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/contrib/bind9/bin/dnssec/dnssec-signzone.8

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  1.\" Copyright (C) 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
  2.\" Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
  3.\" 
  4.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
  5.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
  6.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
  7.\" 
  8.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
  9.\" REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
 10.\" AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
 11.\" INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
 12.\" LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
 13.\" OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
 14.\" PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
 15.\"
 16.\" $Id$
 17.\"
 18.hy 0
 19.ad l
 20.\"     Title: dnssec\-signzone
 21.\"    Author: 
 22.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.71.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
 23.\"      Date: June 05, 2009
 24.\"    Manual: BIND9
 25.\"    Source: BIND9
 26.\"
 27.TH "DNSSEC\-SIGNZONE" "8" "June 05, 2009" "BIND9" "BIND9"
 28.\" disable hyphenation
 29.nh
 30.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
 31.ad l
 32.SH "NAME"
 33dnssec\-signzone \- DNSSEC zone signing tool
 34.SH "SYNOPSIS"
 35.HP 16
 36\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR [\fB\-a\fR] [\fB\-c\ \fR\fB\fIclass\fR\fR] [\fB\-d\ \fR\fB\fIdirectory\fR\fR] [\fB\-E\ \fR\fB\fIengine\fR\fR] [\fB\-e\ \fR\fB\fIend\-time\fR\fR] [\fB\-f\ \fR\fB\fIoutput\-file\fR\fR] [\fB\-g\fR] [\fB\-h\fR] [\fB\-K\ \fR\fB\fIdirectory\fR\fR] [\fB\-k\ \fR\fB\fIkey\fR\fR] [\fB\-l\ \fR\fB\fIdomain\fR\fR] [\fB\-i\ \fR\fB\fIinterval\fR\fR] [\fB\-I\ \fR\fB\fIinput\-format\fR\fR] [\fB\-j\ \fR\fB\fIjitter\fR\fR] [\fB\-N\ \fR\fB\fIsoa\-serial\-format\fR\fR] [\fB\-o\ \fR\fB\fIorigin\fR\fR] [\fB\-O\ \fR\fB\fIoutput\-format\fR\fR] [\fB\-p\fR] [\fB\-P\fR] [\fB\-r\ \fR\fB\fIrandomdev\fR\fR] [\fB\-S\fR] [\fB\-s\ \fR\fB\fIstart\-time\fR\fR] [\fB\-T\ \fR\fB\fIttl\fR\fR] [\fB\-t\fR] [\fB\-u\fR] [\fB\-v\ \fR\fB\fIlevel\fR\fR] [\fB\-x\fR] [\fB\-z\fR] [\fB\-3\ \fR\fB\fIsalt\fR\fR] [\fB\-H\ \fR\fB\fIiterations\fR\fR] [\fB\-A\fR] {zonefile} [key...]
 37.SH "DESCRIPTION"
 38.PP
 39\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR
 40signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a
 41\fIkeyset\fR
 42file for each child zone.
 43.SH "OPTIONS"
 44.PP
 45\-a
 46.RS 4
 47Verify all generated signatures.
 48.RE
 49.PP
 50\-c \fIclass\fR
 51.RS 4
 52Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
 53.RE
 54.PP
 55\-C
 56.RS 4
 57Compatibility mode: Generate a
 58\fIkeyset\-\fR\fI\fIzonename\fR\fR
 59file in addition to
 60\fIdsset\-\fR\fI\fIzonename\fR\fR
 61when signing a zone, for use by older versions of
 62\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR.
 63.RE
 64.PP
 65\-d \fIdirectory\fR
 66.RS 4
 67Look for
 68\fIdsset\-\fR
 69or
 70\fIkeyset\-\fR
 71files in
 72\fBdirectory\fR.
 73.RE
 74.PP
 75\-E \fIengine\fR
 76.RS 4
 77Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations it supports, for instance signing with private keys from a secure key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.
 78.RE
 79.PP
 80\-g
 81.RS 4
 82Generate DS records for child zones from
 83\fIdsset\-\fR
 84or
 85\fIkeyset\-\fR
 86file. Existing DS records will be removed.
 87.RE
 88.PP
 89\-K \fIdirectory\fR
 90.RS 4
 91Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys. If not specified, defaults to the current directory.
 92.RE
 93.PP
 94\-k \fIkey\fR
 95.RS 4
 96Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags. This option may be specified multiple times.
 97.RE
 98.PP
 99\-l \fIdomain\fR
100.RS 4
101Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The domain is appended to the name of the records.
102.RE
103.PP
104\-s \fIstart\-time\fR
105.RS 4
106Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current time. If no
107\fBstart\-time\fR
108is specified, the current time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is used.
109.RE
110.PP
111\-e \fIend\-time\fR
112.RS 4
113Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire. As with
114\fBstart\-time\fR, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the current time is indicated with now+N. If no
115\fBend\-time\fR
116is specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a default.
117\fBend\-time\fR
118must be later than
119\fBstart\-time\fR.
120.RE
121.PP
122\-f \fIoutput\-file\fR
123.RS 4
124The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default is to append
125\fI.signed\fR
126to the input filename.
127.RE
128.PP
129\-h
130.RS 4
131Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
132\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR.
133.RE
134.PP
135\-i \fIinterval\fR
136.RS 4
137When a previously\-signed zone is passed as input, records may be resigned. The
138\fBinterval\fR
139option specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
140.sp
141The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between the signature end and start times. So if neither
142\fBend\-time\fR
143or
144\fBstart\-time\fR
145are specified,
146\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR
147generates signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days. Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.
148.RE
149.PP
150\-I \fIinput\-format\fR
151.RS 4
152The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are
153\fB"text"\fR
154(default) and
155\fB"raw"\fR. This option is primarily intended to be used for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non\-text format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this option does not make much sense for non\-dynamic zones.
156.RE
157.PP
158\-j \fIjitter\fR
159.RS 4
160When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously\-signed zone is passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be regenerated at about the same time. The
161\fBjitter\fR
162option specifies a jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.
163.sp
164Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches there will be less congestion than if all validators need to refetch at mostly the same time.
165.RE
166.PP
167\-n \fIncpus\fR
168.RS 4
169Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is started for each detected CPU.
170.RE
171.PP
172\-N \fIsoa\-serial\-format\fR
173.RS 4
174The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats are
175\fB"keep"\fR
176(default),
177\fB"increment"\fR
178and
179\fB"unixtime"\fR.
180.RS 4
181.PP
182\fB"keep"\fR
183.RS 4
184Do not modify the SOA serial number.
185.RE
186.PP
187\fB"increment"\fR
188.RS 4
189Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.
190.RE
191.PP
192\fB"unixtime"\fR
193.RS 4
194Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since epoch.
195.RE
196.RE
197.RE
198.PP
199\-o \fIorigin\fR
200.RS 4
201The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is assumed to be the origin.
202.RE
203.PP
204\-O \fIoutput\-format\fR
205.RS 4
206The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible formats are
207\fB"text"\fR
208(default) and
209\fB"raw"\fR.
210.RE
211.PP
212\-p
213.RS 4
214Use pseudo\-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.
215.RE
216.PP
217\-P
218.RS 4
219Disable post sign verification tests.
220.sp
221The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records in the zone are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these tests.
222.RE
223.PP
224\-r \fIrandomdev\fR
225.RS 4
226Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does not provide a
227\fI/dev/random\fR
228or equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard input.
229\fIrandomdev\fR
230specifies the name of a character device or file containing random data to be used instead of the default. The special value
231\fIkeyboard\fR
232indicates that keyboard input should be used.
233.RE
234.PP
235\-S
236.RS 4
237Smart signing: Instructs
238\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR
239to search the key repository for keys that match the zone being signed, and to include them in the zone if appropriate.
240.sp
241When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to determine how it should be used, according to the following rules. Each successive rule takes priority over the prior ones:
242.RS 4
243.PP
244.RS 4
245If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is published in the zone and used to sign the zone.
246.RE
247.PP
248.RS 4
249If the key's publication date is set and is in the past, the key is published in the zone.
250.RE
251.PP
252.RS 4
253If the key's activation date is set and in the past, the key is published (regardless of publication date) and used to sign the zone.
254.RE
255.PP
256.RS 4
257If the key's revocation date is set and in the past, and the key is published, then the key is revoked, and the revoked key is used to sign the zone.
258.RE
259.PP
260.RS 4
261If either of the key's unpublication or deletion dates are set and in the past, the key is NOT published or used to sign the zone, regardless of any other metadata.
262.RE
263.RE
264.RE
265.PP
266\-T \fIttl\fR
267.RS 4
268Specifies the TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported into the zone from the key repository. If not specified, the default is the minimum TTL value from the zone's SOA record. This option is ignored when signing without
269\fB\-S\fR, since DNSKEY records are not imported from the key repository in that case. It is also ignored if there are any pre\-existing DNSKEY records at the zone apex, in which case new records' TTL values will be set to match them.
270.RE
271.PP
272\-t
273.RS 4
274Print statistics at completion.
275.RE
276.PP
277\-u
278.RS 4
279Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re\-signing a previously signed zone. With this option, a zone signed with NSEC can be switched to NSEC3, or a zone signed with NSEC3 can be switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with different parameters. Without this option,
280\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR
281will retain the existing chain when re\-signing.
282.RE
283.PP
284\-v \fIlevel\fR
285.RS 4
286Sets the debugging level.
287.RE
288.PP
289\-x
290.RS 4
291Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key\-signing keys, and omit signatures from zone\-signing keys. (This is similar to the
292\fBdnssec\-dnskey\-kskonly yes;\fR
293zone option in
294\fBnamed\fR.)
295.RE
296.PP
297\-z
298.RS 4
299Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign. This causes KSK\-flagged keys to sign all records, not just the DNSKEY RRset. (This is similar to the
300\fBupdate\-check\-ksk no;\fR
301zone option in
302\fBnamed\fR.)
303.RE
304.PP
305\-3 \fIsalt\fR
306.RS 4
307Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash (\fIsalt\fR) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when generating the NSEC3 chain.
308.RE
309.PP
310\-H \fIiterations\fR
311.RS 4
312When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many interations. The default is 10.
313.RE
314.PP
315\-A
316.RS 4
317When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3 records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.
318.sp
319Using this option twice (i.e.,
320\fB\-AA\fR) turns the OPTOUT flag off for all records. This is useful when using the
321\fB\-u\fR
322option to modify an NSEC3 chain which previously had OPTOUT set.
323.RE
324.PP
325zonefile
326.RS 4
327The file containing the zone to be signed.
328.RE
329.PP
330key
331.RS 4
332Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys, in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.
333.RE
334.SH "EXAMPLE"
335.PP
336The following command signs the
337\fBexample.com\fR
338zone with the DSA key generated by
339\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
340(Kexample.com.+003+17247). Because the
341\fB\-S\fR
342option is not being used, the zone's keys must be in the master file (\fIdb.example.com\fR). This invocation looks for
343\fIdsset\fR
344files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be imported from them (\fB\-g\fR).
345.sp
346.RS 4
347.nf
348% dnssec\-signzone \-g \-o example.com db.example.com \\
349Kexample.com.+003+17247
350db.example.com.signed
351%
352.fi
353.RE
354.PP
355In the above example,
356\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR
357creates the file
358\fIdb.example.com.signed\fR. This file should be referenced in a zone statement in a
359\fInamed.conf\fR
360file.
361.PP
362This example re\-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters. The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.
363.sp
364.RS 4
365.nf
366% cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
367% dnssec\-signzone \-o example.com db.example.com
368db.example.com.signed
369%
370.fi
371.RE
372.SH "SEE ALSO"
373.PP
374\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR(8),
375BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual,
376RFC 4033.
377.SH "AUTHOR"
378.PP
379Internet Systems Consortium
380.SH "COPYRIGHT"
381Copyright \(co 2004\-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
382.br
383Copyright \(co 2000\-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
384.br