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 21<title>dnssec-keygen</title>
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 24<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="refentry" lang="en">
 25<a name="man.dnssec-keygen"></a><div class="titlepage"></div>
 26<div class="refnamediv">
 27<h2>Name</h2>
 28<p><span class="application">dnssec-keygen</span> &#8212; DNSSEC key generation tool</p>
 29</div>
 30<div class="refsynopsisdiv">
 31<h2>Synopsis</h2>
 32<div class="cmdsynopsis"><p><code class="command">dnssec-keygen</code>  [<code class="option">-a <em class="replaceable"><code>algorithm</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-b <em class="replaceable"><code>keysize</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>nametype</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-3</code>] [<code class="option">-A <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-C</code>] [<code class="option">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-D <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-e</code>] [<code class="option">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-G</code>] [<code class="option">-g <em class="replaceable"><code>generator</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-h</code>] [<code class="option">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-k</code>] [<code class="option">-P <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>protocol</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-q</code>] [<code class="option">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-r <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-S <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>strength</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-z</code>] {name}</p></div>
 33</div>
 34<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
 35<a name="id2543579"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2>
 36<p><span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
 37      generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535
 38      and RFC 4034.  It can also generate keys for use with
 39      TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY
 40      (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.
 41    </p>
 42<p>
 43      The <code class="option">name</code> of the key is specified on the command
 44      line.  For DNSSEC keys, this must match the name of the zone for
 45      which the key is being generated.
 46    </p>
 47</div>
 48<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
 49<a name="id2543597"></a><h2>OPTIONS</h2>
 50<div class="variablelist"><dl>
 51<dt><span class="term">-a <em class="replaceable"><code>algorithm</code></em></span></dt>
 52<dd>
 53<p>
 54            Selects the cryptographic algorithm.  For DNSSEC keys, the value
 55            of <code class="option">algorithm</code> must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1,
 56	    DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1, NSEC3DSA, RSASHA256, RSASHA512 or ECCGOST.
 57	    For TSIG/TKEY, the value must
 58            be DH (Diffie Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224,
 59            HMAC-SHA256, HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512.  These values are
 60            case insensitive.
 61          </p>
 62<p>
 63            If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by
 64            default, unless the <code class="option">-3</code> option is specified,
 65            in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead.  (If
 66            <code class="option">-3</code> is used and an algorithm is specified,
 67            that algorithm will be checked for compatibility with NSEC3.)
 68          </p>
 69<p>
 70            Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement
 71            algorithm, and DSA is recommended.  For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is
 72	    mandatory.
 73          </p>
 74<p>
 75            Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512
 76            automatically set the -T KEY option.
 77          </p>
 78</dd>
 79<dt><span class="term">-b <em class="replaceable"><code>keysize</code></em></span></dt>
 80<dd>
 81<p>
 82            Specifies the number of bits in the key.  The choice of key
 83            size depends on the algorithm used.  RSA keys must be
 84            between 512 and 2048 bits.  Diffie Hellman keys must be between
 85            128 and 4096 bits.  DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024
 86            bits and an exact multiple of 64.  HMAC keys must be
 87            between 1 and 512 bits.
 88          </p>
 89<p>
 90            The key size does not need to be specified if using a default
 91            algorithm.  The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing
 92            keys (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's,
 93            generated with <code class="option">-f KSK</code>).  However, if an
 94            algorithm is explicitly specified with the <code class="option">-a</code>,
 95            then there is no default key size, and the <code class="option">-b</code>
 96            must be used.
 97          </p>
 98</dd>
 99<dt><span class="term">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>nametype</code></em></span></dt>
100<dd><p>
101            Specifies the owner type of the key.  The value of
102            <code class="option">nametype</code> must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC
103            zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with
104            a host (KEY)),
105            USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY).
106            These values are case insensitive.  Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY
107	    generation.
108          </p></dd>
109<dt><span class="term">-3</span></dt>
110<dd><p>
111	    Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key.
112            If this option is used and no algorithm is explicitly
113            set on the command line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by
114            default. Note that RSASHA256, RSASHA512 and ECCGOST algorithms
115	    are NSEC3-capable.
116          </p></dd>
117<dt><span class="term">-C</span></dt>
118<dd><p>
119	    Compatibility mode:  generates an old-style key, without
120	    any metadata.  By default, <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
121	    will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored
122	    with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well
123	    (publication date, activation date, etc).  Keys that include
124	    this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
125	    <code class="option">-C</code> option suppresses them.
126          </p></dd>
127<dt><span class="term">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></span></dt>
128<dd><p>
129            Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have
130            the specified class.  If not specified, class IN is used.
131          </p></dd>
132<dt><span class="term">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></span></dt>
133<dd><p>
134            Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for random number
135            and, when supported, key generation. When compiled with PKCS#11
136            support it defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it to
137            no engine.
138          </p></dd>
139<dt><span class="term">-e</span></dt>
140<dd><p>
141            If generating an RSAMD5/RSASHA1 key, use a large exponent.
142          </p></dd>
143<dt><span class="term">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></span></dt>
144<dd><p>
145            Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
146            The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.
147          </p></dd>
148<dt><span class="term">-G</span></dt>
149<dd><p>
150            Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it.  This
151            option is incompatible with -P and -A.
152          </p></dd>
153<dt><span class="term">-g <em class="replaceable"><code>generator</code></em></span></dt>
154<dd><p>
155            If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator.
156            Allowed values are 2 and 5.  If no generator
157            is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used
158            if possible; otherwise the default is 2.
159          </p></dd>
160<dt><span class="term">-h</span></dt>
161<dd><p>
162            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
163            <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span>.
164          </p></dd>
165<dt><span class="term">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></span></dt>
166<dd><p>
167            Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.
168          </p></dd>
169<dt><span class="term">-k</span></dt>
170<dd><p>
171            Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.
172          </p></dd>
173<dt><span class="term">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>protocol</code></em></span></dt>
174<dd><p>
175            Sets the protocol value for the generated key.  The protocol
176            is a number between 0 and 255.  The default is 3 (DNSSEC).
177            Other possible values for this argument are listed in
178            RFC 2535 and its successors.
179          </p></dd>
180<dt><span class="term">-q</span></dt>
181<dd><p>
182            Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including
183            progress indication.  Without this option, when
184            <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span> is run interactively
185            to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a string
186            of symbols to <code class="filename">stderr</code> indicating the
187            progress of the key generation.  A '.' indicates that a
188            random number has been found which passed an initial
189            sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a single
190            round of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space
191            means that the number has passed all the tests and is
192            a satisfactory key.
193          </p></dd>
194<dt><span class="term">-r <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></span></dt>
195<dd><p>
196            Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
197            system does not provide a <code class="filename">/dev/random</code>
198            or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
199            is keyboard input.  <code class="filename">randomdev</code>
200            specifies
201            the name of a character device or file containing random
202            data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
203            <code class="filename">keyboard</code> indicates that keyboard
204            input should be used.
205          </p></dd>
206<dt><span class="term">-S <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></span></dt>
207<dd><p>
208            Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an
209            existing key.  The name, algorithm, size, and type of the
210            key will be set to match the existing key.  The activation
211            date of the new key will be set to the inactivation date of
212            the existing one.  The publication date will be set to the
213            activation date minus the prepublication interval, which
214            defaults to 30 days.
215          </p></dd>
216<dt><span class="term">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>strength</code></em></span></dt>
217<dd><p>
218            Specifies the strength value of the key.  The strength is
219            a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined
220            purpose in DNSSEC.
221          </p></dd>
222<dt><span class="term">-T <em class="replaceable"><code>rrtype</code></em></span></dt>
223<dd>
224<p>
225            Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.
226            <code class="option">rrtype</code> must be either DNSKEY or KEY.  The
227            default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be
228            overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
229          </p>
230<p>
231          </p>
232<p>
233            Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option
234            to KEY.
235          </p>
236</dd>
237<dt><span class="term">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></span></dt>
238<dd><p>
239            Indicates the use of the key.  <code class="option">type</code> must be
240            one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF.  The default
241            is AUTHCONF.  AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
242            data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data.
243          </p></dd>
244<dt><span class="term">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></span></dt>
245<dd><p>
246            Sets the debugging level.
247          </p></dd>
248</dl></div>
249</div>
250<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
251<a name="id2544166"></a><h2>TIMING OPTIONS</h2>
252<p>
253      Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
254      If the argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as
255      an offset from the present time.  For convenience, if such an offset
256      is followed by one of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi',
257      then the offset is computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days,
258      ignoring leap years), months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks,
259      days, hours, or minutes, respectively.  Without a suffix, the offset
260      is computed in seconds.
261    </p>
262<div class="variablelist"><dl>
263<dt><span class="term">-P <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
264<dd><p>
265            Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone.
266            After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will
267            not be used to sign it.  If not set, and if the -G option has
268            not been used, the default is "now".
269          </p></dd>
270<dt><span class="term">-A <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
271<dd><p>
272            Sets the date on which the key is to be activated.  After that
273            date, the key will be included in the zone and used to sign
274            it.  If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
275            default is "now".
276          </p></dd>
277<dt><span class="term">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
278<dd><p>
279            Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked.  After that
280            date, the key will be flagged as revoked.  It will be included
281            in the zone and will be used to sign it.
282          </p></dd>
283<dt><span class="term">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
284<dd><p>
285            Sets the date on which the key is to be retired.  After that
286            date, the key will still be included in the zone, but it
287            will not be used to sign it.
288          </p></dd>
289<dt><span class="term">-D <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
290<dd><p>
291            Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted.  After that
292            date, the key will no longer be included in the zone.  (It
293            may remain in the key repository, however.)
294          </p></dd>
295<dt><span class="term">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></span></dt>
296<dd>
297<p>
298            Sets the prepublication interval for a key.  If set, then
299            the publication and activation dates must be separated by at least
300            this much time.  If the activation date is specified but the
301            publication date isn't, then the publication date will default
302            to this much time before the activation date; conversely, if
303            the publication date is specified but activation date isn't,
304            then activation will be set to this much time after publication.
305          </p>
306<p>
307            If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
308            key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days; 
309            otherwise it is zero.
310          </p>
311<p>
312            As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of
313            the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the
314            interval is measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours,
315            or minutes, respectively.  Without a suffix, the interval is
316            measured in seconds.
317          </p>
318</dd>
319</dl></div>
320</div>
321<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
322<a name="id2544356"></a><h2>GENERATED KEYS</h2>
323<p>
324      When <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span> completes
325      successfully,
326      it prints a string of the form <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii</code>
327      to the standard output.  This is an identification string for
328      the key it has generated.
329    </p>
330<div class="itemizedlist"><ul type="disc">
331<li><p><code class="filename">nnnn</code> is the key name.
332        </p></li>
333<li><p><code class="filename">aaa</code> is the numeric representation
334          of the
335          algorithm.
336        </p></li>
337<li><p><code class="filename">iiiii</code> is the key identifier (or
338          footprint).
339        </p></li>
340</ul></div>
341<p><span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span> 
342      creates two files, with names based
343      on the printed string.  <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key</code>
344      contains the public key, and
345      <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private</code> contains the
346      private
347      key.
348    </p>
349<p>
350      The <code class="filename">.key</code> file contains a DNS KEY record
351      that
352      can be inserted into a zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE
353      statement).
354    </p>
355<p>
356      The <code class="filename">.private</code> file contains
357      algorithm-specific
358      fields.  For obvious security reasons, this file does not have
359      general read permission.
360    </p>
361<p>
362      Both <code class="filename">.key</code> and <code class="filename">.private</code>
363      files are generated for symmetric encryption algorithms such as
364      HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.
365    </p>
366</div>
367<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
368<a name="id2544506"></a><h2>EXAMPLE</h2>
369<p>
370      To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain
371      <strong class="userinput"><code>example.com</code></strong>, the following command would be
372      issued:
373    </p>
374<p><strong class="userinput"><code>dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE example.com</code></strong>
375    </p>
376<p>
377      The command would print a string of the form:
378    </p>
379<p><strong class="userinput"><code>Kexample.com.+003+26160</code></strong>
380    </p>
381<p>
382      In this example, <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span> creates
383      the files <code class="filename">Kexample.com.+003+26160.key</code>
384      and
385      <code class="filename">Kexample.com.+003+26160.private</code>.
386    </p>
387</div>
388<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
389<a name="id2544550"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2>
390<p><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-signzone</span>(8)</span>,
391      <em class="citetitle">BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</em>,
392      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2539</em>,
393      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2845</em>,
394      <em class="citetitle">RFC 4034</em>.
395    </p>
396</div>
397<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
398<a name="id2544581"></a><h2>AUTHOR</h2>
399<p><span class="corpauthor">Internet Systems Consortium</span>
400    </p>
401</div>
402</div></body>
403</html>