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 15OSS Sequencer Emulation on ALSA</H1></CENTER>
 16
 17<HR WIDTH="100%">
 18<P>Copyright (c) 1998,1999 by Takashi Iwai
 19<TT><A HREF="mailto:iwai@ww.uni-erlangen.de">&lt;iwai@ww.uni-erlangen.de></A></TT>
 20<P>ver.0.1.8; Nov. 16, 1999
 21<H2>
 22
 23<HR WIDTH="100%"></H2>
 24
 25<H2>
 261. Description</H2>
 27This directory contains the OSS sequencer emulation driver on ALSA. Note
 28that this program is still in the development state.
 29<P>What this does - it provides the emulation of the OSS sequencer, access
 30via
 31<TT>/dev/sequencer</TT> and <TT>/dev/music</TT> devices.
 32The most of applications using OSS can run if the appropriate ALSA
 33sequencer is prepared.
 34<P>The following features are emulated by this driver:
 35<UL>
 36<LI>
 37Normal sequencer and MIDI events:</LI>
 38
 39<BR>They are converted to the ALSA sequencer events, and sent to the corresponding
 40port.
 41<LI>
 42Timer events:</LI>
 43
 44<BR>The timer is not selectable by ioctl. The control rate is fixed to
 45100 regardless of HZ. That is, even on Alpha system, a tick is always
 461/100 second. The base rate and tempo can be changed in <TT>/dev/music</TT>.
 47
 48<LI>
 49Patch loading:</LI>
 50
 51<BR>It purely depends on the synth drivers whether it's supported since
 52the patch loading is realized by callback to the synth driver.
 53<LI>
 54I/O controls:</LI>
 55
 56<BR>Most of controls are accepted. Some controls
 57are dependent on the synth driver, as well as even on original OSS.</UL>
 58Furthermore, you can find the following advanced features:
 59<UL>
 60<LI>
 61Better queue mechanism:</LI>
 62
 63<BR>The events are queued before processing them.
 64<LI>
 65Multiple applications:</LI>
 66
 67<BR>You can run two or more applications simultaneously (even for OSS sequencer)!
 68However, each MIDI device is exclusive - that is, if a MIDI device is opened
 69once by some application, other applications can't use it. No such a restriction
 70in synth devices.
 71<LI>
 72Real-time event processing:</LI>
 73
 74<BR>The events can be processed in real time without using out of bound
 75ioctl. To switch to real-time mode, send ABSTIME 0 event. The followed
 76events will be processed in real-time without queued. To switch off the
 77real-time mode, send RELTIME 0 event.
 78<LI>
 79<TT>/proc</TT> interface:</LI>
 80
 81<BR>The status of applications and devices can be shown via <TT>/proc/asound/seq/oss</TT>
 82at any time. In the later version, configuration will be changed via <TT>/proc</TT>
 83interface, too.</UL>
 84
 85<H2>
 862. Installation</H2>
 87Run configure script with both sequencer support (<TT>--with-sequencer=yes</TT>)
 88and OSS emulation (<TT>--with-oss=yes</TT>) options. A module <TT>snd-seq-oss.o</TT>
 89will be created. If the synth module of your sound card supports for OSS
 90emulation (so far, only Emu8000 driver), this module will be loaded automatically.
 91Otherwise, you need to load this module manually.
 92<P>At beginning, this module probes all the MIDI ports which have been
 93already connected to the sequencer. Once after that, the creation and deletion
 94of ports are watched by announcement mechanism of ALSA sequencer.
 95<P>The available synth and MIDI devices can be found in proc interface.
 96Run "<TT>cat /proc/asound/seq/oss</TT>", and check the devices. For example,
 97if you use an AWE64 card, you'll see like the following:
 98<PRE>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; OSS sequencer emulation version 0.1.8
 99&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ALSA client number 63
100&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ALSA receiver port 0
101
102&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Number of applications: 0
103
104&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Number of synth devices: 1
105
106&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; synth 0: [EMU8000]
107&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; type 0x1 : subtype 0x20 : voices 32
108&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; capabilties : ioctl enabled / load_patch enabled
109
110&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Number of MIDI devices: 3
111
112&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; midi 0: [Emu8000 Port-0] ALSA port 65:0
113&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; capability write / opened none
114
115&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; midi 1: [Emu8000 Port-1] ALSA port 65:1
116&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; capability write / opened none
117
118&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; midi 2: [0: MPU-401 (UART)] ALSA port 64:0
119&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; capability read/write / opened none</PRE>
120Note that the device number may be different from the information of
121<TT>/proc/asound/oss-devices</TT>
122or ones of the original OSS driver. Use the device number listed in <TT>/proc/asound/seq/oss</TT>
123to play via OSS sequencer emulation.
124<H2>
1253. Using Synthesizer Devices</H2>
126Run your favorite program. I've tested playmidi-2.4, awemidi-0.4.3, gmod-3.1
127and xmp-1.1.5. You can load samples via <TT>/dev/sequencer</TT> like sfxload,
128too.
129<P>If the lowlevel driver supports multiple access to synth devices (like
130Emu8000 driver), two or more applications are allowed to run at the same
131time.
132<H2>
1334. Using MIDI Devices</H2>
134So far, only MIDI output was tested. MIDI input was not checked at all,
135but hopefully it will work. Use the device number listed in <TT>/proc/asound/seq/oss</TT>.
136Be aware that these numbers are mostly different from the list in
137<TT>/proc/asound/oss-devices</TT>.
138<H2>
1395. Module Options</H2>
140The following module options are available:
141<UL>
142<LI>
143<TT>maxqlen</TT></LI>
144
145<BR>specifies the maximum read/write queue length. This queue is private
146for OSS sequencer, so that it is independent from the queue length of ALSA
147sequencer. Default value is 1024.
148<LI>
149<TT>seq_oss_debug</TT></LI>
150
151<BR>specifies the debug level and accepts zero (= no debug message) or
152positive integer. Default value is 0.</UL>
153
154<H2>
1556. Queue Mechanism</H2>
156OSS sequencer emulation uses an ALSA priority queue. The
157events from <TT>/dev/sequencer</TT> are processed and put onto the queue
158specified by module option.
159<P>All the events from <TT>/dev/sequencer</TT> are parsed at beginning.
160The timing events are also parsed at this moment, so that the events may
161be processed in real-time. Sending an event ABSTIME 0 switches the operation
162mode to real-time mode, and sending an event RELTIME 0 switches it off.
163In the real-time mode, all events are dispatched immediately.
164<P>The queued events are dispatched to the corresponding ALSA sequencer
165ports after scheduled time by ALSA sequencer dispatcher.
166<P>If the write-queue is full, the application sleeps until a certain amount
167(as default one half) becomes empty in blocking mode. The synchronization
168to write timing was implemented, too.
169<P>The input from MIDI devices or echo-back events are stored on read FIFO
170queue. If application reads <TT>/dev/sequencer</TT> in blocking mode, the
171process will be awaked.
172
173<H2>
1747. Interface to Synthesizer Device</H2>
175
176<H3>
1777.1. Registration</H3>
178To register an OSS synthesizer device, use <TT>snd_seq_oss_synth_register</TT>
179function.
180<PRE>int snd_seq_oss_synth_register(char *name, int type, int subtype, int nvoices,
181&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; snd_seq_oss_callback_t *oper, void *private_data)</PRE>
182The arguments <TT>name</TT>, <TT>type</TT>, <TT>subtype</TT> and
183<TT>nvoices</TT>
184are used for making the appropriate synth_info structure for ioctl. The
185return value is an index number of this device. This index must be remembered
186for unregister. If registration is failed, -errno will be returned.
187<P>To release this device, call <TT>snd_seq_oss_synth_unregister function</TT>:
188<PRE>int snd_seq_oss_synth_unregister(int index),</PRE>
189where the <TT>index</TT> is the index number returned by register function.
190<H3>
1917.2. Callbacks</H3>
192OSS synthesizer devices have capability for sample downloading and ioctls
193like sample reset. In OSS emulation, these special features are realized
194by using callbacks. The registration argument oper is used to specify these
195callbacks. The following callback functions must be defined:
196<PRE>snd_seq_oss_callback_t:
197&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int (*open)(snd_seq_oss_arg_t *p, void *closure);
198&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int (*close)(snd_seq_oss_arg_t *p);
199&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int (*ioctl)(snd_seq_oss_arg_t *p, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg);
200&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int (*load_patch)(snd_seq_oss_arg_t *p, int format, const char *buf, int offs, int count);
201&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int (*reset)(snd_seq_oss_arg_t *p);
202Except for <TT>open</TT> and <TT>close</TT> callbacks, they are allowed
203to be NULL.
204<P>Each callback function takes the argument type snd_seq_oss_arg_t as the
205first argument.
206<PRE>struct snd_seq_oss_arg_t {
207&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int app_index;
208&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int file_mode;
209&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int seq_mode;
210&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; snd_seq_addr_t addr;
211&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; void *private_data;
212&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; int event_passing;
213};</PRE>
214The first three fields, <TT>app_index</TT>, <TT>file_mode</TT> and
215<TT>seq_mode</TT>
216are initialized by OSS sequencer. The <TT>app_index</TT> is the application
217index which is unique to each application opening OSS sequencer. The
218<TT>file_mode</TT>
219is bit-flags indicating the file operation mode. See
220<TT>seq_oss.h</TT>
221for its meaning. The <TT>seq_mode</TT> is sequencer operation mode. In
222the current version, only <TT>SND_OSSSEQ_MODE_SYNTH</TT> is used.
223<P>The next two fields, <TT>addr</TT> and <TT>private_data</TT>, must be
224filled by the synth driver at open callback. The <TT>addr</TT> contains
225the address of ALSA sequencer port which is assigned to this device. If
226the driver allocates memory for <TT>private_data</TT>, it must be released
227in close callback by itself.
228<P>The last field, <TT>event_passing</TT>, indicates how to translate note-on
229/ off events. In <TT>PROCESS_EVENTS</TT> mode, the note 255 is regarded
230as velocity change, and key pressure event is passed to the port. In <TT>PASS_EVENTS</TT>
231mode, all note on/off events are passed to the port without modified. <TT>PROCESS_KEYPRESS</TT>
232mode checks the note above 128 and regards it as key pressure event (mainly
233for Emu8000 driver).
234<H4>
2357.2.1. Open Callback</H4>
236The <TT>open</TT> is called at each time this device is opened by an application
237using OSS sequencer. This must not be NULL. Typically, the open callback
238does the following procedure:
239<OL>
240<LI>
241Allocate private data record.</LI>
242
243<LI>
244Create an ALSA sequencer port.</LI>
245
246<LI>
247Set the new port address on arg->addr.</LI>
248
249<LI>
250Set the private data record pointer on arg->private_data.</LI>
251</OL>
252Note that the type bit-flags in port_info of this synth port must NOT contain
253<TT>TYPE_MIDI_GENERIC</TT>
254bit. Instead, <TT>TYPE_SPECIFIC</TT> should be used. Also, <TT>CAP_SUBSCRIPTION</TT>
255bit should NOT be included, too. This is necessary to tell it from other
256normal MIDI devices. If the open procedure succeeded, return zero. Otherwise,
257return -errno.
258<H4>
2597.2.2 Ioctl Callback</H4>
260The <TT>ioctl</TT> callback is called when the sequencer receives device-specific
261ioctls. The following two ioctls should be processed by this callback:
262<UL>
263<LI>
264<TT>IOCTL_SEQ_RESET_SAMPLES</TT></LI>
265
266<BR>reset all samples on memory -- return 0
267<LI>
268<TT>IOCTL_SYNTH_MEMAVL</TT></LI>
269
270<BR>return the available memory size
271<LI>
272<TT>FM_4OP_ENABLE</TT></LI>
273
274<BR>can be ignored usually</UL>
275The other ioctls are processed inside the sequencer without passing to
276the lowlevel driver.
277<H4>
2787.2.3 Load_Patch Callback</H4>
279The <TT>load_patch</TT> callback is used for sample-downloading. This callback
280must read the data on user-space and transfer to each device. Return 0
281if succeeded, and -errno if failed. The format argument is the patch key
282in patch_info record. The buf is user-space pointer where patch_info record
283is stored. The offs can be ignored. The count is total data size of this
284sample data.
285<H4>
2867.2.4 Close Callback</H4>
287The <TT>close</TT> callback is called when this device is closed by the
288applicaion. If any private data was allocated in open callback, it must
289be released in the close callback. The deletion of ALSA port should be
290done here, too. This callback must not be NULL.
291<H4>
2927.2.5 Reset Callback</H4>
293The <TT>reset</TT> callback is called when sequencer device is reset or
294closed by applications. The callback should turn off the sounds on the
295relevant port immediately, and initialize the status of the port. If this
296callback is undefined, OSS seq sends a <TT>HEARTBEAT</TT> event to the
297port.
298<H3>
2997.3 Events</H3>
300Most of the events are processed by sequencer and translated to the adequate
301ALSA sequencer events, so that each synth device can receive by input_event
302callback of ALSA sequencer port. The following ALSA events should be implemented
303by the driver:
304<BR>&nbsp;
305<TABLE BORDER WIDTH="75%" NOSAVE >
306<TR NOSAVE>
307<TD NOSAVE><B>ALSA event</B></TD>
308
309<TD><B>Original OSS events</B></TD>
310</TR>
311
312<TR>
313<TD>NOTEON</TD>
314
315<TD>SEQ_NOTEON
316<BR>MIDI_NOTEON</TD>
317</TR>
318
319<TR>
320<TD>NOTE</TD>
321
322<TD>SEQ_NOTEOFF
323<BR>MIDI_NOTEOFF</TD>
324</TR>
325
326<TR NOSAVE>
327<TD NOSAVE>KEYPRESS</TD>
328
329<TD>MIDI_KEY_PRESSURE</TD>
330</TR>
331
332<TR NOSAVE>
333<TD>CHANPRESS</TD>
334
335<TD NOSAVE>SEQ_AFTERTOUCH
336<BR>MIDI_CHN_PRESSURE</TD>
337</TR>
338
339<TR NOSAVE>
340<TD NOSAVE>PGMCHANGE</TD>
341
342<TD NOSAVE>SEQ_PGMCHANGE
343<BR>MIDI_PGM_CHANGE</TD>
344</TR>
345
346<TR>
347<TD>PITCHBEND</TD>
348
349<TD>SEQ_CONTROLLER(CTRL_PITCH_BENDER)
350<BR>MIDI_PITCH_BEND</TD>
351</TR>
352
353<TR>
354<TD>CONTROLLER</TD>
355
356<TD>MIDI_CTL_CHANGE
357<BR>SEQ_BALANCE (with CTL_PAN)</TD>
358</TR>
359
360<TR>
361<TD>CONTROL14</TD>
362
363<TD>SEQ_CONTROLLER</TD>
364</TR>
365
366<TR>
367<TD>REGPARAM</TD>
368
369<TD>SEQ_CONTROLLER(CTRL_PITCH_BENDER_RANGE)</TD>
370</TR>
371
372<TR>
373<TD>SYSEX</TD>
374
375<TD>SEQ_SYSEX</TD>
376</TR>
377</TABLE>
378
379<P>The most of these behavior can be realized by MIDI emulation driver
380included in the Emu8000 lowlevel driver. In the future release, this module
381will be independent.
382<P>Some OSS events (<TT>SEQ_PRIVATE</TT> and <TT>SEQ_VOLUME</TT> events) are passed as event
383type SND_SEQ_OSS_PRIVATE.  The OSS sequencer passes these event 8 byte
384packets without any modification. The lowlevel driver should process these
385events appropriately.
386<H2>
3878. Interface to MIDI Device</H2>
388Since the OSS emulation probes the creation and deletion of ALSA MIDI sequencer
389ports automatically by receiving announcement from ALSA sequencer, the
390MIDI devices don't need to be registered explicitly like synth devices.
391However, the MIDI port_info registered to ALSA sequencer must include a group
392name <TT>SND_SEQ_GROUP_DEVICE</TT> and a capability-bit <TT>CAP_READ</TT> or
393<TT>CAP_WRITE</TT>. Also, subscription capabilities, <TT>CAP_SUBS_READ</TT> or <TT>CAP_SUBS_WRITE</TT>,
394must be defined, too. If these conditions are not satisfied, the port is not
395registered as OSS sequencer MIDI device.
396<P>The events via MIDI devices are parsed in OSS sequencer and converted
397to the corresponding ALSA sequencer events. The input from MIDI sequencer
398is also converted to MIDI byte events by OSS sequencer. This works just
399a reverse way of seq_midi module.
400<H2>
4019. Known Problems / TODO's</H2>
402
403<UL>
404<LI>
405Patch loading via ALSA instrument layer is not implemented yet.</LI>
406</UL>
407
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