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 21<title>dnssec-signzone</title>
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 24<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="refentry" lang="en">
 25<a name="man.dnssec-signzone"></a><div class="titlepage"></div>
 26<div class="refnamediv">
 27<h2>Name</h2>
 28<p><span class="application">dnssec-signzone</span> &#8212; DNSSEC zone signing tool</p>
 29</div>
 30<div class="refsynopsisdiv">
 31<h2>Synopsis</h2>
 32<div class="cmdsynopsis"><p><code class="command">dnssec-signzone</code>  [<code class="option">-a</code>] [<code class="option">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-d <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-e <em class="replaceable"><code>end-time</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>output-file</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-g</code>] [<code class="option">-h</code>] [<code class="option">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-k <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-l <em class="replaceable"><code>domain</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>input-format</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-j <em class="replaceable"><code>jitter</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-N <em class="replaceable"><code>soa-serial-format</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-o <em class="replaceable"><code>origin</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-O <em class="replaceable"><code>output-format</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-p</code>] [<code class="option">-P</code>] [<code class="option">-r <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-S</code>] [<code class="option">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>start-time</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-T <em class="replaceable"><code>ttl</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-t</code>] [<code class="option">-u</code>] [<code class="option">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-x</code>] [<code class="option">-z</code>] [<code class="option">-3 <em class="replaceable"><code>salt</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-H <em class="replaceable"><code>iterations</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-A</code>] {zonefile} [key...]</p></div>
 33</div>
 34<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
 35<a name="id2543597"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2>
 36<p><span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span>
 37      signs a zone.  It generates
 38      NSEC and RRSIG records and produces a signed version of the
 39      zone. The security status of delegations from the signed zone
 40      (that is, whether the child zones are secure or not) is
 41      determined by the presence or absence of a
 42      <code class="filename">keyset</code> file for each child zone.
 43    </p>
 44</div>
 45<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
 46<a name="id2543612"></a><h2>OPTIONS</h2>
 47<div class="variablelist"><dl>
 48<dt><span class="term">-a</span></dt>
 49<dd><p>
 50            Verify all generated signatures.
 51          </p></dd>
 52<dt><span class="term">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></span></dt>
 53<dd><p>
 54            Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
 55          </p></dd>
 56<dt><span class="term">-C</span></dt>
 57<dd><p>
 58            Compatibility mode: Generate a
 59            <code class="filename">keyset-<em class="replaceable"><code>zonename</code></em></code>
 60            file in addition to
 61            <code class="filename">dsset-<em class="replaceable"><code>zonename</code></em></code>
 62            when signing a zone, for use by older versions of
 63            <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span>.
 64          </p></dd>
 65<dt><span class="term">-d <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></span></dt>
 66<dd><p>
 67            Look for <code class="filename">dsset-</code> or
 68            <code class="filename">keyset-</code> files in <code class="option">directory</code>.
 69          </p></dd>
 70<dt><span class="term">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></span></dt>
 71<dd><p>
 72            Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations
 73            it supports, for instance signing with private keys from
 74            a secure key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support
 75            it defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.
 76          </p></dd>
 77<dt><span class="term">-g</span></dt>
 78<dd><p>
 79            Generate DS records for child zones from
 80            <code class="filename">dsset-</code> or <code class="filename">keyset-</code>
 81            file.  Existing DS records will be removed.
 82          </p></dd>
 83<dt><span class="term">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></span></dt>
 84<dd><p>
 85            Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys.
 86            If not specified, defaults to the current directory.
 87          </p></dd>
 88<dt><span class="term">-k <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></span></dt>
 89<dd><p>
 90            Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any
 91            key flags.  This option may be specified multiple times.
 92          </p></dd>
 93<dt><span class="term">-l <em class="replaceable"><code>domain</code></em></span></dt>
 94<dd><p>
 95            Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets.
 96            The domain is appended to the name of the records.
 97          </p></dd>
 98<dt><span class="term">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>start-time</code></em></span></dt>
 99<dd><p>
100            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
101            become valid.  This can be either an absolute or relative
102            time.  An absolute start time is indicated by a number
103            in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes
104            14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000.  A relative start time is
105            indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current time.
106            If no <code class="option">start-time</code> is specified, the current
107            time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is used.
108          </p></dd>
109<dt><span class="term">-e <em class="replaceable"><code>end-time</code></em></span></dt>
110<dd><p>
111            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
112            expire.  As with <code class="option">start-time</code>, an absolute
113            time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation.  A time relative
114            to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from
115            the start time.  A time relative to the current time is
116            indicated with now+N.  If no <code class="option">end-time</code> is
117            specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a default.
118            <code class="option">end-time</code> must be later than
119            <code class="option">start-time</code>.
120          </p></dd>
121<dt><span class="term">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>output-file</code></em></span></dt>
122<dd><p>
123            The name of the output file containing the signed zone.  The
124            default is to append <code class="filename">.signed</code> to
125            the
126            input filename.
127          </p></dd>
128<dt><span class="term">-h</span></dt>
129<dd><p>
130            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
131            <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span>.
132          </p></dd>
133<dt><span class="term">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></span></dt>
134<dd>
135<p>
136            When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records
137            may be resigned.  The <code class="option">interval</code> option
138            specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current
139            time (in seconds).  If a RRSIG record expires after the
140            cycle interval, it is retained.  Otherwise, it is considered
141            to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
142          </p>
143<p>
144            The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
145            between the signature end and start times.  So if neither
146            <code class="option">end-time</code> or <code class="option">start-time</code>
147            are specified, <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span>
148            generates
149            signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle
150            interval of 7.5 days.  Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records
151            are due to expire in less than 7.5 days, they would be
152            replaced.
153          </p>
154</dd>
155<dt><span class="term">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>input-format</code></em></span></dt>
156<dd><p>
157            The format of the input zone file.
158	    Possible formats are <span><strong class="command">"text"</strong></span> (default)
159	    and <span><strong class="command">"raw"</strong></span>.
160	    This option is primarily intended to be used for dynamic
161            signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
162            format containing updates can be signed directly.
163	    The use of this option does not make much sense for
164	    non-dynamic zones.
165          </p></dd>
166<dt><span class="term">-j <em class="replaceable"><code>jitter</code></em></span></dt>
167<dd>
168<p>
169            When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all
170            RRSIG records issued at the time of signing expires
171            simultaneously.  If the zone is incrementally signed, i.e.
172            a previously-signed zone is passed as input to the signer,
173            all expired signatures have to be regenerated at about the
174            same time.  The <code class="option">jitter</code> option specifies a
175            jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature
176            expire time, thus spreading incremental signature
177            regeneration over time.
178          </p>
179<p>
180            Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits
181            validators and servers by spreading out cache expiration,
182            i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time
183            from all caches there will be less congestion than if all
184            validators need to refetch at mostly the same time.
185          </p>
186</dd>
187<dt><span class="term">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>ncpus</code></em></span></dt>
188<dd><p>
189            Specifies the number of threads to use.  By default, one
190            thread is started for each detected CPU.
191          </p></dd>
192<dt><span class="term">-N <em class="replaceable"><code>soa-serial-format</code></em></span></dt>
193<dd>
194<p>
195            The SOA serial number format of the signed zone.
196	    Possible formats are <span><strong class="command">"keep"</strong></span> (default),
197            <span><strong class="command">"increment"</strong></span> and
198	    <span><strong class="command">"unixtime"</strong></span>.
199          </p>
200<div class="variablelist"><dl>
201<dt><span class="term"><span><strong class="command">"keep"</strong></span></span></dt>
202<dd><p>Do not modify the SOA serial number.</p></dd>
203<dt><span class="term"><span><strong class="command">"increment"</strong></span></span></dt>
204<dd><p>Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982
205                      arithmetics.</p></dd>
206<dt><span class="term"><span><strong class="command">"unixtime"</strong></span></span></dt>
207<dd><p>Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds
208	        since epoch.</p></dd>
209</dl></div>
210</dd>
211<dt><span class="term">-o <em class="replaceable"><code>origin</code></em></span></dt>
212<dd><p>
213            The zone origin.  If not specified, the name of the zone file
214            is assumed to be the origin.
215          </p></dd>
216<dt><span class="term">-O <em class="replaceable"><code>output-format</code></em></span></dt>
217<dd><p>
218            The format of the output file containing the signed zone.
219	    Possible formats are <span><strong class="command">"text"</strong></span> (default)
220	    and <span><strong class="command">"raw"</strong></span>.
221          </p></dd>
222<dt><span class="term">-p</span></dt>
223<dd><p>
224            Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone.  This is faster,
225            but less secure, than using real random data.  This option
226            may be useful when signing large zones or when the entropy
227            source is limited.
228          </p></dd>
229<dt><span class="term">-P</span></dt>
230<dd>
231<p>
232	    Disable post sign verification tests.
233          </p>
234<p>
235	    The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm
236	    in use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key,
237	    that all revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records
238	    in the zone are signed by the algorithm.
239	    This option skips these tests.
240          </p>
241</dd>
242<dt><span class="term">-r <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></span></dt>
243<dd><p>
244            Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
245            system does not provide a <code class="filename">/dev/random</code>
246            or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
247            is keyboard input.  <code class="filename">randomdev</code>
248            specifies
249            the name of a character device or file containing random
250            data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
251            <code class="filename">keyboard</code> indicates that keyboard
252            input should be used.
253          </p></dd>
254<dt><span class="term">-S</span></dt>
255<dd>
256<p>
257            Smart signing: Instructs <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span> to
258            search the key repository for keys that match the zone being
259            signed, and to include them in the zone if appropriate.
260          </p>
261<p>
262            When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to
263            determine how it should be used, according to the following
264            rules.  Each successive rule takes priority over the prior
265            ones:
266          </p>
267<div class="variablelist"><dl>
268<dt></dt>
269<dd><p>
270                  If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is
271                  published in the zone and used to sign the zone.
272                </p></dd>
273<dt></dt>
274<dd><p>
275                  If the key's publication date is set and is in the past, the
276                  key is published in the zone.
277                </p></dd>
278<dt></dt>
279<dd><p>
280                  If the key's activation date is set and in the past, the
281                  key is published (regardless of publication date) and
282                  used to sign the zone.  
283                </p></dd>
284<dt></dt>
285<dd><p>
286                  If the key's revocation date is set and in the past, and the
287                  key is published, then the key is revoked, and the revoked key
288                  is used to sign the zone.
289                </p></dd>
290<dt></dt>
291<dd><p>
292                  If either of the key's unpublication or deletion dates are set
293                  and in the past, the key is NOT published or used to sign the
294                  zone, regardless of any other metadata.
295                </p></dd>
296</dl></div>
297</dd>
298<dt><span class="term">-T <em class="replaceable"><code>ttl</code></em></span></dt>
299<dd><p>
300            Specifies the TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported
301            into the zone from the key repository.  If not specified,
302            the default is the minimum TTL value from the zone's SOA
303            record.  This option is ignored when signing without
304            <code class="option">-S</code>, since DNSKEY records are not imported
305            from the key repository in that case.  It is also ignored if
306            there are any pre-existing DNSKEY records at the zone apex,
307            in which case new records' TTL values will be set to match
308            them.
309          </p></dd>
310<dt><span class="term">-t</span></dt>
311<dd><p>
312            Print statistics at completion.
313          </p></dd>
314<dt><span class="term">-u</span></dt>
315<dd><p>
316            Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re-signing a previously signed
317            zone.  With this option, a zone signed with NSEC can be
318            switched to NSEC3, or a zone signed with NSEC3 can
319            be switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with different parameters.
320            Without this option, <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span> will
321            retain the existing chain when re-signing.
322          </p></dd>
323<dt><span class="term">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></span></dt>
324<dd><p>
325            Sets the debugging level.
326          </p></dd>
327<dt><span class="term">-x</span></dt>
328<dd><p>
329            Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key-signing keys, and omit
330            signatures from zone-signing keys.  (This is similar to the
331            <span><strong class="command">dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes;</strong></span> zone option in
332            <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span>.)
333          </p></dd>
334<dt><span class="term">-z</span></dt>
335<dd><p>
336            Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.  This
337            causes KSK-flagged keys to sign all records, not just the
338            DNSKEY RRset.  (This is similar to the
339            <span><strong class="command">update-check-ksk no;</strong></span> zone option in
340            <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span>.)
341          </p></dd>
342<dt><span class="term">-3 <em class="replaceable"><code>salt</code></em></span></dt>
343<dd><p>
344            Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt.
345	    A dash (<em class="replaceable"><code>salt</code></em>) can
346	    be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when generating		    the NSEC3 chain.
347          </p></dd>
348<dt><span class="term">-H <em class="replaceable"><code>iterations</code></em></span></dt>
349<dd><p>
350	    When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many interations.  The
351	    default is 10.
352          </p></dd>
353<dt><span class="term">-A</span></dt>
354<dd>
355<p>
356	    When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all
357	    NSEC3 records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure
358	    delegations.
359          </p>
360<p>
361	    Using this option twice (i.e., <code class="option">-AA</code>)
362	    turns the OPTOUT flag off for all records.  This is useful
363	    when using the <code class="option">-u</code> option to modify an NSEC3
364	    chain which previously had OPTOUT set.
365          </p>
366</dd>
367<dt><span class="term">zonefile</span></dt>
368<dd><p>
369            The file containing the zone to be signed.
370          </p></dd>
371<dt><span class="term">key</span></dt>
372<dd><p>
373	    Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone.  If
374	    no keys are specified, then the zone will be examined
375	    for DNSKEY records at the zone apex.  If these are found and
376	    there are matching private keys, in the current directory,
377	    then these will be used for signing.
378          </p></dd>
379</dl></div>
380</div>
381<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
382<a name="id2544965"></a><h2>EXAMPLE</h2>
383<p>
384      The following command signs the <strong class="userinput"><code>example.com</code></strong>
385      zone with the DSA key generated by <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
386      (Kexample.com.+003+17247).  Because the <span><strong class="command">-S</strong></span> option
387      is not being used, the zone's keys must be in the master file
388      (<code class="filename">db.example.com</code>).  This invocation looks
389      for <code class="filename">dsset</code> files, in the current directory,
390      so that DS records can be imported from them (<span><strong class="command">-g</strong></span>).
391    </p>
392<pre class="programlisting">% dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
393Kexample.com.+003+17247
394db.example.com.signed
395%</pre>
396<p>
397      In the above example, <span><strong class="command">dnssec-signzone</strong></span> creates
398      the file <code class="filename">db.example.com.signed</code>.  This
399      file should be referenced in a zone statement in a
400      <code class="filename">named.conf</code> file.
401    </p>
402<p>
403      This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
404      The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.
405    </p>
406<pre class="programlisting">% cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
407% dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
408db.example.com.signed
409%</pre>
410</div>
411<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
412<a name="id2545020"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2>
413<p><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-keygen</span>(8)</span>,
414      <em class="citetitle">BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</em>,
415      <em class="citetitle">RFC 4033</em>.
416    </p>
417</div>
418<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
419<a name="id2545045"></a><h2>AUTHOR</h2>
420<p><span class="corpauthor">Internet Systems Consortium</span>
421    </p>
422</div>
423</div></body>
424</html>