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/share/man/man3/intro.3

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 32.\"     @(#)intro.3	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93
 33.\" $FreeBSD$
 34.\"
 35.Dd June 5, 1993
 36.Dt INTRO 3
 37.Os
 38.Sh NAME
 39.Nm intro
 40.Nd introduction to the C libraries
 41.Sh DESCRIPTION
 42This section provides an overview of the C
 43library functions, their error returns and other
 44common definitions and concepts.
 45Most of these functions are available from the C library,
 46.Em libc .
 47.\" (see
 48.\" .Xr libc 3 ) .
 49Other libraries, such as the math library,
 50.Em libm ,
 51must be indicated at compile time with the
 52.Fl l
 53option of the compiler.
 54.\" .Pp
 55.\" A subset of the
 56.\" .Xr libc functions
 57.\" are available from Fortran;
 58.\" they are described separately in
 59.\" .Xr intro 3f .
 60.Pp
 61The various libraries (followed by the loader flag):
 62.Bl -tag -width "libc (-lc)"
 63.It Xr libc Pq Fl l Ns Ar c
 64Standard C library functions.
 65.\" (See
 66.\" .Xr libc 3 . )
 67When using the C compiler
 68.Xr cc 1 ,
 69it is not necessary
 70to supply the loader flag
 71.Fl l Ns Ar c
 72for these functions.
 73There are several `libraries' or groups of functions included inside of
 74.Xr libc :
 75the standard
 76.Tn I/O
 77routines,
 78database routines,
 79bit operators,
 80string operators,
 81character tests and character operators,
 82des encryption routines,
 83storage allocation, time functions, signal handling and more.
 84.It Xr libcurses Pq Fl l Ns Ar curses Fl l Ns Ar termcap
 85Terminal independent screen management routines
 86for two dimensional non-bitmap display terminals.
 87(See
 88.Xr ncurses 3 . )
 89.It Xr libcompat Pq Fl l Ns Ar compat
 90Functions which are obsolete but are available for compatibility with
 91.Bx 4.3 .
 92In particular,
 93a number of system call interfaces provided in previous releases of
 94.Bx
 95have been included for source code compatibility.
 96Use of these routines should, for the most part, be avoided.
 97The manual page entry for each compatibility routine
 98indicates the proper interface to use.
 99.It Xr libkvm Pq Fl l Ns Ar kvm
100Functions used to access kernel memory are in this library.
101They can be used
102against both a running system and a crash dump.
103(See
104.Xr kvm 3 . )
105.It Xr libl Pq Fl l Ns Ar l
106The library for
107.Xr lex 1 .
108.\" .It Xr libln
109.It Xr libm Pq Fl l Ns Ar m
110The math library,
111.Em libm .
112The math library is loaded as needed by the Pascal compiler,
113.\" .Xr pc 1 ,
114but not by the C compiler which requires the
115.Fl l Ns Ar m
116flag.
117(See
118.Xr math 3 . )
119.It Xr libmp Pq Fl l Ns Ar mp
120.\" .It Xr libom
121.\" Old math library.
122.\" .It Xr libplot Pq Fl l Ns Ar plot
123.\" Device independent plotting functions.
124.\" (See
125.\" .Xr plot 3 . )
126.\" .It Xr libplotf77 Pq Fl l Ns Ar plotf77
127.\" The device independent plotting functions for fortran.
128.\" (See
129.\" .Xr plot 3 . )
130.\" .It Xr libresolv Pq Fl l Ns Ar resolv
131.\" Routines for network address resolution.
132.It Xr libtermcap Pq Fl l Ns Ar termcap
133The terminal independent operation library package.
134(See
135.Xr termcap 3 . )
136.\" .It libvt0.a
137.It Xr liby Pq Fl l Ns Ar y
138The library for
139.Xr yacc 1 .
140.El
141.Sh FILES
142.Bl -tag -width /usr/lib/libm_p.a -compact
143.It Pa /usr/lib/libc.a
144the C library
145.It Pa /usr/lib/libc_p.a
146the C library compiled for profiling
147.It Pa /usr/lib/libm.a
148the math library
149.It Pa /usr/lib/libm_p.a
150the math library compiled for profiling
151.El
152.Sh SEE ALSO
153.\" .Xr libc 3 ,
154.Xr cc 1 ,
155.Xr ld 1 ,
156.Xr nm 1 ,
157.Xr intro 2 ,
158.Xr math 3 ,
159.Xr stdio 3
160.\" .Sh LIST OF FUNCTIONS
161.\" .Bl -column "strncasecmpxxx" "system"
162.\" .Sy Name	Description
163.\" .El
164.Sh HISTORY
165An
166.Nm
167manual appeared in
168.At v7 .