </listitem>
353        </varlistentry>
354
355        <varlistentry>
356          <term>
357              <command>ttl</command>
358              <arg choice="req">seconds</arg>
359            </term>
360          <listitem>
361            <para>
362              Specify the default time to live for records to be added.
363	      The value <parameter>none</parameter> will clear the default
364	      ttl.
365            </para>
366          </listitem>
367        </varlistentry>
368
369        <varlistentry>
370          <term>
371              <command>key</command>
372              <arg choice="req">name</arg>
373              <arg choice="req">secret</arg>
374            </term>
375          <listitem>
376            <para>
377              Specifies that all updates are to be TSIG-signed using the
378              <parameter>keyname</parameter> <parameter>keysecret</parameter> pair.
379              The <command>key</command> command
380              overrides any key specified on the command line via
381              <option>-y</option> or <option>-k</option>.
382            </para>
383          </listitem>
384        </varlistentry>
385
386        <varlistentry>
387          <term>
388            <command>gsstsig</command>
389          </term>
390          <listitem>
391            <para>
392	      Use GSS-TSIG to sign the updated.  This is equivalent to
393	      specifying <option>-g</option> on the commandline.
394            </para>
395          </listitem>
396        </varlistentry>
397
398        <varlistentry>
399          <term>
400            <command>oldgsstsig</command>
401          </term>
402          <listitem>
403            <para>
404	      Use the Windows 2000 version of GSS-TSIG to sign the updated.
405	      This is equivalent to specifying <option>-o</option> on the
406	      commandline.
407            </para>
408          </listitem>
409        </varlistentry>
410
411        <varlistentry>
412          <term>
413            <command>realm</command>
414            <arg choice="req"><optional>realm_name</optional></arg>
415          </term>
416          <listitem>
417            <para>
418	      When using GSS-TSIG use <parameter>realm_name</parameter> rather
419	      than the default realm in <filename>krb5.conf</filename>.  If no
420	      realm is specified the saved realm is cleared.
421            </para>
422          </listitem>
423        </varlistentry>
424
425        <varlistentry>
426          <term>
427              <command>prereq nxdomain</command>
428              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
429            </term>
430          <listitem>
431            <para>
432              Requires that no resource record of any type exists with name
433              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>.
434            </para>
435          </listitem>
436        </varlistentry>
437
438
439        <varlistentry>
440          <term>
441              <command>prereq yxdomain</command>
442              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
443            </term>
444          <listitem>
445            <para>
446              Requires that
447              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>
448              exists (has as at least one resource record, of any type).
449            </para>
450          </listitem>
451        </varlistentry>
452
453        <varlistentry>
454          <term>
455              <command>prereq nxrrset</command>
456              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
457              <arg choice="opt">class</arg>
458              <arg choice="req">type</arg>
459            </term>
460          <listitem>
461            <para>
462              Requires that no resource record exists of the specified
463              <parameter>type</parameter>,
464              <parameter>class</parameter>
465              and
466              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>.
467              If
468              <parameter>class</parameter>
469              is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
470            </para>
471          </listitem>
472        </varlistentry>
473
474
475        <varlistentry>
476          <term>
477              <command>prereq yxrrset</command>
478              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
479              <arg choice="opt">class</arg>
480              <arg choice="req">type</arg>
481            </term>
482          <listitem>
483            <para>
484              This requires that a resource record of the specified
485              <parameter>type</parameter>,
486              <parameter>class</parameter>
487              and
488              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>
489              must exist.
490              If
491              <parameter>class</parameter>
492              is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
493            </para>
494          </listitem>
495        </varlistentry>
496
497        <varlistentry>
498          <term>
499              <command>prereq yxrrset</command>
500              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
501              <arg choice="opt">class</arg>
502              <arg choice="req">type</arg>
503              <arg choice="req" rep="repeat">data</arg>
504            </term>
505          <listitem>
506            <para>
507              The
508              <parameter>data</parameter>
509              from each set of prerequisites of this form
510              sharing a common
511              <parameter>type</parameter>,
512              <parameter>class</parameter>,
513              and
514              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>
515              are combined to form a set of RRs.  This set of RRs must
516              exactly match the set of RRs existing in the zone at the
517              given
518              <parameter>type</parameter>,
519              <parameter>class</parameter>,
520              and
521              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>.
522              The
523              <parameter>data</parameter>
524              are written in the standard text representation of the resource
525              record's
526              RDATA.
527            </para>
528          </listitem>
529        </varlistentry>
530
531        <varlistentry>
532          <term>
533              <command>update delete</command>
534              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
535              <arg choice="opt">ttl</arg>
536              <arg choice="opt">class</arg>
537              <arg choice="opt">type <arg choice="opt" rep="repeat">data</arg></arg>
538            </term>
539          <listitem>
540            <para>
541              Deletes any resource records named
542              <parameter>domain-name</parameter>.
543              If
544              <parameter>type</parameter>
545              and
546              <parameter>data</parameter>
547              is provided, only matching resource records will be removed.
548              The internet class is assumed if
549              <parameter>class</parameter>
550              is not supplied.  The
551              <parameter>ttl</parameter>
552              is ignored, and is only allowed for compatibility.
553            </para>
554          </listitem>
555        </varlistentry>
556
557        <varlistentry>
558          <term>
559              <command>update add</command>
560              <arg choice="req">domain-name</arg>
561              <arg choice="req">ttl</arg>
562              <arg choice="opt">class</arg>
563              <arg choice="req">type</arg>
564              <arg choice="req" rep="repeat">data</arg>
565            </term>
566          <listitem>
567            <para>
568              Adds a new resource record with the specified
569              <parameter>ttl</parameter>,
570              <parameter>class</parameter>
571              and
572              <parameter>data</parameter>.
573            </para>
574          </listitem>
575        </varlistentry>
576
577        <varlistentry>
578          <term>
579              <command>show</command>
580            </term>
581          <listitem>
582            <para>
583              Displays the current message, containing all of the
584              prerequisites and
585              updates specified since the last send.
586            </para>
587          </listitem>
588        </varlistentry>
589
590        <varlistentry>
591          <term>
592              <command>send</command>
593            </term>
594          <listitem>
595            <para>
596              Sends the current message.  This is equivalent to entering a
597              blank line.
598            </para>
599          </listitem>
600        </varlistentry>
601
602        <varlistentry>
603          <term>
604              <command>answer</command>
605            </term>
606          <listitem>
607            <para>
608              Displays the answer.
609            </para>
610          </listitem>
611        </varlistentry>
612
613        <varlistentry>
614          <term>
615              <command>debug</command>
616            </term>
617          <listitem>
618            <para>
619              Turn on debugging.
620            </para>
621          </listitem>
622        </varlistentry>
623
624      </variablelist>
625    </para>
626
627    <para>
628      Lines beginning with a semicolon are comments and are ignored.
629    </para>
630
631  </refsect1>
632
633  <refsect1>
634    <title>EXAMPLES</title>
635    <para>
636      The examples below show how
637      <command>nsupdate</command>
638      could be used to insert and delete resource records from the
639      <type>example.com</type>
640      zone.
641      Notice that the input in each example contains a trailing blank line so
642      that
643      a group of commands are sent as one dynamic update request to the
644      master name server for
645      <type>example.com</type>.
646
647      <programlisting>
648# nsupdate
649&gt; update delete oldhost.example.com A
650&gt; update add newhost.example.com 86400 A 172.16.1.1
651&gt; send
652</programlisting>
653    </para>
654    <para>
655      Any A records for
656      <type>oldhost.example.com</type>
657      are deleted.
658      And an A record for
659      <type>newhost.example.com</type>
660      with IP address 172.16.1.1 is added.
661      The newly-added record has a 1 day TTL (86400 seconds).
662      <programlisting>
663# nsupdate
664&gt; prereq nxdomain nickname.example.com
665&gt; update add nickname.example.com 86400 CNAME somehost.example.com
666&gt; send
667</programlisting>
668    </para>
669    <para>
670      The prerequisite condition gets the name server to check that there
671      are no resource records of any type for
672      <type>nickname.example.com</type>.
673
674      If there are, the update request fails.
675      If this name does not exist, a CNAME for it is added.
676      This ensures that when the CNAME is added, it cannot conflict with the
677      long-standing rule in RFC 1034 that a name must not exist as any other
678      record type if it exists as a CNAME.
679      (The rule has been updated for DNSSEC in RFC 2535 to allow CNAMEs to have
680      RRSIG, DNSKEY and NSEC records.)
681    </para>
682  </refsect1>
683
684  <refsect1>
685    <title>FILES</title>
686
687    <variablelist>
688      <varlistentry>
689        <term><constant>/etc/resolv.conf</constant></term>
690        <listitem>
691          <para>
692            used to identify default name server
693          </para>
694        </listitem>
695      </varlistentry>
696
697      <varlistentry>
698        <term><constant>/var/run/named/session.key</constant></term>
699        <listitem>
700          <para>
701            sets the default TSIG key for use in local-only mode
702          </para>
703        </listitem>
704      </varlistentry>
705
706      <varlistentry>
707        <term><constant>K{name}.+157.+{random}.key</constant></term>
708        <listitem>
709          <para>
710            base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
711            <citerefentry>
712              <refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
713            </citerefentry>.
714          </para>
715        </listitem>
716      </varlistentry>
717
718      <varlistentry>
719        <term><constant>K{name}.+157.+{random}.private</constant></term>
720        <listitem>
721          <para>
722            base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
723            <citerefentry>
724              <refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
725            </citerefentry>.
726          </para>
727        </listitem>
728      </varlistentry>
729
730    </variablelist>
731  </refsect1>
732
733  <refsect1>
734    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
735    <para>
736      <citetitle>RFC 2136</citetitle>,
737      <citetitle>RFC 3007</citetitle>,
738      <citetitle>RFC 2104</citetitle>,
739      <citetitle>RFC 2845</citetitle>,
740      <citetitle>RFC 1034</citetitle>,
741      <citetitle>RFC 2535</citetitle>,
742      <citetitle>RFC 2931</citetitle>,
743      <citerefentry>
744        <refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
745      </citerefentry>,
746      <citerefentry>
747        <refentrytitle>ddns-confgen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
748      </citerefentry>,
749      <citerefentry>
750        <refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
751      </citerefentry>.
752    </para>
753  </refsect1>
754
755  <refsect1>
756    <title>BUGS</title>
757    <para>
758      The TSIG key is redundantly stored in two separate files.
759      This is a consequence of nsupdate using the DST library
760      for its cryptographic operations, and may change in future
761      releases.
762    </para>
763  </refsect1>
764</refentry><!--
765 - Local variables:
766 - mode: sgml
767 - End:
768-->