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1.\" Copyright (c) 1982, 1993 2.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. 3.\" 4.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without 5.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions 6.\" are met: 7.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright 8.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 9.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright 10.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the 11.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 12.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software 13.\" must display the following acknowledgement: 14.\" This product includes software developed by the University of 15.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. 16.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors 17.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software 18.\" without specific prior written permission. 19.\" 20.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND 21.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE 22.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE 23.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE 24.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL 25.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS 26.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) 27.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT 28.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY 29.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF 30.\" SUCH DAMAGE. 31.\" 32.\" @(#)abstract.me 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93 33.\" 34.sp 1 35\fB\s+2gprof: a Call Graph Execution Profiler\s-2\fP\** 36.(f 37\**This work was supported by grant MCS80-05144 38from the National Science Foundation. 39.)f 40.sp 1 41by 42\fISusan L. Graham\fP 43\fIPeter B. Kessler\fP 44\fIMarshall K. McKusick\fP 45.sp 1 46Computer Science Division 47Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department 48University of California, Berkeley 49Berkeley, California 94720 50.ce 0 51.sp 1 52.sp 0.5i 53.sh 0 "Abstract" 54.pp 55Large complex programs are composed of many small routines 56that implement abstractions for the routines that call them. 57To be useful, an execution profiler must attribute 58execution time in a way that is significant for the 59logical structure of a program 60as well as for its textual decomposition. 61This data must then be displayed to the user 62in a convenient and informative way. 63The \fBgprof\fP profiler 64accounts for the running time of called routines 65in the running time of the routines that call them. 66The design and use of this profiler is described.