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 42<div class="refentry" lang="en">
 43<a name="man.nsupdate"></a><div class="titlepage"></div>
 44<div class="refnamediv">
 45<h2>Name</h2>
 46<p><span class="application">nsupdate</span> &#8212; Dynamic DNS update utility</p>
 47</div>
 48<div class="refsynopsisdiv">
 49<h2>Synopsis</h2>
 50<div class="cmdsynopsis"><p><code class="command">nsupdate</code>  [<code class="option">-d</code>] [<code class="option">-D</code>] [[<code class="option">-g</code>] |  [<code class="option">-o</code>] |  [<code class="option">-l</code>] |  [<code class="option">-y <em class="replaceable"><code>[<span class="optional">hmac:</span>]keyname:secret</code></em></code>] |  [<code class="option">-k <em class="replaceable"><code>keyfile</code></em></code>]] [<code class="option">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>timeout</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-u <em class="replaceable"><code>udptimeout</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-r <em class="replaceable"><code>udpretries</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-v</code>] [filename]</p></div>
 51</div>
 52<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
 53<a name="id2639154"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2>
 54<p><span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
 55      is used to submit Dynamic DNS Update requests as defined in RFC 2136
 56      to a name server.
 57      This allows resource records to be added or removed from a zone
 58      without manually editing the zone file.
 59      A single update request can contain requests to add or remove more than
 60      one
 61      resource record.
 62    </p>
 63<p>
 64      Zones that are under dynamic control via
 65      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
 66      or a DHCP server should not be edited by hand.
 67      Manual edits could
 68      conflict with dynamic updates and cause data to be lost.
 69    </p>
 70<p>
 71      The resource records that are dynamically added or removed with
 72      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
 73      have to be in the same zone.
 74      Requests are sent to the zone's master server.
 75      This is identified by the MNAME field of the zone's SOA record.
 76    </p>
 77<p>
 78      The
 79      <code class="option">-d</code>
 80      option makes
 81      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
 82      operate in debug mode.
 83      This provides tracing information about the update requests that are
 84      made and the replies received from the name server.
 85    </p>
 86<p>
 87      The <code class="option">-D</code> option makes <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
 88      report additional debugging information to <code class="option">-d</code>.
 89    </p>
 90<p>
 91      The <code class="option">-L</code> option with an integer argument of zero or
 92      higher sets the logging debug level.  If zero, logging is disabled.
 93    </p>
 94<p>
 95      Transaction signatures can be used to authenticate the Dynamic
 96      DNS updates.  These use the TSIG resource record type described
 97      in RFC 2845 or the SIG(0) record described in RFC 2535 and
 98      RFC 2931 or GSS-TSIG as described in RFC 3645.  TSIG relies on
 99      a shared secret that should only be known to
100      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span> and the name server.  Currently,
101      the only supported encryption algorithm for TSIG is HMAC-MD5,
102      which is defined in RFC 2104.  Once other algorithms are
103      defined for TSIG, applications will need to ensure they select
104      the appropriate algorithm as well as the key when authenticating
105      each other.  For instance, suitable <span class="type">key</span> and
106      <span class="type">server</span> statements would be added to
107      <code class="filename">/etc/named.conf</code> so that the name server
108      can associate the appropriate secret key and algorithm with
109      the IP address of the client application that will be using
110      TSIG authentication.  SIG(0) uses public key cryptography.
111      To use a SIG(0) key, the public key must be stored in a KEY
112      record in a zone served by the name server.
113      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span> does not read
114      <code class="filename">/etc/named.conf</code>.
115    </p>
116<p>
117      GSS-TSIG uses Kerberos credentials.  Standard GSS-TSIG mode
118      is switched on with the <code class="option">-g</code> flag.  A
119      non-standards-compliant variant of GSS-TSIG used by Windows
120      2000 can be switched on with the <code class="option">-o</code> flag.
121    </p>
122<p><span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
123      uses the <code class="option">-y</code> or <code class="option">-k</code> option
124      to provide the shared secret needed to generate a TSIG record
125      for authenticating Dynamic DNS update requests, default type
126      HMAC-MD5.  These options are mutually exclusive. 
127    </p>
128<p>
129      When the <code class="option">-y</code> option is used, a signature is
130      generated from
131      [<span class="optional"><em class="parameter"><code>hmac:</code></em></span>]<em class="parameter"><code>keyname:secret.</code></em>
132      <em class="parameter"><code>keyname</code></em> is the name of the key, and
133      <em class="parameter"><code>secret</code></em> is the base64 encoded shared secret.
134      Use of the <code class="option">-y</code> option is discouraged because the
135      shared secret is supplied as a command line argument in clear text.
136      This may be visible in the output from
137      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ps</span>(1)</span>
138      or in a history file maintained by the user's shell.
139    </p>
140<p>
141      With the
142      <code class="option">-k</code> option, <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span> reads
143      the shared secret from the file <em class="parameter"><code>keyfile</code></em>.
144      Keyfiles may be in two formats: a single file containing
145      a <code class="filename">named.conf</code>-format <span><strong class="command">key</strong></span>
146      statement, which may be generated automatically by
147      <span><strong class="command">ddns-confgen</strong></span>, or a pair of files whose names are
148      of the format <code class="filename">K{name}.+157.+{random}.key</code> and
149      <code class="filename">K{name}.+157.+{random}.private</code>, which can be
150      generated by <span><strong class="command">dnssec-keygen</strong></span>.
151      The <code class="option">-k</code> may also be used to specify a SIG(0) key used
152      to authenticate Dynamic DNS update requests.  In this case, the key
153      specified is not an HMAC-MD5 key.
154    </p>
155<p>
156      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span> can be run in a local-host only mode
157      using the <code class="option">-l</code> flag.  This sets the server address to
158      localhost (disabling the <span><strong class="command">server</strong></span> so that the server
159      address cannot be overridden).  Connections to the local server will
160      use a TSIG key found in <code class="filename">/var/run/named/session.key</code>,
161      which is automatically generated by <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> if any
162      local master zone has set <span><strong class="command">update-policy</strong></span> to
163      <span><strong class="command">local</strong></span>.  The location of this key file can be
164      overridden with the <code class="option">-k</code> option.
165    </p>
166<p>
167      By default, <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
168      uses UDP to send update requests to the name server unless they are too
169      large to fit in a UDP request in which case TCP will be used.
170      The
171      <code class="option">-v</code>
172      option makes
173      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
174      use a TCP connection.
175      This may be preferable when a batch of update requests is made.
176    </p>
177<p>
178      The <code class="option">-p</code> sets the default port number to use for
179      connections to a name server.  The default is 53.
180    </p>
181<p>
182      The <code class="option">-t</code> option sets the maximum time an update request
183      can
184      take before it is aborted.  The default is 300 seconds.  Zero can be
185      used
186      to disable the timeout.
187    </p>
188<p>
189      The <code class="option">-u</code> option sets the UDP retry interval.  The default
190      is
191      3 seconds.  If zero, the interval will be computed from the timeout
192      interval
193      and number of UDP retries.
194    </p>
195<p>
196      The <code class="option">-r</code> option sets the number of UDP retries. The
197      default is
198      3.  If zero, only one update request will be made.
199    </p>
200<p>
201      The <code class="option">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>randomdev</code></em></code> option
202      specifies a source of randomness.  If the operating system
203      does not provide a <code class="filename">/dev/random</code> or
204      equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard
205      input.  <code class="filename">randomdev</code> specifies the name of
206      a character device or file containing random data to be used
207      instead of the default.  The special value
208      <code class="filename">keyboard</code> indicates that keyboard input
209      should be used.  This option may be specified multiple times.
210    </p>
211</div>
212<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
213<a name="id2639897"></a><h2>INPUT FORMAT</h2>
214<p><span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
215      reads input from
216      <em class="parameter"><code>filename</code></em>
217      or standard input.
218      Each command is supplied on exactly one line of input.
219      Some commands are for administrative purposes.
220      The others are either update instructions or prerequisite checks on the
221      contents of the zone.
222      These checks set conditions that some name or set of
223      resource records (RRset) either exists or is absent from the zone.
224      These conditions must be met if the entire update request is to succeed.
225      Updates will be rejected if the tests for the prerequisite conditions
226      fail.
227    </p>
228<p>
229      Every update request consists of zero or more prerequisites
230      and zero or more updates.
231      This allows a suitably authenticated update request to proceed if some
232      specified resource records are present or missing from the zone.
233      A blank input line (or the <span><strong class="command">send</strong></span> command)
234      causes the
235      accumulated commands to be sent as one Dynamic DNS update request to the
236      name server.
237    </p>
238<p>
239      The command formats and their meaning are as follows:
240      </p>
241<div class="variablelist"><dl>
242<dt><span class="term">
243              <span><strong class="command">server</strong></span>
244               {servername}
245               [port]
246            </span></dt>
247<dd><p>
248              Sends all dynamic update requests to the name server
249              <em class="parameter"><code>servername</code></em>.
250              When no server statement is provided,
251              <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
252              will send updates to the master server of the correct zone.
253              The MNAME field of that zone's SOA record will identify the
254              master
255              server for that zone.
256              <em class="parameter"><code>port</code></em>
257              is the port number on
258              <em class="parameter"><code>servername</code></em>
259              where the dynamic update requests get sent.
260              If no port number is specified, the default DNS port number of
261              53 is
262              used.
263            </p></dd>
264<dt><span class="term">
265              <span><strong class="command">local</strong></span>
266               {address}
267               [port]
268            </span></dt>
269<dd><p>
270              Sends all dynamic update requests using the local
271              <em class="parameter"><code>address</code></em>.
272
273              When no local statement is provided,
274              <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
275              will send updates using an address and port chosen by the
276              system.
277              <em class="parameter"><code>port</code></em>
278              can additionally be used to make requests come from a specific
279              port.
280              If no port number is specified, the system will assign one.
281            </p></dd>
282<dt><span class="term">
283              <span><strong class="command">zone</strong></span>
284               {zonename}
285            </span></dt>
286<dd><p>
287              Specifies that all updates are to be made to the zone
288              <em class="parameter"><code>zonename</code></em>.
289              If no
290              <em class="parameter"><code>zone</code></em>
291              statement is provided,
292              <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
293              will attempt determine the correct zone to update based on the
294              rest of the input.
295            </p></dd>
296<dt><span class="term">
297              <span><strong class="command">class</strong></span>
298               {classname}
299            </span></dt>
300<dd><p>
301              Specify the default class.
302              If no <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em> is specified, the
303              default class is
304              <em class="parameter"><code>IN</code></em>.
305            </p></dd>
306<dt><span class="term">
307              <span><strong class="command">ttl</strong></span>
308               {seconds}
309            </span></dt>
310<dd><p>
311              Specify the default time to live for records to be added.
312	      The value <em class="parameter"><code>none</code></em> will clear the default
313	      ttl.
314            </p></dd>
315<dt><span class="term">
316              <span><strong class="command">key</strong></span>
317               {name}
318               {secret}
319            </span></dt>
320<dd><p>
321              Specifies that all updates are to be TSIG-signed using the
322              <em class="parameter"><code>keyname</code></em> <em class="parameter"><code>keysecret</code></em> pair.
323              The <span><strong class="command">key</strong></span> command
324              overrides any key specified on the command line via
325              <code class="option">-y</code> or <code class="option">-k</code>.
326            </p></dd>
327<dt><span class="term">
328            <span><strong class="command">gsstsig</strong></span>
329          </span></dt>
330<dd><p>
331	      Use GSS-TSIG to sign the updated.  This is equivalent to
332	      specifying <code class="option">-g</code> on the commandline.
333            </p></dd>
334<dt><span class="term">
335            <span><strong class="command">oldgsstsig</strong></span>
336          </span></dt>
337<dd><p>
338	      Use the Windows 2000 version of GSS-TSIG to sign the updated.
339	      This is equivalent to specifying <code class="option">-o</code> on the
340	      commandline.
341            </p></dd>
342<dt><span class="term">
343            <span><strong class="command">realm</strong></span>
344             {[<span class="optional">realm_name</span>]}
345          </span></dt>
346<dd><p>
347	      When using GSS-TSIG use <em class="parameter"><code>realm_name</code></em> rather
348	      than the default realm in <code class="filename">krb5.conf</code>.  If no
349	      realm is specified the saved realm is cleared.
350            </p></dd>
351<dt><span class="term">
352              <span><strong class="command">prereq nxdomain</strong></span>
353               {domain-name}
354            </span></dt>
355<dd><p>
356              Requires that no resource record of any type exists with name
357              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>.
358            </p></dd>
359<dt><span class="term">
360              <span><strong class="command">prereq yxdomain</strong></span>
361               {domain-name}
362            </span></dt>
363<dd><p>
364              Requires that
365              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>
366              exists (has as at least one resource record, of any type).
367            </p></dd>
368<dt><span class="term">
369              <span><strong class="command">prereq nxrrset</strong></span>
370               {domain-name}
371               [class]
372               {type}
373            </span></dt>
374<dd><p>
375              Requires that no resource record exists of the specified
376              <em class="parameter"><code>type</code></em>,
377              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
378              and
379              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>.
380              If
381              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
382              is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
383            </p></dd>
384<dt><span class="term">
385              <span><strong class="command">prereq yxrrset</strong></span>
386               {domain-name}
387               [class]
388               {type}
389            </span></dt>
390<dd><p>
391              This requires that a resource record of the specified
392              <em class="parameter"><code>type</code></em>,
393              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
394              and
395              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>
396              must exist.
397              If
398              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
399              is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
400            </p></dd>
401<dt><span class="term">
402              <span><strong class="command">prereq yxrrset</strong></span>
403               {domain-name}
404               [class]
405               {type}
406               {data...}
407            </span></dt>
408<dd><p>
409              The
410              <em class="parameter"><code>data</code></em>
411              from each set of prerequisites of this form
412              sharing a common
413              <em class="parameter"><code>type</code></em>,
414              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>,
415              and
416              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>
417              are combined to form a set of RRs.  This set of RRs must
418              exactly match the set of RRs existing in the zone at the
419              given
420              <em class="parameter"><code>type</code></em>,
421              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>,
422              and
423              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>.
424              The
425              <em class="parameter"><code>data</code></em>
426              are written in the standard text representation of the resource
427              record's
428              RDATA.
429            </p></dd>
430<dt><span class="term">
431              <span><strong class="command">update delete</strong></span>
432               {domain-name}
433               [ttl]
434               [class]
435               [type [data...]]
436            </span></dt>
437<dd><p>
438              Deletes any resource records named
439              <em class="parameter"><code>domain-name</code></em>.
440              If
441              <em class="parameter"><code>type</code></em>
442              and
443              <em class="parameter"><code>data</code></em>
444              is provided, only matching resource records will be removed.
445              The internet class is assumed if
446              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
447              is not supplied.  The
448              <em class="parameter"><code>ttl</code></em>
449              is ignored, and is only allowed for compatibility.
450            </p></dd>
451<dt><span class="term">
452              <span><strong class="command">update add</strong></span>
453               {domain-name}
454               {ttl}
455               [class]
456               {type}
457               {data...}
458            </span></dt>
459<dd><p>
460              Adds a new resource record with the specified
461              <em class="parameter"><code>ttl</code></em>,
462              <em class="parameter"><code>class</code></em>
463              and
464              <em class="parameter"><code>data</code></em>.
465            </p></dd>
466<dt><span class="term">
467              <span><strong class="command">show</strong></span>
468            </span></dt>
469<dd><p>
470              Displays the current message, containing all of the
471              prerequisites and
472              updates specified since the last send.
473            </p></dd>
474<dt><span class="term">
475              <span><strong class="command">send</strong></span>
476            </span></dt>
477<dd><p>
478              Sends the current message.  This is equivalent to entering a
479              blank line.
480            </p></dd>
481<dt><span class="term">
482              <span><strong class="command">answer</strong></span>
483            </span></dt>
484<dd><p>
485              Displays the answer.
486            </p></dd>
487<dt><span class="term">
488              <span><strong class="command">debug</strong></span>
489            </span></dt>
490<dd><p>
491              Turn on debugging.
492            </p></dd>
493</dl></div>
494<p>
495    </p>
496<p>
497      Lines beginning with a semicolon are comments and are ignored.
498    </p>
499</div>
500<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
501<a name="id2678629"></a><h2>EXAMPLES</h2>
502<p>
503      The examples below show how
504      <span><strong class="command">nsupdate</strong></span>
505      could be used to insert and delete resource records from the
506      <span class="type">example.com</span>
507      zone.
508      Notice that the input in each example contains a trailing blank line so
509      that
510      a group of commands are sent as one dynamic update request to the
511      master name server for
512      <span class="type">example.com</span>.
513
514      </p>
515<pre class="programlisting">
516# nsupdate
517&gt; update delete oldhost.example.com A
518&gt; update add newhost.example.com 86400 A 172.16.1.1
519&gt; send
520</pre>
521<p>
522    </p>
523<p>
524      Any A records for
525      <span class="type">oldhost.example.com</span>
526      are deleted.
527      And an A record for
528      <span class="type">newhost.example.com</span>
529      with IP address 172.16.1.1 is added.
530      The newly-added record has a 1 day TTL (86400 seconds).
531      </p>
532<pre class="programlisting">
533# nsupdate
534&gt; prereq nxdomain nickname.example.com
535&gt; update add nickname.example.com 86400 CNAME somehost.example.com
536&gt; send
537</pre>
538<p>
539    </p>
540<p>
541      The prerequisite condition gets the name server to check that there
542      are no resource records of any type for
543      <span class="type">nickname.example.com</span>.
544
545      If there are, the update request fails.
546      If this name does not exist, a CNAME for it is added.
547      This ensures that when the CNAME is added, it cannot conflict with the
548      long-standing rule in RFC 1034 that a name must not exist as any other
549      record type if it exists as a CNAME.
550      (The rule has been updated for DNSSEC in RFC 2535 to allow CNAMEs to have
551      RRSIG, DNSKEY and NSEC records.)
552    </p>
553</div>
554<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
555<a name="id2678679"></a><h2>FILES</h2>
556<div class="variablelist"><dl>
557<dt><span class="term"><code class="constant">/etc/resolv.conf</code></span></dt>
558<dd><p>
559            used to identify default name server
560          </p></dd>
561<dt><span class="term"><code class="constant">/var/run/named/session.key</code></span></dt>
562<dd><p>
563            sets the default TSIG key for use in local-only mode
564          </p></dd>
565<dt><span class="term"><code class="constant">K{name}.+157.+{random}.key</code></span></dt>
566<dd><p>
567            base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
568            <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-keygen</span>(8)</span>.
569          </p></dd>
570<dt><span class="term"><code class="constant">K{name}.+157.+{random}.private</code></span></dt>
571<dd><p>
572            base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
573            <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-keygen</span>(8)</span>.
574          </p></dd>
575</dl></div>
576</div>
577<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
578<a name="id2678762"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2>
579<p>
580      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2136</em>,
581      <em class="citetitle">RFC 3007</em>,
582      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2104</em>,
583      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2845</em>,
584      <em class="citetitle">RFC 1034</em>,
585      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2535</em>,
586      <em class="citetitle">RFC 2931</em>,
587      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">named</span>(8)</span>,
588      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ddns-confgen</span>(8)</span>,
589      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-keygen</span>(8)</span>.
590    </p>
591</div>
592<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
593<a name="id2678820"></a><h2>BUGS</h2>
594<p>
595      The TSIG key is redundantly stored in two separate files.
596      This is a consequence of nsupdate using the DST library
597      for its cryptographic operations, and may change in future
598      releases.
599    </p>
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