KyotoTycoon-client-protocol /lib.kyoto.php

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<?php
/**
 * Implementation of the Kyoto Tycoon Protocols (RPC and REST).
 * Author: martin mauchauffĂŠe
 * Link: http://github.com/moechofe/phpkyototycoon
 * Date: January 2012
 * Requirement: PHP 5.3+
 */
namespace qad\kyoto;
use Iterator, ArrayAccess, DomainException, OutOfBoundsException, RuntimeException, LogicException;

/**
 * Return an UI object ready to send command to a KyotoTycoon server.
 * Params:
 *	 string $uri = The URI of the KyotoTycoon server.
 * Return:
 *	 UI = The User Interface object.
 * Set the connection parameters:
 * ----
 * $kt = UI(); // Default parameters is: localhost:1978 Corresponding to the first database loaded by the server.
 * $kt = UI('http://kt.local:1979/user.kch');
 * ----
 * Set and get value of the records:
 * ----
 * // Using ArrayAccess
 * $kt['japan'] = 'tokyo';
 * var_dump( $kt['japan']);
 * // Using method
 * $kt->set('france','paris');
 * var_dump( $kt->get('france') );
 * // Using magic method
 * $kt->coruscant('coruscant');
 * var_dump( $kt->coruscant );
 * ----
 * Set and get the expiration time of a record.
 * ----
 * $kt->set('a','ananas',2);
 * var_dump( $kt->gxt('a') );
 * ----
 * Browsing keys
 * ----
 * // Keys begins with a prefix
 * foreach( $kt->prefix('prefix_') as $key )
 *   var_dump( $key );
 * // Keys matchs a regular expression
 * foreach( $kt->search('.*_match_.*') as $key )
 *   var_dump( $key );
 * ----
 * Browsing records
 * // Keys begins with a prefix
 * foreach( $kt->begin('prefix_') as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * // Keys matchs a regular expression
 * foreach( $kt->regex('.*_match_.*') as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * // All records
 * foreach( $kt->forward() as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * // All records starting at a key
 * foreach( $kt->forward('first') as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * // All records in reverse order
 * foreach( $kt->backward() as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * // All records in reverse order starting at a key
 * foreach( $kt->backward('last') as $key => $value )
 *   var_dump( $key, $value );
 * ----
 */
function UI( $uri = 'http://localhost:1978' )
{
	static $instances = array();
	if( ! isset($instances[$uri]) )
	{
		assert('is_array(parse_url($uri))');
		$instances[$uri] = new UI( $uri );
	}
	return $instances[$uri];
}

// {{{ ConnectionException, InconsistencyException, ProtocolException

/**
 * Thrown when the connection to the KyotoTycoon cannot be established.
 */
class ConnectionException extends RuntimeException
{
	function __construct( $uri, $msg )
	{
		parent::__construct( "Could'nt connect to KyotoTycoon server {$uri}. {$msg}", 1 );
	}
}

/**
 * Thrown when an operation is asked about a record that didn't respect all the needs.
 * The processing is done but the result is not fulfill the application logic.
 */
class InconsistencyException extends OutOfBoundsException
{
	function __construct( $uri, $msg )
	{
		parent::__construct( "(Un)existing record was detected on server {$uri}. {$msg}", 2 );
	}
}

/**
 * Throw if the protocol isn't well implemented for an operation.
 */
class ProtocolException extends DomainException
{
	function __construct( $uri )
	{
		parent::__construct( "Bad protocol communication with the KyotoTycoon server {$uri}.", 3 );
	}
}

class ImplementationException extends LogicException
{
	function __construct( $uri )
	{
		parent::__construct( "Unimplented procedure on the selected database storage type with the KyotoTycoon server {$uri}.", 4 );
	}
}

// }}}

/**
 * Fluent and quick user interface (UI) for the KyotoTycoon API.
 *
 */
final class UI implements Iterator, ArrayAccess
{
	// {{{ ---properties

	// The API object used to send command.
	private $api = null;
	function api() { return $this->api; }

	// Indicate if OutOfBoundsException should be throw instead of returning null.
	private $outofbound = true;

	// Indicate if RuntimeException should be throw instead of returning false.
	private $runtime = true;

	// Used to store the prefixe before initiate the process of browsing the keys.
	private $prefix = null;

	// Used to store the regex before intitiate the process of browsing the keys.
	private $regex = null;

	private $just_key = false;

	// Indicate the maximum number of keys returned by match_prefix and match_regex operations.
	private $max = null;

	// Used to store the retreived number of records founds with match_prefix and match_regex operations.
	private $num = null;

	// Used to store all the keys returned by match_prefix and match_regex operations.
	private $keys = null;

	// Used to store temporally the key and the value of a retrieved records during any browse operations.
	private $record = null;

	// Indicate the direction of the browsing operation.
	private $backward = null;

	// Set to store the current used cursor (CUR).
	private $cursor = null;

	// Indiquate the first key of a browsing operation.
	private $startkey = null;

 		// Maintain a list of all used Kyoto Tycoon cursor (CUR).
	static $cursors = array();

	// }}}
	// {{{ __construct(), __clone()

	function __construct( $uri = 'http://localhost:1978' )
	{
		assert('is_array(parse_url($uri))');
		$this->api = new API( $uri );
	}

	function __destruct()
	{
		if( ! is_null($this->cursor) )
		{
			assert('is_integer($this->cursor)');
			unset(self::$cursors[$this->cursor]);
		}
	}

	function __clone()
	{
		$this->prefix = null;
		$this->regex = null;
		$this->just_key = false;
		$this->max = null;
		$this->num = null;
		$this->cursor = null;
		$this->keys = null;
		$this->record = null;
		$this->backward = null;
		$this->startkey = null;
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ __get(), __isset(), __unset(), __call()

	function __get( $property )
	{
		assert('is_string($property)');
		switch( $property )
		{
		case 'api':
			return $this->api;
		case 'clear':
			$this->api->clear;
			return $this;
		case 'outofbound_throw_exception':
			$this->outofbound = true;
			return $this;
		case 'outofbound_return_null':
			$this->outofbound = false;
			return $this;
		case 'runtime_throw_exception':
			$this->runtime = true;
			return $this;
		case 'runtime_return_false':
			$this->runtime = false;
			return $this;
		default:
			try { return $this->api->get($property,$xt); }
			catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
			catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
		}
	}

	function __isset( $key )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		try { return is_string($this->api->get($key,$xt)); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return false; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	function __unset( $key )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		$this->del($key);
	}

	function __call( $method, $args )
	{
		assert('is_string($method)');
		assert('is_scalar($args[0])');
		return $this->set($method, (string)$args[0]);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ get(), gxt(), set(), inc(), cat(), add(), rep(), del(), cas()

	/**
	 * Retrieve the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 (out) integer $xt = The absolute expiration time.
	 *	 (out) null $xt = There is no expiration time.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The value of the record.
	 *	 null = If the record do not exists.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 */
	function get( $key, &$xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		try { return $this->api->get($key,$xt); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Retrieve the expiration time of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The value of the expiration time.
	 *	 null = If the record do not exists.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 */
	function gxt( $key )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		$xt = null;
		try { $this->api->get($key,$xt); return $xt; }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Set the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *   true = If success.
	 *   false = If an error ocurred.
	 */
	function set( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try { $this->api->set($key,$value,$xt); return true; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	function inc( $key, $num = 1, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_numeric($num)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try
		{
			if( is_integer($num) or (string)(int)$num===$num )
				return $this->api->increment( $key, $num, $xt );
			else
				return $this->api->increment_double( $key, $num, $xt );
		}
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
	}

	/**
	 * Append the value to a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *   true = If success.
	 *   false = If an error ocurred.
	 */
	function cat( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try { $this->api->append($key,$value,$xt); return true; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Add a record if it not exits.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 *	 null = If the record already exists.
	 */
	function add( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try { return $this->api->add($key,$value,$xt); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Replace the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 *	 null = If the record don't exists.
	 */
	function rep( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try { return $this->api->replace($key,$value,$xt); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Remove the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If succes.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 *	 null = If the record don't exists.
	 */
	function del( $key )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		try { $this->api->remove($key); return true; }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	/**
	 * Perform compare-and-swap.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $oval = The old value.
	 *	 null $oval = If it is omittted, no record is meant.
	 *	 string $nval = The new value.
	 *	 null $nval = If it is omittted, the record is removed.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success.
	 *	 false = If an error ocurred.
	 *	 null = If the old value assumption was failed.
	 */
	function cas( $key, $oval, $nval, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($oval) or is_null($oval)');
		assert('is_string($nval) or is_null($nval)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		try { return $this->api->cas($key,$oval,$nval,$xt); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ begin(), search(), forward(), backward(), prefix(), regex()

	function begin( $prefix, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($prefix)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->prefix = $prefix;
		$stm->backward = false;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	function reverse_begin( $prefix, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($prefix)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->prefix = $prefix;
		$stm->backward = true;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	function search( $regex, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($regex)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->regex = $regex;
		$stm->backward = false;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	function reverse_search( $regex, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($regex)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->regex = $regex;
		$stm->backward = true;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	function forward( $key = null, $only_keys = false )
	{
		assert('is_string($key) or is_null($key)');
		assert('is_bool($only_keys)');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->startkey = $key;
		$stm->backward = false;
		$stm->just_key = $only_keys;
		return $stm;
	}

	function backward( $key = null, $only_keys = false )
	{
		assert('is_string($key) or is_null($key)');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->startkey = $key;
		$stm->backward = true;
		$stm->just_key = $only_keys;
		return $stm;
	}

	function prefix( $prefix, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($prefix)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->prefix = $prefix;
		$stm->just_key = true;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	function regex( $regex, $max = 0, &$num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($regex)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) and $max>=0 and (int)$max==$max');
		$stm = clone $this;
		$stm->regex = $regex;
		$stm->just_key = true;
		$stm->max = $max;
		$stm->num = &$num;
		return $stm;
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ rewind(), current(), key(), next(), valid()

	/**
	 * TODO check if integer limit is reach with cursor.
	 */
	function rewind()
	{
		// If prefix is set, then retrieve the list of keys begin with this prefix.
		if( ! is_null($this->prefix) )
			$this->keys = $this->backward
				? array_reverse( $this->api->match_prefix( $this->prefix, $this->max, $this->num ) )
				: $this->api->match_prefix( $this->prefix, $this->max, $this->num );
		// Else, if regex is set, then retrieve the list of keys that match this regex.
		elseif( ! is_null($this->regex) )
			$this->keys = $this->backward
				? array_reverse( $this->api->match_regex( $this->regex, $this->max, $this->num ) )
				: $this->api->match_regex( $this->regex, $this->max, $this->num );
		// Else, the cursor will be use
		else
		{
			// If no cursor was set, the create a new one. It need to be uniq for each cURL session.
			if( is_null($this->cursor) )
			{
				if( ! $cursor = end(self::$cursors) ) $this->cursor = 1;
				else $this->cursor = $cursor+1;
				self::$cursors[$this->cursor] = $this->cursor;
			}
			// Now set the position of the cursor.
			try
			{
				assert('is_bool($this->backward)');
				if( $this->backward )
					$this->api->cur_jump_back( $this->cursor, $this->startkey );
				else
					$this->api->cur_jump( $this->cursor, $this->startkey );
			}
			catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) {}
		}
	}

	function current()
	{
		assert('is_array($this->record)');
		if( ! is_null($this->prefix) or ! is_null($this->regex) or ! is_null($this->cursor) )
			return current($this->record);
		else
			return null;
	}

	function key()
	{
		assert('is_array($this->record)');
		if( ! is_null($this->prefix) or ! is_null($this->regex) or ! is_null($this->cursor) )
			return key($this->record);
		else
			return null;
	}

	function next()
	{
		if( ! is_null($this->prefix) or ! is_null($this->regex) )
		{
			assert('is_array($this->keys)');
			next($this->keys);
		}
		elseif( ! is_null($this->cursor) )
		{
			try
			{
				if( $this->backward )
					$this->api->cur_step_back($this->cursor);
				else
					$this->api->cur_step($this->cursor);
			}
			catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) {}
		}
	}

	function valid()
	{
		if( ! is_null($this->prefix) or ! is_null($this->regex) )
		{
			assert('is_array($this->keys)');
			if( current($this->keys) )
				try
				{
					if( $this->just_key )
						return $this->record = array( key($this->keys) => current($this->keys) );
					else
						return $this->record = array( current($this->keys) => $this->get(current($this->keys)) );
				}
				catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { return false; }
			else
				return false;
		}
		elseif( ! is_null($this->cursor) )
		{
			try {
				if( $this->just_key )
					return $this->record = array( $this->api->cur_get_key($this->cursor,false) );
				else
					return $this->record = $this->api->cur_get($this->cursor,false);
			}
			catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { return false; }
		}
		else
			return false;
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ to(), from()

	function to( $key, &$value )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		$value = $this->get($key);
		return $this;
	}

	function from( $key, &$value = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		$this->set($key,$value);
		return $this;
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ scr()

	function scr( $name, $data = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($name)');
		assert('is_array($data) or is_null($data)');
		try { return $this->api->play_script($name,$data); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ offsetExists(), offsetGet(), offsetSet(), offsetUnset()

	function offsetExists( $offset )
	{
		assert('is_string($offset)');
		try { return is_string($this->api->get($offset)); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { return false; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	function offsetGet( $offset )
	{
		assert('is_string($offset)');
		try { return $this->api->get($offset); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e; else return null; }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; else return false; }
	}

	function offsetSet( $offset, $value )
	{
		assert('is_string($offset)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		try { $this->api->set($offset,$value); }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; }
	}

	function offsetUnset( $offset )
	{
		assert('is_string($offset)');
		try { $this->api->remove($offset); }
		catch( OutOfBoundsException $e ) { if( $this->outofbound ) throw $e;  }
		catch( RuntimeException $e ) { if( $this->runtime ) throw $e; }
	}

	// }}}
}

/**
 * The application programming interface (API) for KyotoTycoon.
 * Send RPC command with a keepalive connection.
 */
final class API
{
	// {{{ $keepalive, $timeout, $uri, $host, $post, $base, $encode, connect_to(), __construct()

	private $keepalive = 30;
	private $timeout = 3;

	// Contain all connection parameters in one URI.
	private $uri = null;
	function uri() { return $this->uri; }

	// The hostname or the IP of the server.
	private $host = null;
	function host() { return $this->host; }

	// The port of the server.
	private $port = null;
	function port() { return $this->port; }

	// The name or the ID of the database.
	private $base = null;
	function base() { return $this->base; }

	private $encode = null;

	function connect_to( $uri = 'http://localhost:1978' )
	{
		assert('is_array(parse_url($uri))');
		$this->host = parse_url( $uri, PHP_URL_HOST );
		$this->port = parse_url( $uri, PHP_URL_PORT );
		$this->base = trim( parse_url( $uri, PHP_URL_PATH ), '/' );
		$this->uri = "{$this->host}:{$this->port}";
		return $this;
	}

	function __construct( $uri = 'http://localhost:1978' )
	{
		assert('is_array(parse_url($uri))');
		$this->connect_to( $uri );
		$this->use_form_url();
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ use_tab_base64(), use_tab_quoted(), use_tab_url(), use_tab(), use_form_url()

	function use_tab_base64()
	{
		$this->encode = function( $data )
		{
			assert('is_array($data)');
			return implode("\r\n", array_map( function($k,$v) {
				return sprintf("%s\t%s", base64_encode($k), base64_encode($v));
			}, array_keys($data), $data ));
		};
		curl_setopt($this->curl(), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: text/tab-separated-values; colenc=B'));
	}

	function use_tab_quoted()
	{
		$this->encode = function( $data )
		{
			assert('is_array($data)');
			return implode("\r\n", array_map( function($k,$v) {
				return sprintf("%s\t%s", quoted_printable_encode($k), quoted_printable_encode($v));
			}, array_keys($data), $data ));
		};
		curl_setopt($this->curl(), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: text/tab-separated-values; colenc=Q'));
	}

	function use_tab_url()
	{
		$this->encode = function( $data )
		{
			assert('is_array($data)');
			return implode("\r\n", array_map( function($k,$v) {
				return sprintf("%s\t%s", urlencode($k), urlencode($v));
			}, array_keys($data), $data ));
		};
		curl_setopt($this->curl(), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: text/tab-separated-values; colenc=U'));
	}

	function use_tab()
	{
		$this->encode = function( $data )
		{
			assert('is_array($data)');
			return implode("\r\n", array_map( function($k,$v) {
				return sprintf("%s\t%s", str_replace($k,"\r\n\t",''), str_replace($v,"\r\n\t",''));
			}, array_keys($data), $data ));
		};
		curl_setopt($this->curl(), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: text/tab-separated-values'));
	}

	function use_form_url()
	{
		$this->encode = function( $data )
		{
			assert('is_array($data)');
			return http_build_query($data);
		};
		curl_setopt($this->curl(), CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, array('Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded'));
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ decode_tab, decode_tab_url, decode_tab_base64, decode_tab_quoted, decode_form_url

	static private function decode_tab( $data )
	{
		$result	= array();
		$length = strlen($data);
		$offset = 0;
		while( $offset < $length
			and $key = strpos($data,"\t",$offset)
			and ($val = strpos($data,"\n",$key) or $val = $length) )
		{
			$result[substr($data,$offset,$key-$offset)]
				= substr($data,$key+1,$val-$key-1);
			$offset = $val+1;
		}
		return $result;
	}

	static private function decode_tab_url( $data )
	{
		$result	= array();
		$length = strlen($data);
		$offset = 0;
		while( $offset < $length
			and $key = strpos($data,"\t",$offset)
			and ($val = strpos($data,"\n",$key) or $val = $length) )
		{
			$result[urldecode(substr($data,$offset,$key-$offset))]
				= urldecode(substr($data,$key+1,$val-$key-1));
			$offset = $val+1;
		}
		return $result;
	}

	static private function decode_tab_quoted( $data )
	{
		$result	= array();
		$length = strlen($data);
		$offset = 0;
		while( $offset < $length
			and $key = strpos($data,"\t",$offset)
			and ($val = strpos($data,"\n",$key) or $val = $length) )
		{
			$result[quoted_printable_decode(substr($data,$offset,$key-$offset))]
				= quoted_printable_decode(substr($data,$key+1,$val-$key-1));
			$offset = $val+1;
		}
		return $result;
	}

	static private function decode_tab_base64( $data )
	{
		$result	= array();
		$length = strlen($data);
		$offset = 0;
		while( $offset < $length
			and $key = strpos($data,"\t",$offset)
			and ($val = strpos($data,"\n",$key) or $val = $length) )
		{
			$result[base64_decode(substr($data,$offset,$key-$offset))]
				= base64_decode(substr($data,$key+1,$val-$key-1));
			$offset = $val+1;
		}
		return $result;
	}

	static private function decode_form_url( $data )
	{
		return extract($data,true);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ add()

	/**
	 * Add a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record already exists.
	 */
	function add( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		return $this->rpc( 'add', compact('DB','key','value','xt'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ append()

	/**
	 * Append the value to a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 */
	function append( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		return $this->rpc( 'append', compact('DB','key','value','xt'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cas()

	/**
	 * Perform compare-and-swap.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $oval = The old value.
	 *	 null $oval = If it is omittted, no record is meant.
	 *	 string $nval = The new value.
	 *	 null $nval = If it is omittted, the record is removed.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 */
	function cas( $key, $oval, $nval, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($oval) or is_null($oval)');
		assert('is_string($nval) or is_null($nval)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		if( ! $oval ) unset($oval);
		if( ! $nval ) unset($nval);
		return $this->rpc( 'cas', compact('DB','key','oval','nval','xt'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ clear

	function __get( $property )
	{
		assert('preg_match("/^[\w_]+$/",$property)');
		switch( $property )
		{
		case 'clear':
			if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
			return $this->rpc( 'clear', compact('DB'), null );
		}
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ get(), getful()

	/**
	 * Retrieve the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 (out) integer $xt = The absolute expiration time.
	 *	 (out) null $xt = There is no expiration time.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The value of the record.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record do not exists.
	 */
	function get( $key, &$xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		return $this->rpc( 'get', compact('DB','key'), function($result) use(&$xt) {
			if( isset($result['xt']) ) $xt = $result['xt'];
			if( isset($result['value']) )
//	fixme: delete me			return $result['value']?$result['value']:"";
				return $result['value'];
			else
				throw new ProtocolException( $this->url );
		} );
	}
	function getful( $key, &$xt = null, &$time = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		return $this->rest( 'GET', $key, null, function($headers) use(&$xt,&$time) {
			if( isset($headers['X-Kt-Xt']) ) $xt = $headers['X-Kt-Xt'];
			if( isset($headers['Date']) ) $time = $headers['Date'];
		}	);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_get()

	/**
	 * Get a pair of the key and the value of the current record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 *	 true $step = To move the cursor to the next record.
	 *	 null,false $step = If it is omitted, the cursor stays at the current record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 array(string=>string) = The key and the value of the record.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_get( $CUR, $step = true )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		assert('is_bool($step) or is_null($step)');
		if( ! $step ) unset($step); else $step = (string)$step;
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_get', compact('CUR','step'), function($result) {
			return array($result['key']=>$result['value']);
		} );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_get_key()

	/**
	 * Get the key of the current record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 *	 true $step = To move the cursor to the next record.
	 *	 null,false $step = If it is omitted, the cursor stays at the current record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The key of the record.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_get_key( $CUR, $step = true )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		assert('is_bool($step) or is_null($step)');
		if( ! $step ) unset($step); else $step = (string)$step;
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_get_key', compact('CUR','step'), function($result) {
			return $result['key'];
		} );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_get_value()

	/**
	 * Get a pair of the key and the value of the current record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 *	 true $step = To move the cursor to the next record.
	 *	 null,false $step = If it is omitted, the cursor stays at the current record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The value of the record.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_get_value( $CUR, $step = true )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		assert('is_bool($step) or is_null($step)');
		if( ! $step ) unset($step); else $step = (string)$step;
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_get_value', compact('CUR','step'), function($result) {
			return $result['value'];
		} );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_jump()

	/**
	 * Jump the cursor to the first record for forward scan.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 *	 string $key = The key of the destination record.
	 *	 null $key = If it is omitted, the first record is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_jump( $CUR, $key = null )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		assert('is_string($key) or is_null($key)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $key ) unset($key);
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_jump', compact('DB','CUR','key'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_jump_back()

	/**
	 * Jump the cursor to a record for forward scan.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 *	 string $key = The key of the destination record.
	 *	 null $key = If it is omitted, the first record is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_jump_back( $CUR, $key = null )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		assert('is_string($key) or is_null($key)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $key ) unset($key);
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_jump_back', compact('DB','CUR','key'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_step()

	/**
	 * Retrieve the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_step( $CUR )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_step', compact('CUR'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_step_back()

	/**
	 * Retrieve the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_step_back( $CUR )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_step_back', compact('CUR'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ cur_remove()

	/**
	 * Remove the current record.
	 * Params:
	 * 	 integer $CUR = The cursor identifier.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the cursor is invalidated.
	 */
	function cur_remove( $CUR )
	{
		assert('is_integer($CUR)');
		$CUR = (string)$CUR;
		return $this->rpc( 'cur_remove', compact('CUR'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ increment()

	/**
	 * Add a number to the numeric integer value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 numeric $num = The additional number.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The result value.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record was not compatible.
	 */
	function increment( $key, $num = 1, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_numeric($num)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		$num = (string)$num;
		return $this->rpc( 'increment', compact('DB','key','num','xt'), function($result) use(&$xt) {
			return $result['num'];
		} );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ increment_double()

	/**
	 * Add a number to the numeric integer value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 numeric $num = The additional number.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 string = The result value.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record was not compatible.
	 */
	function increment_double( $key, $num = 1, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_numeric($num)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		$num = (string)$num;
		return $this->rpc( 'increment_double', compact('DB','key','num','xt'), function($result) use(&$xt) {
			return $result['num'];
		} );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ match_prefix()

	/**
	 * Get keys matching a prefix string.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $prefix = The prefix string.
	 *	 integer $max = The maximum number to retrieve.
	 *	 null $max = If it is omitted or negative, no limit is specified.
	 *	 (out) $num = The number of retrieved keys.
	 * Return:
	 *	 array(string) = List of arbitrary keys.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record do not exists.
	 */
	function match_prefix( $prefix, $max = null, $num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($prefix)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) or is_null($max)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $max ) unset($max); else $max = (string)$max;
		return $this->rpc( 'match_prefix', compact('DB','prefix','max'), function($result) use(&$num) {
			$num = $result['num'];
			return array_reduce(array_keys($result),function($a,$b){return $b[0]=='_'?array_merge($a,array(substr($b,1))):$a;},array());
		}	);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ match_regex()

	/**
	 * Get keys matching a ragular expression string.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $regex = The regular expression string.
	 *	 integer $max = The maximum number to retrieve.
	 *	 null $max = If it is omitted or negative, no limit is specified.
	 *	 (out) string $num = The number of retrieved keys.
	 * Return:
	 *	 array(string) = List of arbitrary keys.
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record do not exists.
	 */
	function match_regex( $regex, $max = null, $num = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($regex)');
		assert('is_numeric($max) or is_null($max)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $max ) unset($max); else $max = (string)$max;
		return $this->rpc( 'match_regex', compact('DB','regex','max'), function($result) use(&$num) {
			$num = $result['num'];
			return array_reduce(array_keys($result),function($a,$b){return $b[0]=='_'?array_merge($a,array(substr($b,1))):$a;},array());
		}	);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ play_script()

	function play_script( $name, $data = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($name)');
		assert('is_array($data) or is_null($data)');
		return $this->rpc( 'play_script', array_merge(compact('name'),$data?array_reduce(array_keys($data),function($a,$b)use(&$data){return array_merge($a,array("_$b"=>$data[$b]));},array()):array()), function($result) {
			return array_reduce(array_keys($result),function($a,$b)use(&$result){return $b[0]=='_'?array_merge($a,array(substr($b,1)=>$result[$b])):$a;},array());
		}	);
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ remove()

	/**
	 * Replace the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record do not exists.
	 */
	function remove( $key )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		return $this->rpc( 'remove', compact('DB','key'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ replace()

	/**
	 * Replace the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 * Throws:
	 *	 InconsistencyException = If the record do not exists.
	 */
	function replace( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		return $this->rpc( 'replace', compact('DB','key','value','xt'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ set()

	/**
	 * Set the value of a record.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $key = The key of the record.
	 *	 string $value = The value of the record.
	 *	 numeric $xt = The expiration time from now in seconds. If it is negative, the absolute value is treated as the epoch time.
	 *	 null $xt = No expiration time is specified.
	 * Return:
	 *	 true = If success
	 */
	function set( $key, $value, $xt = null )
	{
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_string($value)');
		assert('is_null($xt) or is_numeric($xt)');
		if( $this->base ) $DB = $this->base;
		if( ! $xt ) unset($xt); else $xt = (string)$xt;
		return $this->rpc( 'set', compact('DB','key','value','xt'), null );
	}

	// }}}
	// {{{ curl(), rpc(), rest()

	/**
	 * Return a curl resource identifier
	 * KyotoTycoon use a keep-alive connection by default.
	 */
	private function curl()
	{
		static $curl = null;
		if( is_null($curl) )
		{
			$curl = curl_init();
			curl_setopt_array($curl, array(
				//CURLOPT_VERBOSE => true,
				CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER => true,
				CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT => $this->timeout,
				CURLOPT_TIMEOUT => $this->keepalive ));
		}
		return $curl;
	}

	/**
	 * Send an RPC command to a KyotoTycoon server.
	 * Params:
	 *	 string $cmd = The command.
	 *	 array,null $data = Lexical indexed array containing the input parameters.
	 *	 $return callable($result) = $when_ok = A callback function called if success.
	 *	 array $result = Lexical indexed array containing the output parameters.
	 *	 string,false $return = The returned value of the command or true if success.
	 * Return:
	 *
	 */
	private function rpc( $cmd, $data = null, $when_ok = null )
	{
		static $encode = null; if( is_null($encode) ) $encode = &$this->encode;
		assert('in_array($cmd,array("add","append","cas","clear","cur_delete","cur_get","cur_get_key","cur_get_value","cur_jump","cur_jump_back","cur_set_value","cur_step","cur_step_back","cur_remove","echo","get","get_bulk","increment","increment_double","match_prefix","match_regex","play_script","remove","remove_bulk","replace","report","set","set_bulk","status","synchronize","tune_replication","vacuum"))');
		assert('is_null($data) or is_array($data)');
		assert('!$data or array_walk($data,function($v,$k){assert(\'is_string($k)\');assert(\'is_string($v)\');})');
		assert('is_null($data) or count($data)==count(array_filter(array_keys($data),"is_string"))');
		assert('is_null($data) or count($data)==count(array_filter($data,"is_string"))');
		assert('is_callable($when_ok) or is_null($when_ok)');

		if( is_array($data) )
			$post = $encode($data);
		else
			$post = '';
		unset($data);
		assert('is_string($post)');

		curl_setopt_array($this->curl(), array(
			CURLOPT_URL => "{$this->uri}/rpc/{$cmd}",
			CURLOPT_HEADER => false,
			CURLOPT_POST => true,
			CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS => $post ));
		if( is_string($data = curl_exec($this->curl())) and $data ) switch( curl_getinfo($this->curl(),CURLINFO_CONTENT_TYPE) )
		{
		case 'text/tab-separated-values':
			$data = self::decode_tab($data); break;
		case 'text/tab-separated-values; colenc=B':
			$data = self::decode_tab_base64($data); break;
		case 'text/tab-separated-values; colenc=U':
			$data = self::decode_tab_url($data); break;
		default: var_dump(curl_getinfo($this->curl(),CURLINFO_CONTENT_TYPE));throw new ProtocolException($this->uri);
		}
		elseif( $data === false )
			throw new ConnectionException($this->uri, curl_error($this->curl()));
		else
			$data = array();

		switch( curl_getinfo($this->curl(),CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE) )
		{
		case 200:
			if( $when_ok )
			{
				$data = call_user_func( $when_ok, $data );
		 		assert('is_string($data) or is_array($data) or $data===true');
				return $data;
			}
			else
				return true;
		case 450: throw new InconsistencyException($this->uri,$data['ERROR']);
		case 501: throw new ImplementationException($this->uri);
		case 400: throw new ProtocolException($this->uri);
		}
	}

	// }}}

	public function rest( $cmd, $key, $prepare = null, $when_ok = null )
	{
		assert('in_array($cmd,array("GET","HEAD","PUT","DELETE"))');
		assert('is_string($key)');
		assert('is_null($prepare) or $prepare instanceof Closure');
		assert('is_null($when_ok) or $when_ok instanceof Closure');

		curl_setopt_array($this->curl(), array(
			CURLOPT_HEADER => true,
			CURLOPT_URL => "{$this->uri}/".urlencode($key),
			$cmd=='HEAD' ? CURLOPT_NOBODY : CURLOPT_POST => $cmd=='HEAD' ? true : false ));

		if( $prepare ) $prepare($this->curl());

		$headers = curl_exec($this->curl());
		if( false !==($tmp = strpos($headers,"\r\n\r\n")) )
		{
			$data = substr($headers,$tmp+4);
			$headers = substr($headers,0,$tmp);
		}
		else
			$data = '';

		switch( curl_getinfo($this->curl(),CURLINFO_HTTP_CODE) )
		{
		case 200:
			if( $when_ok ) call_user_func( $when_ok, array_reduce(explode("\r\n",$headers),function($a,$v) {
				if( false !== ($tmp = strpos($v,': ')) )
					return array_merge($a,array(substr($v,0,$tmp)=>substr($v,$tmp+2)));
				else
					return $a;
			},array()) );
			return $data;
		case 404: throw new InconsistencyException($this->uri,'No record was found');
		case 501: throw new ImplementationException($this->uri);
		case 400: throw new ProtocolException($this->uri);
		}
	}
}
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