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  5  <title>sSpeak: Phonemes</title>
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 11<A href="docindex.html">Back</A>
 12<hr>
 13<h2>PHONEMES</h2>
 14<hr>
 15In general a different set of phonemes can be defined for each language.
 16<p>
 17In most cases different languages inherit the same basic set of consonants.  They can add to these or modify them as needed.
 18<p>
 19The phoneme mnemonics are based on the scheme by Kirshenbaum which represents International Phonetic Alphabet symbols using ascii characters.  See: <a href="http://www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf">www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf</a>.
 20<p>
 21Phoneme mnemonics can be used directly in the text input to <strong>espeak</strong>.  They are enclosed within double square brackets.  Spaces are used to separate words, and all stressed syllables must be marked explicitly. eg:<br>
 22<code>[[D,Is Iz sVm f@n'EtIk t'Ekst 'InpUt]]</code>
 23<h3>English Consonants</h3>
 24<table>
 25<tbody valign=top>
 26<tr>
 27<td width=25><code>[p]</code><td width=80>
 28<td width=25><code>[b]</code><td width=80>
 29<tr>
 30<td><code>[t]</code><td>
 31<td><code>[d]</code><td>
 32<tr>
 33<td><code>[tS]</code><td><b>ch</b>urch
 34<td><code>[dZ]</code><td><b>j</b>udge
 35<tr>
 36<td><code>[k]</code><td>
 37<td><code>[g]</code><td>
 38<tr><td><p>
 39
 40<tr>
 41<td><code>[f]</code><td>
 42<td><code>[v]</code><td>
 43<tr>
 44<td><code>[T]</code><td><b>th</b>in
 45<td><code>[D]</code><td><b>th</b>is
 46<tr>
 47<td><code>[s]</code><td>
 48<td><code>[z]</code><td>
 49<tr>
 50<td><code>[S]</code><td><b>sh</b>op
 51<td><code>[Z]</code><td>plea<b>s</b>ure
 52<tr>
 53<td><code>[h]</code><td>
 54<tr><td><p>
 55
 56<tr>
 57<td><code>[m]</code><td>
 58<td><code>[n]</code><td>
 59<tr>
 60<td><code>[N]</code><td>si<b>ng</b>
 61<tr>
 62<td><code>[l]</code><td>
 63<td><code>[r]</code><td><b>r</b>ed (Omitted if not immediately followed by a vowel).
 64<tr>
 65<td><code>[j]</code><td><b>y</b>es
 66<td><code>[w]</code><td>
 67<tr><td><p>
 68
 69<tr><td colspan=3><strong>Some Additional Consonants</strong></td>
 70<p>
 71<tr>
 72<td><code>[C]</code><td>German i<b>ch</b>
 73<td><code>[x]</code><td>German bu<b>ch</b>
 74<tr>
 75<td><code>[l^]</code><td>Italian <b>gl</b>i
 76<td><code>[n^]</code><td>Spanish <b>ń</b>
 77
 78</tbody>
 79</table>
 80
 81
 82</tbody>
 83</table>
 84
 85
 86<h3>English Vowels</h3>
 87These are the phonemes which are used by the English spelling-to-phoneme translations (en_rules and en_list).  In some varieties of English different phonemes may have the same sound, but they are kept separate because they may differ in another variety.
 88<p>
 89In rhotic accents, such as General American, the phonemes <code>[3:], [A@], [e@], [i@], [O@], [U@] </code> include the "r" sound.
 90<p>
 91
 92<table>
 93<tbody valign=top>
 94<tr><td width=25><code>[@]</code>
 95<td width=60>alph<b>a</b><td width=80>schwa
 96
 97<tr><td><code>[3]</code>
 98<td>bett<b>er</b><td>rhotic schwa. In British English this is the same as <code>[@]</code>, but it includes 'r' colouring in American and other rhotic accents.  In these cases a separate <code>[r]</code> should not be included unless it is followed immediately by another vowel.
 99
100<tr><td><code>[3:]</code><td>n<b>ur</b>se
101<tr><td><code>[@L]</code><td>simp<b>le</b>
102<tr><td><code>[@2]</code><td>the<td>Used only for "the".
103<tr><td><code>[@5]</code><td>to<td>Used only for "to".
104<tr><td><p>
105
106<tr><td><code>[a]</code><td>tr<b>a</b>p
107<tr><td><code>[aa]</code><td>b<b>a</b>th<td>This is <code>[a]</code> in some accents, <code>[A:]</code> in others.
108<tr><td><code>[a2]</code><td><b>a</b>bout<td>This may be <code>[@]</code> or may be a more open schwa.
109<tr><td><code>[A:]</code><td>p<b>al</b>m
110<tr><td><code>[A@]</code><td>st<b>ar</b>t
111<tr><td><p>
112
113<tr><td><code>[E]</code><td>dr<b>e</b>ss
114<tr><td><code>[e@]</code><td>squ<b>are</b>
115<tr><td><p>
116
117<tr><td><code>[I]</code><td>k<b>i</b>t
118<tr><td><code>[I2]</code><td><b>i</b>ntend<td>As <code>[I]</code>, but also indicates an unstressed syllable.
119<tr><td><code>[i]</code><td>happ<b>y</b><td>An unstressed "i" sound at the end of a word.
120<tr><td><code>[i:]</code><td>fl<b>ee</b>ce
121<tr><td><code>[i@]</code><td>n<b>ear</b>
122<tr><td><p>
123
124<tr><td><code>[0]</code><td>l<b>o</b>t
125<tr><td><p>
126
127<tr><td><code>[V]</code><td>str<b>u</b>t
128<tr><td><p>
129
130<tr><td><code>[u:]</code><td>g<b>oo</b>se
131<tr><td><code>[U]</code><td>f<b>oo</b>t
132<tr><td><code>[U@]</code><td>c<b>ure</b>
133<tr><td><p>
134
135<tr><td><code>[O:]</code><td>th<b>ou</b>ght
136<tr><td><code>[O@]</code><td>n<b>or</b>th
137<tr><td><code>[o@]</code><td>f<b>or</b>ce
138<tr><td><p>
139
140
141<tr><td><code>[aI]</code><td>pr<b>i</b>ce
142<tr><td><code>[eI]</code><td>f<b>a</b>ce
143<tr><td><code>[OI]</code><td>ch<b>oi</b>ce
144<tr><td><code>[aU]</code><td>m<b>ou</b>th
145<tr><td><code>[oU]</code><td>g<b>oa</b>t
146
147<tr><td><code>[aI@]</code><td>sc<b>ie</b>nce
148<tr><td><code>[aU@]</code><td>h<b>our</b>
149</tbody>
150</table>
151
152<h3>Some Additional Vowels</h3>
153Other languages will have their own vowel definitions, eg:
154
155<table>
156<tbody valign=top>
157<tr><td width=30><code>[e]</code><td>German <b>eh</b>, French <b>é</b>
158<tr><td><code>[o]</code><td>German <b>oo</b>, French <b>o</b>
159<tr><td><code>[y]</code><td>German <b>ü</b>, French <b>u</b>
160<tr><td><code>[Y]</code><td>German <b>ö</b>, French <b>oe</b>
161
162</tbody>
163</table>
164
165
166</body>
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