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   1<!DOCTYPE HTML>
   2<html>
   3<head>
   4  <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" />
   5  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="chrome=1">
   6  <title>Backbone.js</title>
   7  <style>
   8    body {
   9      font-size: 14px;
  10      line-height: 22px;
  11      font-family: Helvetica Neue, Helvetica, Arial;
  12      background: #f4f4f4 url(docs/images/background.png);
  13    }
  14    .interface {
  15      font-family: "Lucida Grande", "Lucida Sans Unicode", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif !important;
  16    }
  17    div#sidebar {
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  19      position: fixed;
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  21      width: 200px;
  22      overflow-y: auto;
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  28      a.toc_title, a.toc_title:visited {
  29        display: block;
  30        color: black;
  31        font-weight: bold;
  32        margin-top: 15px;
  33      }
  34        a.toc_title:hover {
  35          text-decoration: underline;
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  37        #sidebar .version {
  38          font-size: 10px;
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  41      ul.toc_section {
  42        font-size: 11px;
  43        line-height: 14px;
  44        margin: 5px 0 0 0;
  45        padding-left: 0px;
  46        list-style-type: none;
  47        font-family: Lucida Grande;
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  49        .toc_section li {
  50          cursor: pointer;
  51          margin: 0 0 3px 0;
  52        }
  53          .toc_section li a {
  54            text-decoration: none;
  55            color: black;
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  57            .toc_section li a:hover {
  58              text-decoration: underline;
  59            }
  60    div.container {
  61      position: relative;
  62      width: 550px;
  63      margin: 40px 0 50px 260px;
  64    }
  65    div.run {
  66      position: absolute;
  67      right: 15px;
  68      width: 26px; height: 18px;
  69      background: url('docs/images/arrows.png') no-repeat -26px 0;
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  71      div.run:active {
  72        background-position: -51px 0;
  73      }
  74    p, div.container ul {
  75      margin: 20px 0;
  76      width: 550px;
  77    }
  78      p.warning {
  79        font-size: 12px;
  80        line-height: 18px;
  81        font-style: italic;
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  83      div.container ul {
  84        list-style: circle;
  85        font-size: 12px;
  86        padding-left: 15px;
  87      }
  88    a, a:visited {
  89      color: #444;
  90    }
  91    a:active, a:hover {
  92      color: #000;
  93    }
  94    a img {
  95      border: 0;
  96    }
  97    h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
  98      padding-top: 20px;
  99    }
 100      h2 {
 101        font-size: 20px;
 102      }
 103    b.header {
 104      font-size: 16px;
 105      line-height: 30px;
 106    }
 107    span.alias {
 108      font-size: 14px;
 109      font-style: italic;
 110      margin-left: 20px;
 111    }
 112    table {
 113      margin: 15px 0 0; padding: 0;
 114    }
 115      tr, td {
 116        margin: 0; padding: 0;
 117      }
 118        td {
 119          padding: 0px 15px 5px 0;
 120        }
 121    code, pre, tt {
 122      font-family: Monaco, Consolas, "Lucida Console", monospace;
 123      font-size: 12px;
 124      line-height: 18px;
 125      font-style: normal;
 126    }
 127      tt {
 128        padding: 0px 3px;
 129        background: #fff;
 130        border: 1px solid #ddd;
 131        zoom: 1;
 132      }
 133      code {
 134        margin-left: 20px;
 135      }
 136      pre {
 137        font-size: 12px;
 138        padding: 2px 0 2px 15px;
 139        border: 4px solid #bbb; border-top: 0; border-bottom: 0;
 140        margin: 0px 0 30px;
 141      }
 142      img.example_image {
 143        margin: 0px auto 30px;
 144      }
 145  </style>
 146</head>
 147<body>
 148
 149  <div id="sidebar" class="interface">
 150
 151    <a class="toc_title" href="#">
 152      Backbone.js <span class="version">(0.3.3)</span>
 153    </a>
 154
 155    <a class="toc_title" href="#Introduction">
 156      Introduction
 157    </a>
 158
 159    <a class="toc_title" href="#Events">
 160      Events
 161    </a>
 162    <ul class="toc_section">
 163      <li><a href="#Events-bind">bind</a></li>
 164      <li><a href="#Events-unbind">unbind</a></li>
 165      <li><a href="#Events-trigger">trigger</a></li>
 166    </ul>
 167
 168    <a class="toc_title" href="#Model">
 169      Model
 170    </a>
 171    <ul class="toc_section">
 172      <li><a href="#Model-extend">extend</a></li>
 173      <li><a href="#Model-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 174      <li><a href="#Model-get">get</a></li>
 175      <li><a href="#Model-set">set</a></li>
 176      <li><a href="#Model-escape">escape</a></li>
 177      <li><a href="#Model-has">has</a></li>
 178      <li><a href="#Model-unset">unset</a></li>
 179      <li><a href="#Model-clear">clear</a></li>
 180      <li><a href="#Model-id">id</a></li>
 181      <li><a href="#Model-cid">cid</a></li>
 182      <li><a href="#Model-attributes">attributes</a></li>
 183      <li><a href="#Model-defaults">defaults</a></li>
 184      <li>- <a href="#Model-toJSON">toJSON</a></li>
 185      <li><a href="#Model-fetch">fetch</a></li>
 186      <li><a href="#Model-save">save</a></li>
 187      <li><a href="#Model-destroy">destroy</a></li>
 188      <li><a href="#Model-validate">validate</a></li>
 189      <li><a href="#Model-url">url</a></li>
 190      <li><a href="#Model-urlRoot">urlRoot</a></li>
 191      <li><a href="#Model-parse">parse</a></li>
 192      <li><a href="#Model-clone">clone</a></li>
 193      <li><a href="#Model-isNew">isNew</a></li>
 194      <li><a href="#Model-change">change</a></li>
 195      <li><a href="#Model-hasChanged">hasChanged</a></li>
 196      <li><a href="#Model-changedAttributes">changedAttributes</a></li>
 197      <li><a href="#Model-previous">previous</a></li>
 198      <li><a href="#Model-previousAttributes">previousAttributes</a></li>
 199    </ul>
 200
 201    <a class="toc_title" href="#Collection">
 202      Collection
 203    </a>
 204    <ul class="toc_section">
 205      <li><a href="#Collection-extend">extend</a></li>
 206      <li><a href="#Collection-model">model</a></li>
 207      <li><a href="#Collection-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 208      <li><a href="#Collection-models">models</a></li>
 209      <li><a href="#Collection-toJSON">toJSON</a></li>
 210      <li><a href="#Collection-Underscore-Methods"><b>Underscore Methods (25)</b></a></li>
 211      <li><a href="#Collection-add">add</a></li>
 212      <li><a href="#Collection-remove">remove</a></li>
 213      <li><a href="#Collection-get">get</a></li>
 214      <li><a href="#Collection-getByCid">getByCid</a></li>
 215      <li><a href="#Collection-at">at</a></li>
 216      <li><a href="#Collection-length">length</a></li>
 217      <li><a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a></li>
 218      <li><a href="#Collection-sort">sort</a></li>
 219      <li><a href="#Collection-pluck">pluck</a></li>
 220      <li><a href="#Collection-url">url</a></li>
 221      <li><a href="#Collection-parse">parse</a></li>
 222      <li><a href="#Collection-fetch">fetch</a></li>
 223      <li><a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a></li>
 224      <li><a href="#Collection-create">create</a></li>
 225    </ul>
 226
 227    <a class="toc_title" href="#Controller">
 228      Controller
 229    </a>
 230    <ul class="toc_section">
 231      <li><a href="#Controller-extend">extend</a></li>
 232      <li><a href="#Controller-routes">routes</a></li>
 233      <li><a href="#Controller-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 234      <li><a href="#Controller-route">route</a></li>
 235      <li><a href="#Controller-saveLocation">saveLocation</a></li>
 236    </ul>
 237
 238    <a class="toc_title" href="#History">
 239      History
 240    </a>
 241    <ul class="toc_section">
 242      <li><a href="#History-start">start</a></li>
 243    </ul>
 244
 245    <a class="toc_title" href="#Sync">
 246      Sync
 247    </a>
 248    <ul class="toc_section">
 249      <li><a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a></li>
 250      <li><a href="#Sync-emulateHTTP">Backbone.emulateHTTP</a></li>
 251      <li><a href="#Sync-emulateJSON">Backbone.emulateJSON</a></li>
 252    </ul>
 253
 254    <a class="toc_title" href="#View">
 255      View
 256    </a>
 257    <ul class="toc_section">
 258      <li><a href="#View-extend">extend</a></li>
 259      <li><a href="#View-constructor">constructor / initialize</a></li>
 260      <li><a href="#View-el">el</a></li>
 261      <li><a href="#View-dollar">$ (jQuery or Zepto)</a></li>
 262      <li><a href="#View-render">render</a></li>
 263      <li><a href="#View-remove">remove</a></li>
 264      <li><a href="#View-make">make</a></li>
 265      <li><a href="#View-delegateEvents">delegateEvents</a></li>
 266    </ul>
 267
 268    <a class="toc_title" href="#Utility">
 269      Utility
 270    </a>
 271    <ul class="toc_section">
 272      <li><a href="#Utility-noConflict">noConflict</a></li>
 273    </ul>
 274
 275    <a class="toc_title" href="#examples">
 276      Examples
 277    </a>
 278    <ul class="toc_section">
 279      <li><a href="#examples-todos">Todos</a></li>
 280      <li><a href="#examples-documentcloud">DocumentCloud</a></li>
 281      <li><a href="#examples-basecamp">Basecamp Mobile</a></li>
 282      <li><a href="#examples-flow">Flow</a></li>
 283      <li><a href="#examples-cloudapp">CloudApp</a></li>
 284      <li><a href="#examples-soundcloud">Mobile SoundCloud</a></li>
 285      <li><a href="#examples-tilemill">TileMill</a></li>
 286      <li>- <a href="#examples-instagreat">Insta-great!</a></li>
 287      <li>- <a href="#examples-bittorrent">BitTorrent</a></li>
 288      <li>- <a href="#examples-quietwrite">QuietWrite</a></li>
 289      <li>- <a href="#examples-tzigla">Tzigla</a></li>
 290      <li>- <a href="#examples-substance">Substance</a></li>
 291    </ul>
 292
 293    <a class="toc_title" href="#faq">
 294      F.A.Q.
 295    </a>
 296    <ul class="toc_section">
 297      <li><a href="#FAQ-events">Catalog of Events</a></li>
 298      <li><a href="#FAQ-nested">Nested Models &amp; Collections</a></li>
 299      <li><a href="#FAQ-bootstrap">Loading Bootstrapped Models</a></li>
 300      <li><a href="#FAQ-mvc">Traditional MVC</a></li>
 301      <li><a href="#FAQ-this">Binding "this"</a></li>
 302      <li>- <a href="#FAQ-rias">Other RIA Frameworks</a></li>
 303    </ul>
 304
 305    <a class="toc_title" href="#changelog">
 306      Change Log
 307    </a>
 308
 309  </div>
 310
 311  <div class="container">
 312
 313    <p>
 314      <img style="width: 385px; height: 126px;" src="docs/images/backbone.png" alt="Backbone.js" />
 315    </p>
 316
 317    <p>
 318      <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/">Backbone</a>
 319      supplies structure to JavaScript-heavy applications by providing <b>models</b> with
 320      key-value binding and custom events, <b>collections</b> with a rich API of enumerable functions,
 321      <b>views</b> with declarative event handling, and connects it all to your
 322      existing application over a RESTful JSON interface.
 323    </p>
 324
 325    <p>
 326      The project is <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/">hosted on GitHub</a>,
 327      and the <a href="docs/backbone.html">annotated source code</a> is available,
 328      as well as an online <a href="test/test.html">test suite</a>, and
 329      <a href="examples/todos/index.html">example application</a>.
 330    </p>
 331
 332    <p>
 333      You can report bugs and discuss features on the
 334      <a href="http://github.com/documentcloud/backbone/issues">issues page</a>,
 335      on Freenode in the <tt>#documentcloud</tt> channel,
 336      or send tweets to <a href="http://twitter.com/documentcloud">@documentcloud</a>.
 337    </p>
 338
 339    <p>
 340      <i>
 341        Backbone is an open-source component of
 342        <a href="http://documentcloud.org/">DocumentCloud</a>.
 343      </i>
 344    </p>
 345
 346    <h2 id="downloads">
 347      Downloads &amp; Dependencies
 348      <span style="padding-left: 7px; font-size:11px; font-weight: normal;" class="interface">(Right-click, and use "Save As")</span>
 349    </h2>
 350
 351    <table>
 352      <tr>
 353        <td><a href="backbone.js">Development Version (0.3.3)</a></td>
 354        <td><i>35kb, Uncompressed with Comments</i></td>
 355      </tr>
 356      <tr>
 357        <td><a href="backbone-min.js">Production Version (0.3.3)</a></td>
 358        <td><i>3.9kb, Packed and Gzipped</i></td>
 359      </tr>
 360    </table>
 361
 362    <p>
 363      Backbone's only hard dependency is
 364      <a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/">Underscore.js</a>.
 365      For RESTful persistence, "hashchange" History, and DOM manipulation with
 366      <a href="#View">Backbone.View</a>,
 367      it's highly recommended to include
 368      <a href="https://github.com/douglascrockford/JSON-js">json2.js</a>, and either
 369      <a href="http://jquery.com">jQuery</a> or <a href="http://zeptojs.com/">Zepto</a>.
 370    </p>
 371
 372    <h2 id="Introduction">Introduction</h2>
 373
 374    <p>
 375      When working on a web application that involves a lot of JavaScript, one
 376      of the first things you learn is to stop tying your data to the DOM. It's all
 377      too easy to create JavaScript applications that end up as tangled piles of
 378      jQuery selectors and callbacks, all trying frantically to keep data in
 379      sync between the HTML UI, your JavaScript logic, and the database on your
 380      server. For rich client-side applications, a more structured approach
 381      is helpful.
 382    </p>
 383
 384    <p>
 385      With Backbone, you represent your data as
 386      <a href="#Model">Models</a>, which can be created, validated, destroyed,
 387      and saved to the server. Whenever a UI action causes an attribute of
 388      a model to change, the model triggers a <i>"change"</i> event; all
 389      the <a href="#View">Views</a> that display the model's data are notified of the
 390      event, causing them to re-render. You don't have to write the glue
 391      code that looks into the DOM to find an element with a specific <i>id</i>,
 392      and update the HTML manually
 393      &mdash; when the model changes, the views simply update themselves.
 394    </p>
 395
 396    <p>
 397      Many of the examples that follow are runnable. Click the <i>play</i> button
 398      to execute them.
 399    </p>
 400
 401    <h2 id="Events">Backbone.Events</h2>
 402
 403    <p>
 404      <b>Events</b> is a module that can be mixed in to any object, giving the
 405      object the ability to bind and trigger custom named events. Events do not
 406      have to be declared before they are bound, and may take passed arguments.
 407      For example:
 408    </p>
 409
 410<pre class="runnable">
 411var object = {};
 412
 413_.extend(object, Backbone.Events);
 414
 415object.bind("alert", function(msg) {
 416  alert("Triggered " + msg);
 417});
 418
 419object.trigger("alert", "an event");
 420</pre>
 421
 422    <p id="Events-bind">
 423      <b class="header">bind</b><code>object.bind(event, callback)</code>
 424      <br />
 425      Bind a <b>callback</b> function to an object. The callback will be invoked
 426      whenever the <b>event</b> (specified by an arbitrary string identifier) is fired.
 427      If you have a large number of different events on a page, the convention is to use colons to
 428      namespace them: <tt>"poll:start"</tt>, or <tt>"change:selection"</tt>
 429    </p>
 430
 431    <p>
 432      Callbacks bound to the special
 433      <tt>"all"</tt> event will be triggered when any event occurs, and are passed
 434      the name of the event as the first argument. For example, to proxy all events
 435      from one object to another:
 436    </p>
 437
 438<pre>
 439proxy.bind("all", function(eventName) {
 440  object.trigger(eventName);
 441});
 442</pre>
 443
 444    <p id="Events-unbind">
 445      <b class="header">unbind</b><code>object.unbind([event], [callback])</code>
 446      <br />
 447      Remove a previously-bound <b>callback</b> function from an object. If no
 448      callback is specified, all callbacks for the <b>event</b> will be
 449      removed. If no event is specified, <i>all</i> event callbacks on the object
 450      will be removed.
 451    </p>
 452
 453<pre>
 454object.unbind("change", onChange);  // Removes just the onChange callback.
 455
 456object.unbind("change");            // Removes all "change" callbacks.
 457
 458object.unbind();                    // Removes all callbacks on object.
 459</pre>
 460
 461    <p id="Events-trigger">
 462      <b class="header">trigger</b><code>object.trigger(event, [*args])</code>
 463      <br />
 464      Trigger callbacks for the given <b>event</b>. Subsequent arguments to
 465      <b>trigger</b> will be passed along to the event callbacks.
 466    </p>
 467
 468    <h2 id="Model">Backbone.Model</h2>
 469
 470    <p>
 471      <b>Models</b> are the heart of any JavaScript application, containing
 472      the interactive data as well as a large part of the logic surrounding it:
 473      conversions, validations, computed properties, and access control. You
 474      extend <b>Backbone.Model</b> with your domain-specific methods, and
 475      <b>Model</b> provides a basic set of functionality for managing changes.
 476    </p>
 477
 478    <p>
 479      The following is a contrived example, but it demonstrates defining a model
 480      with a custom method, setting an attribute, and firing an event keyed
 481      to changes in that specific attribute.
 482      After running this code once, <tt>sidebar</tt> will be
 483      available in your browser's console, so you can play around with it.
 484    </p>
 485
 486<pre class="runnable">
 487var Sidebar = Backbone.Model.extend({
 488  promptColor: function() {
 489    var cssColor = prompt("Please enter a CSS color:");
 490    this.set({color: cssColor});
 491  }
 492});
 493
 494window.sidebar = new Sidebar;
 495
 496sidebar.bind('change:color', function(model, color) {
 497  $('#sidebar').css({background: color});
 498});
 499
 500sidebar.set({color: 'white'});
 501
 502sidebar.promptColor();
 503</pre>
 504
 505    <p id="Model-extend">
 506      <b class="header">extend</b><code>Backbone.Model.extend(properties, [classProperties])</code>
 507      <br />
 508      To create a <b>Model</b> class of your own, you extend <b>Backbone.Model</b>
 509      and provide instance <b>properties</b>, as well as optional
 510      <b>classProperties</b> to be attached directly to the constructor function.
 511    </p>
 512
 513    <p>
 514      <b>extend</b> correctly sets up the prototype chain, so subclasses created
 515      with <b>extend</b> can be further extended and subclassed as far as you like.
 516    </p>
 517
 518<pre>
 519var Note = Backbone.Model.extend({
 520
 521  initialize: function() { ... },
 522
 523  author: function() { ... },
 524
 525  coordinates: function() { ... },
 526
 527  allowedToEdit: function(account) {
 528    return true;
 529  }
 530
 531});
 532
 533var PrivateNote = Note.extend({
 534
 535  allowedToEdit: function(account) {
 536    return account.owns(this);
 537  }
 538
 539});
 540</pre>
 541
 542    <p class="warning">
 543        Brief aside on <tt>super</tt>: JavaScript does not provide
 544        a simple way to call super &mdash; the function of the same name defined
 545        higher on the prototype chain. If you override a core function like
 546        <tt>set</tt>, or <tt>save</tt>, and you want to invoke the
 547        parent object's implementation, you'll have to explicitly call it, along these lines:
 548    </p>
 549
 550<pre>
 551var Note = Backbone.Model.extend({
 552  set: function(attributes, options) {
 553    Backbone.Model.prototype.set.call(this, attributes, options);
 554    ...
 555  }
 556});
 557</pre>
 558
 559    <p id="Model-constructor">
 560      <b class="header">constructor / initialize</b><code>new Model([attributes])</code>
 561      <br />
 562      When creating an instance of a model, you can pass in the initial values
 563      of the <b>attributes</b>, which will be <a href="#Model-set">set</a> on the
 564      model. If you define an <b>initialize</b> function, it will be invoked when
 565      the model is created.
 566    </p>
 567
 568<pre>
 569new Book({
 570  title: "One Thousand and One Nights",
 571  author: "Scheherazade"
 572});
 573</pre>
 574
 575    <p id="Model-get">
 576      <b class="header">get</b><code>model.get(attribute)</code>
 577      <br />
 578      Get the current value of an attribute from the model. For example:
 579      <tt>note.get("title")</tt>
 580    </p>
 581
 582    <p id="Model-escape">
 583      <b class="header">escape</b><code>model.escape(attribute)</code>
 584      <br />
 585      Similar to <a href="#Model-get">get</a>, but returns the HTML-escaped version
 586      of a model's attribute. If you're interpolating data from the model into
 587      HTML, using <b>escape</b> to retrieve attributes will prevent
 588      <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting">XSS</a> attacks.
 589    </p>
 590
 591<pre class="runnable">
 592var hacker = new Backbone.Model({
 593  name: "&lt;script&gt;alert('xss')&lt;/script&gt;"
 594});
 595
 596alert(hacker.escape('name'));
 597</pre>
 598
 599    <p id="Model-set">
 600      <b class="header">set</b><code>model.set(attributes, [options])</code>
 601      <br />
 602      Set a hash of attributes (one or many) on the model. If any of the attributes
 603      change the models state, a <tt>"change"</tt> event will be triggered, unless
 604      <tt>{silent: true}</tt> is passed as an option. Change events for specific
 605      attributes are also triggered, and you can bind to those as well, for example:
 606      <tt>change:title</tt>, and <tt>change:content</tt>.
 607    </p>
 608
 609<pre>
 610note.set({title: "October 12", content: "Lorem Ipsum Dolor Sit Amet..."});
 611</pre>
 612
 613    <p>
 614      If the model has a <a href="#Model-validate">validate</a> method,
 615      it will be validated before the attributes are set, no changes will
 616      occur if the validation fails, and <b>set</b> will return <tt>false</tt>.
 617      You may also pass an <tt>error</tt>
 618      callback in the options, which will be invoked instead of triggering an
 619      <tt>"error"</tt> event, should validation fail.
 620    </p>
 621
 622    <p id="Model-escape">
 623      <b class="header">escape</b><code>model.escape(attribute)</code>
 624      <br />
 625      Similar to <a href="#Model-get">get</a>, but returns the HTML-escaped version
 626      of a model's attribute. If you're interpolating data from the model into
 627      HTML, using <b>escape</b> to retrieve attributes will prevent
 628      <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting">XSS</a> attacks.
 629    </p>
 630
 631<pre class="runnable">
 632var hacker = new Backbone.Model({
 633  name: "&lt;script&gt;alert('xss')&lt;/script&gt;"
 634});
 635
 636alert(hacker.escape('name'));
 637</pre>
 638
 639    <p id="Model-has">
 640      <b class="header">has</b><code>model.has(attribute)</code>
 641      <br />
 642      Returns <tt>true</tt> if the attribute is set to a non-null or non-undefined
 643      value.
 644    </p>
 645
 646<pre>
 647if (note.has("title")) {
 648  ...
 649}
 650</pre>
 651
 652    <p id="Model-unset">
 653      <b class="header">unset</b><code>model.unset(attribute, [options])</code>
 654      <br />
 655      Remove an attribute by deleting it from the internal attributes hash.
 656      Fires a <tt>"change"</tt> event unless <tt>silent</tt> is passed as an option.
 657    </p>
 658
 659    <p id="Model-clear">
 660      <b class="header">clear</b><code>model.clear([options])</code>
 661      <br />
 662      Removes all attributes from the model. Fires a <tt>"change"</tt> event unless
 663      <tt>silent</tt> is passed as an option.
 664    </p>
 665
 666    <p id="Model-id">
 667      <b class="header">id</b><code>model.id</code>
 668      <br />
 669      A special property of models, the <b>id</b> is an arbitrary string
 670      (integer id or UUID). If you set the <b>id</b> in the
 671      attributes hash, it will be copied onto the model as a direct property.
 672      Models can be retrieved by id from collections, and the id is used to generate
 673      model URLs by default.
 674    </p>
 675
 676    <p id="Model-cid">
 677      <b class="header">cid</b><code>model.cid</code>
 678      <br />
 679      A special property of models, the <b>cid</b> or client id is a unique identifier
 680      automatically assigned to all models when they're first created. Client ids
 681      are handy when the model has not yet been saved to the server, and does not
 682      yet have its eventual true <b>id</b>, but already needs to be visible in the UI.
 683      Client ids take the form: <tt>c1, c2, c3 ...</tt>
 684    </p>
 685
 686    <p id="Model-attributes">
 687      <b class="header">attributes</b><code>model.attributes</code>
 688      <br />
 689      The <b>attributes</b> property is the internal hash containing the model's
 690      state. Please use <a href="#Model-set">set</a> to update the attributes instead of modifying
 691      them directly. If you'd like to retrieve and munge a copy of the model's
 692      attributes, use <a href="#Model-toJSON">toJSON</a> instead.
 693    </p>
 694
 695    <p id="Model-defaults">
 696      <b class="header">defaults</b><code>model.defaults or model.defaults()</code>
 697      <br />
 698      The <b>defaults</b> hash (or function) can be used to specify the default
 699      attributes for your model. When creating an instance of the model,
 700      any unspecified attributes will be set to their default value.
 701    </p>
 702
 703<pre class="runnable">
 704var Meal = Backbone.Model.extend({
 705  defaults: {
 706    "appetizer":  "caesar salad",
 707    "entree":     "ravioli",
 708    "dessert":    "cheesecake"
 709  }
 710});
 711
 712alert("Dessert will be " + (new Meal).get('dessert'));
 713</pre>
 714
 715    <p id="Model-toJSON">
 716      <b class="header">toJSON</b><code>model.toJSON()</code>
 717      <br />
 718      Return a copy of the model's <a href="#Model-attributes">attributes</a> for JSON stringification.
 719      This can be used for persistence, serialization, or for augmentation before
 720      being handed off to a view. The name of this method is a bit confusing, as
 721      it doesn't actually return a JSON string &mdash; but I'm afraid that it's
 722      the way that the <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JSON#toJSON()_method">JavaScript API for <b>JSON.stringify</b> works</a>.
 723    </p>
 724
 725<pre class="runnable">
 726var artist = new Backbone.Model({
 727  firstName: "Wassily",
 728  lastName: "Kandinsky"
 729});
 730
 731artist.set({birthday: "December 16, 1866"});
 732
 733alert(JSON.stringify(artist));
 734</pre>
 735
 736    <p id="Model-fetch">
 737      <b class="header">fetch</b><code>model.fetch([options])</code>
 738      <br />
 739      Refreshes the model's state from the server. Useful if the model has never
 740      been populated with data, or if you'd like to ensure that you have the
 741      latest server state. A <tt>"change"</tt> event will be triggered if the
 742      server's state differs from the current attributes. Accepts
 743      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the options hash, which
 744      are passed <tt>(model, response)</tt> as arguments.
 745    </p>
 746
 747<pre>
 748// Poll every 10 seconds to keep the channel model up-to-date.
 749setInterval(function() {
 750  channel.fetch();
 751}, 10000);
 752</pre>
 753
 754    <p id="Model-save">
 755      <b class="header">save</b><code>model.save([attributes], [options])</code>
 756      <br />
 757      Save a model to your database (or alternative persistence layer),
 758      by delegating to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>. The <b>attributes</b>
 759      hash (as in <a href="#Model-set">set</a>) should contain the attributes
 760      you'd like to change -- keys that aren't mentioned won't be altered.
 761      If the model has a <a href="#Model-validate">validate</a>
 762      method, and validation fails, the model will not be saved. If the model
 763      <a href="#Model-isNew">isNew</a>, the save will be a <tt>"create"</tt>
 764      (HTTP <tt>POST</tt>), if the model already
 765      exists on the server, the save will be an <tt>"update"</tt> (HTTP <tt>PUT</tt>).
 766    </p>
 767
 768    <p>
 769      In the following example, notice how because the model has never been
 770      saved previously, our overridden version of <tt>Backbone.sync</tt> receives a <tt>"create"</tt> request.
 771    </p>
 772
 773<pre class="runnable">
 774Backbone.sync = function(method, model) {
 775  alert(method + ": " + JSON.stringify(model));
 776};
 777
 778var book = new Backbone.Model({
 779  title: "The Rough Riders",
 780  author: "Theodore Roosevelt"
 781});
 782
 783book.save();
 784</pre>
 785
 786    <p>
 787      <b>save</b> accepts <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the
 788      options hash, which are passed <tt>(model, response)</tt> as arguments.
 789      The <tt>error</tt> callback will also be invoked if the model has a
 790      <tt>validate</tt> method, and validation fails. If a server-side
 791      validation fails, return a non-<tt>200</tt> HTTP response code, along with
 792      an error response in text or JSON.
 793    </p>
 794
 795<pre>
 796book.save({author: "F.D.R."}, {error: function(){ ... }});
 797</pre>
 798
 799    <p id="Model-destroy">
 800      <b class="header">destroy</b><code>model.destroy([options])</code>
 801      <br />
 802      Destroys the model on the server by delegating an HTTP <tt>DELETE</tt>
 803      request to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>. Accepts
 804      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt> callbacks in the options hash.
 805      Triggers a <tt>"destroy"</tt> event on the model, which will bubble up
 806      through any collections that contain it.
 807    </p>
 808
 809<pre>
 810book.destroy({success: function(model, response) {
 811  ...
 812}});
 813</pre>
 814
 815    <p id="Model-validate">
 816      <b class="header">validate</b><code>model.validate(attributes)</code>
 817      <br />
 818      This method is left undefined, and you're encouraged to override it with
 819      your custom validation logic, if you have any that can be performed
 820      in JavaScript. <b>validate</b> is called before <tt>set</tt> and
 821      <tt>save</tt>, and is passed the attributes that are about to be updated.
 822      If the model and attributes are valid, don't return anything from <b>validate</b>;
 823      if the attributes are invalid, return an error of your choosing. It
 824      can be as simple as a string error message to be displayed, or a complete
 825      error object that describes the error programmatically. <tt>set</tt> and
 826      <tt>save</tt> will not continue if <b>validate</b> returns an error.
 827      Failed validations trigger an <tt>"error"</tt> event.
 828    </p>
 829
 830<pre class="runnable">
 831var Chapter = Backbone.Model.extend({
 832  validate: function(attrs) {
 833    if (attrs.end < attrs.start) {
 834      return "can't end before it starts";
 835    }
 836  }
 837});
 838
 839var one = new Chapter({
 840  title : "Chapter One: The Beginning"
 841});
 842
 843one.bind("error", function(model, error) {
 844  alert(model.get("title") + " " + error);
 845});
 846
 847one.set({
 848  start: 15,
 849  end:   10
 850});
 851</pre>
 852
 853    <p>
 854      <tt>"error"</tt> events are useful for providing coarse-grained error
 855      messages at the model or collection level, but if you have a specific view
 856      that can better handle the error, you may override and suppress the event
 857      by passing an <tt>error</tt> callback directly:
 858    </p>
 859
 860<pre>
 861account.set({access: "unlimited"}, {
 862  error: function(model, error) {
 863    alert(error);
 864  }
 865});
 866</pre>
 867
 868    <p id="Model-url">
 869      <b class="header">url</b><code>model.url()</code>
 870      <br />
 871      Returns the relative URL where the model's resource would be located on
 872      the server. If your models are located somewhere else, override this method
 873      with the correct logic. Generates URLs of the form: <tt>"/[collection.url]/[id]"</tt>,
 874      falling back to <tt>"/[urlRoot]/id"</tt> if the model is not part of a collection.
 875    </p>
 876
 877    <p>
 878      Delegates to <a href="#Collection-url">Collection#url</a> to generate the
 879      URL, so make sure that you have it defined, or a <a href="#Model-urlRoot">urlRoot</a>
 880      property, if all models of this class share a common root URL.
 881      A model with an id of <tt>101</tt>, stored in a
 882      <a href="#Collection">Backbone.Collection</a> with a <tt>url</tt> of <tt>"/documents/7/notes"</tt>,
 883      would have this URL: <tt>"/documents/7/notes/101"</tt>
 884    </p>
 885
 886    <p id="Model-urlRoot">
 887      <b class="header">urlRoot</b><code>model.urlRoot</code>
 888      <br />
 889      Specify a <tt>urlRoot</tt> if you're using a model outside of a collection,
 890      to enable the default <a href="#Model-url">url</a> function to generate
 891      URLs based on the model id. <tt>"/[urlRoot]/id"</tt>
 892    </p>
 893
 894<pre class="runnable">
 895var Book = Backbone.Model.extend({urlRoot : '/books'});
 896
 897var solaris = new Book({id: "1083-lem-solaris"});
 898
 899alert(solaris.url());
 900</pre>
 901
 902    <p id="Model-parse">
 903      <b class="header">parse</b><code>model.parse(response)</code>
 904      <br />
 905      <b>parse</b> is called whenever a model's data is returned by the
 906      server, in <a href="#Model-fetch">fetch</a>, and <a href="#Model-save">save</a>.
 907      The function is passed the raw <tt>response</tt> object, and should return
 908      the attributes hash to be <a href="#Model-set">set</a> on the model. The
 909      default implementation is a no-op, simply passing through the JSON response.
 910      Override this if you need to work with a preexisting API, or better namespace
 911      your responses.
 912    </p>
 913
 914    <p>
 915      If you're working with a Rails backend, you'll notice that Rails' default
 916      <tt>to_json</tt> implementation includes a model's attributes under a
 917      namespace. To disable this behavior for seamless Backbone integration, set:
 918    </p>
 919
 920<pre>
 921ActiveRecord::Base.include_root_in_json = false
 922</pre>
 923
 924    <p id="Model-clone">
 925      <b class="header">clone</b><code>model.clone()</code>
 926      <br />
 927      Returns a new instance of the model with identical attributes.
 928    </p>
 929
 930    <p id="Model-isNew">
 931      <b class="header">isNew</b><code>model.isNew()</code>
 932      <br />
 933      Has this model been saved to the server yet? If the model does not yet have
 934      an <tt>id</tt>, it is considered to be new.
 935    </p>
 936
 937    <p id="Model-change">
 938      <b class="header">change</b><code>model.change()</code>
 939      <br />
 940      Manually trigger the <tt>"change"</tt> event.
 941      If you've been passing <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to the <a href="#Model-set">set</a> function in order to
 942      aggregate rapid changes to a model, you'll want to call <tt>model.change()</tt>
 943      when you're all finished.
 944    </p>
 945
 946    <p id="Model-hasChanged">
 947      <b class="header">hasChanged</b><code>model.hasChanged([attribute])</code>
 948      <br />
 949      Has the model changed since the last <tt>"change"</tt> event? If an <b>attribute</b>
 950      is passed, returns <tt>true</tt> if that specific attribute has changed.
 951    </p>
 952
 953<pre>
 954book.bind("change", function() {
 955  if (book.hasChanged("title")) {
 956    ...
 957  }
 958});
 959</pre>
 960
 961    <p id="Model-changedAttributes">
 962      <b class="header">changedAttributes</b><code>model.changedAttributes([attributes])</code>
 963      <br />
 964      Retrieve a hash of only the model's attributes that have changed. Optionally,
 965      an external <b>attributes</b> hash can be passed in, returning
 966      the attributes in that hash which differ from the model. This can be used
 967      to figure out which portions of a view should be updated, or what calls
 968      need to be made to sync the changes to the server.
 969    </p>
 970
 971    <p id="Model-previous">
 972      <b class="header">previous</b><code>model.previous(attribute)</code>
 973      <br />
 974      During a <tt>"change"</tt> event, this method can be used to get the
 975      previous value of a changed attribute.
 976    </p>
 977
 978<pre class="runnable">
 979var bill = new Backbone.Model({
 980  name: "Bill Smith"
 981});
 982
 983bill.bind("change:name", function(model, name) {
 984  alert("Changed name from " + bill.previous("name") + " to " + name);
 985});
 986
 987bill.set({name : "Bill Jones"});
 988</pre>
 989
 990    <p id="Model-previousAttributes">
 991      <b class="header">previousAttributes</b><code>model.previousAttributes()</code>
 992      <br />
 993      Return a copy of the model's previous attributes. Useful for getting a
 994      diff between versions of a model, or getting back to a valid state after
 995      an error occurs.
 996    </p>
 997
 998    <h2 id="Collection">Backbone.Collection</h2>
 999
1000    <p>
1001      Collections are ordered sets of models. You can to bind <tt>"change"</tt> events
1002      to be notified when any model in the collection has been modified,
1003      listen for <tt>"add"</tt> and <tt>"remove"</tt> events, <tt>fetch</tt>
1004      the collection from the server, and use a full suite of
1005      <a href="#Collection-Underscore-Methods">Underscore.js methods</a>.
1006    </p>
1007
1008    <p>
1009      Any event that is triggered on a model in a collection will also be
1010      triggered on the collection directly, for convenience.
1011      This allows you to listen for changes to specific attributes in any
1012      model in a collection, for example:
1013      <tt>Documents.bind("change:selected", ...)</tt>
1014    </p>
1015
1016    <p id="Collection-extend">
1017      <b class="header">extend</b><code>Backbone.Collection.extend(properties, [classProperties])</code>
1018      <br />
1019      To create a <b>Collection</b> class of your own, extend <b>Backbone.Collection</b>,
1020      providing instance <b>properties</b>, as well as optional <b>classProperties</b> to be attached
1021      directly to the collection's constructor function.
1022    </p>
1023
1024    <p id="Collection-model">
1025      <b class="header">model</b><code>collection.model</code>
1026      <br />
1027      Override this property to specify the model class that the collection
1028      contains. If defined, you can pass raw attributes objects (and arrays) to
1029      <a href="#Collection-add">add</a>, <a href="#Collection-create">create</a>,
1030      and <a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a>, and the attributes will be
1031      converted into a model of the proper type.
1032    </p>
1033
1034<pre>
1035var Library = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1036  model: Book
1037});
1038</pre>
1039
1040    <p id="Collection-constructor">
1041      <b class="header">constructor / initialize</b><code>new Collection([models], [options])</code>
1042      <br />
1043      When creating a Collection, you may choose to pass in the initial array of <b>models</b>.
1044      The collection's <a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a> function
1045      may be included as an option. If you define an <b>initialize</b> function, it will be
1046      invoked when the collection is created.
1047    </p>
1048
1049<pre>
1050var tabs = new TabSet([tab1, tab2, tab3]);
1051</pre>
1052
1053    <p id="Collection-models">
1054      <b class="header">models</b><code>collection.models</code>
1055      <br />
1056      Raw access to the JavaScript array of models inside of the collection. Usually you'll
1057      want to use <tt>get</tt>, <tt>at</tt>, or the <b>Underscore methods</b>
1058      to access model objects, but occasionally a direct reference to the array
1059      is desired.
1060    </p>
1061
1062    <p id="Collection-toJSON">
1063      <b class="header">toJSON</b><code>collection.toJSON()</code>
1064      <br />
1065      Return an array containing the attributes hash of each model in the
1066      collection. This can be used to serialize and persist the
1067      collection as a whole. The name of this method is a bit confusing, because
1068      it conforms to
1069      <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en/JSON#toJSON()_method">JavaScript's JSON API</a>.
1070    </p>
1071
1072<pre class="runnable">
1073var collection = new Backbone.Collection([
1074  {name: "Tim", age: 5},
1075  {name: "Ida", age: 26},
1076  {name: "Rob", age: 55}
1077]);
1078
1079alert(JSON.stringify(collection));
1080</pre>
1081
1082    <p id="Collection-Underscore-Methods">
1083      <b class="header">Underscore Methods (25)</b>
1084      <br />
1085      Backbone proxies to <b>Underscore.js</b> to provide 25 iteration functions
1086      on <b>Backbone.Collection</b>. They aren't all documented here, but
1087      you can take a look at the Underscore documentation for the full details&hellip;
1088    </p>
1089
1090    <ul>
1091      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#each">forEach (each)</a></li>
1092      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#map">map</a></li>
1093      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reduce">reduce (foldl, inject)</a></li>
1094      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reduceRight">reduceRight (foldr)</a></li>
1095      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#detect">find (detect)</a></li>
1096      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#select">filter (select)</a></li>
1097      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#reject">reject</a></li>
1098      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#all">every (all)</a></li>
1099      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#any">some (any)</a></li>
1100      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#include">include</a></li>
1101      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#invoke">invoke</a></li>
1102      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#max">max</a></li>
1103      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#min">min</a></li>
1104      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#sortBy">sortBy</a></li>
1105      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#sortedIndex">sortedIndex</a></li>
1106      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#toArray">toArray</a></li>
1107      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#size">size</a></li>
1108      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#first">first</a></li>
1109      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#rest">rest</a></li>
1110      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#last">last</a></li>
1111      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#without">without</a></li>
1112      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#indexOf">indexOf</a></li>
1113      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#lastIndexOf">lastIndexOf</a></li>
1114      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#isEmpty">isEmpty</a></li>
1115      <li><a href="http://documentcloud.github.com/underscore/#chain">chain</a></li>
1116    </ul>
1117
1118<pre>
1119Books.each(function(book) {
1120  book.publish();
1121});
1122
1123var titles = Books.map(function(book) {
1124  return book.get("title");
1125});
1126
1127var publishedBooks = Books.filter(function(book) {
1128  return book.get("published") === true;
1129});
1130
1131var alphabetical = Books.sortBy(function(book) {
1132  return book.author.get("name").toLowerCase();
1133});
1134</pre>
1135
1136    <p id="Collection-add">
1137      <b class="header">add</b><code>collection.add(models, [options])</code>
1138      <br />
1139      Add a model (or an array of models) to the collection. Fires an <tt>"add"</tt>
1140      event, which you can pass <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to suppress. If a
1141      <a href="#Collection-model">model</a> property is defined, you may also pass
1142      raw attributes objects, and have them be vivified as instances of the model.
1143    </p>
1144
1145<pre class="runnable">
1146var ships = new Backbone.Collection;
1147
1148ships.bind("add", function(ship) {
1149  alert("Ahoy " + ship.get("name") + "!");
1150});
1151
1152ships.add([
1153  {name: "Flying Dutchman"},
1154  {name: "Black Pearl"}
1155]);
1156</pre>
1157
1158    <p id="Collection-remove">
1159      <b class="header">remove</b><code>collection.remove(models, [options])</code>
1160      <br />
1161      Remove a model (or an array of models) from the collection. Fires a
1162      <tt>"remove"</tt> event, which you can use <tt>silent</tt>
1163      to suppress.
1164    </p>
1165
1166    <p id="Collection-get">
1167      <b class="header">get</b><code>collection.get(id)</code>
1168      <br />
1169      Get a model from a collection, specified by <b>id</b>.
1170    </p>
1171
1172<pre>
1173var book = Library.get(110);
1174</pre>
1175
1176    <p id="Collection-getByCid">
1177      <b class="header">getByCid</b><code>collection.getByCid(cid)</code>
1178      <br />
1179      Get a model from a collection, specified by client id. The client id
1180      is the <tt>.cid</tt> property of the model, automatically assigned whenever
1181      a model is created. Useful for models which have not yet been saved to
1182      the server, and do not yet have true ids.
1183    </p>
1184
1185    <p id="Collection-at">
1186      <b class="header">at</b><code>collection.at(index)</code>
1187      <br />
1188      Get a model from a collection, specified by index. Useful if your collection
1189      is sorted, and if your collection isn't sorted, <b>at</b> will still
1190      retrieve models in insertion order.
1191    </p>
1192
1193    <p id="Collection-length">
1194      <b class="header">length</b><code>collection.length</code>
1195      <br />
1196      Like an array, a Collection maintains a <tt>length</tt> property, counting
1197      the number of models it contains.
1198    </p>
1199
1200    <p id="Collection-comparator">
1201      <b class="header">comparator</b><code>collection.comparator</code>
1202      <br />
1203      By default there is no <b>comparator</b> function on a collection.
1204      If you define a comparator, it will be used to maintain
1205      the collection in sorted order. This means that as models are added,
1206      they are inserted at the correct index in <tt>collection.models</tt>.
1207      Comparator functions take a model and return a numeric or string value
1208      by which the model should be ordered relative to others.
1209    </p>
1210
1211    <p>
1212      Note how even though all of the chapters in this example are added backwards,
1213      they come out in the proper order:
1214    </p>
1215
1216<pre class="runnable">
1217var Chapter  = Backbone.Model;
1218var chapters = new Backbone.Collection;
1219
1220chapters.comparator = function(chapter) {
1221  return chapter.get("page");
1222};
1223
1224chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 9, title: "The End"}));
1225chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 5, title: "The Middle"}));
1226chapters.add(new Chapter({page: 1, title: "The Beginning"}));
1227
1228alert(chapters.pluck('title'));
1229</pre>
1230
1231    <p class="warning">
1232      Brief aside: This comparator function is different than JavaScript's regular
1233      "sort", which must return <tt>0</tt>, <tt>1</tt>, or <tt>-1</tt>,
1234      and is more similar to a <tt>sortBy</tt> &mdash; a much nicer API.
1235    </p>
1236
1237    <p id="Collection-sort">
1238      <b class="header">sort</b><code>collection.sort([options])</code>
1239      <br />
1240      Force a collection to re-sort itself. You don't need to call this under
1241      normal circumstances, as a collection with a <a href="#Collection-comparator">comparator</a> function
1242      will maintain itself in proper sort order at all times. Calling <b>sort</b>
1243      triggers the collection's <tt>"refresh"</tt> event, unless silenced by passing
1244      <tt>{silent: true}</tt>
1245    </p>
1246
1247    <p id="Collection-pluck">
1248      <b class="header">pluck</b><code>collection.pluck(attribute)</code>
1249      <br />
1250      Pluck an attribute from each model in the collection. Equivalent to calling
1251      <tt>map</tt>, and returning a single attribute from the iterator.
1252    </p>
1253
1254<pre class="runnable">
1255var stooges = new Backbone.Collection([
1256  new Backbone.Model({name: "Curly"}),
1257  new Backbone.Model({name: "Larry"}),
1258  new Backbone.Model({name: "Moe"})
1259]);
1260
1261var names = stooges.pluck("name");
1262
1263alert(JSON.stringify(names));
1264</pre>
1265
1266    <p id="Collection-url">
1267      <b class="header">url</b><code>collection.url or collection.url()</code>
1268      <br />
1269      Set the <b>url</b> property (or function) on a collection to reference
1270      its location on the server. Models within the collection will use <b>url</b>
1271      to construct URLs of their own.
1272    </p>
1273
1274<pre>
1275var Notes = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1276  url: '/notes'
1277});
1278
1279// Or, something more sophisticated:
1280
1281var Notes = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1282  url: function() {
1283    return this.document.url() + '/notes';
1284  }
1285});
1286</pre>
1287
1288    <p id="Collection-parse">
1289      <b class="header">parse</b><code>collection.parse(response)</code>
1290      <br />
1291      <b>parse</b> is called by Backbone whenever a collection's models are
1292      returned by the server, in <a href="#Collection-fetch">fetch</a>.
1293      The function is passed the raw <tt>response</tt> object, and should return
1294      the array of model attributes to be <a href="#Collection-add">added</a>
1295      to the collection. The default implementation is a no-op, simply passing
1296      through the JSON response. Override this if you need to work with a
1297      preexisting API, or better namespace your responses.
1298    </p>
1299
1300<pre>
1301var Tweets = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1302  // The Twitter Search API returns tweets under "results".
1303  parse: function(response) {
1304    return response.results;
1305  }
1306});
1307</pre>
1308
1309    <p id="Collection-fetch">
1310      <b class="header">fetch</b><code>collection.fetch([options])</code>
1311      <br />
1312      Fetch the default set of models for this collection from the server,
1313      refreshing the collection when they arrive. The <b>options</b> hash takes
1314      <tt>success</tt> and <tt>error</tt>
1315      callbacks which will be passed <tt>(collection, response)</tt> as arguments.
1316      When the model data returns from the server, the collection will
1317      <a href="#Collection-refresh">refresh</a>.
1318      Delegates to <a href="#Sync">Backbone.sync</a>
1319      under the covers, for custom persistence strategies.
1320      The server handler for <b>fetch</b> requests should return a JSON array of
1321      models.
1322    </p>
1323
1324<pre class="runnable">
1325Backbone.sync = function(method, model) {
1326  alert(method + ": " + model.url);
1327};
1328
1329var Accounts = new Backbone.Collection;
1330Accounts.url = '/accounts';
1331
1332Accounts.fetch();
1333</pre>
1334
1335    <p>
1336      If you'd like to add the incoming models to the current collection, instead
1337      of replacing the collection's contents, pass <tt>{add: true}</tt> as an
1338      option to <b>fetch</b>.
1339    </p>
1340
1341    <p>
1342      Note that <b>fetch</b> should not be used to populate collections on
1343      page load &mdash; all models needed at load time should already be
1344      <a href="#FAQ-bootstrap">bootstrapped</a> in to place. <b>fetch</b> is
1345      intended for lazily-loading models for interfaces that are not needed
1346      immediately: for example, documents with collections of notes that may be
1347      toggled open and closed.
1348    </p>
1349
1350    <p id="Collection-refresh">
1351      <b class="header">refresh</b><code>collection.refresh(models, [options])</code>
1352      <br />
1353      Adding and removing models one at a time is all well and good, but sometimes
1354      you have so many models to change that you'd rather just update the collection
1355      in bulk. Use <b>refresh</b> to replace a collection with a new list
1356      of models (or attribute hashes), triggering a single <tt>"refresh"</tt> event
1357      at the end. Pass <tt>{silent: true}</tt> to suppress the <tt>"refresh"</tt> event.
1358    </p>
1359
1360    <p>
1361      Here's an example using <b>refresh</b> to bootstrap a collection during initial page load,
1362      in a Rails application.
1363    </p>
1364
1365<pre>
1366&lt;script&gt;
1367  Accounts.refresh(&lt;%= @accounts.to_json %&gt;);
1368&lt;/script&gt;
1369</pre>
1370
1371    <p id="Collection-create">
1372      <b class="header">create</b><code>collection.create(attributes, [options])</code>
1373      <br />
1374      Convenience to create a new instance of a model within a collection.
1375      Equivalent to instantiating a model with a hash of attributes,
1376      saving the model to the server, and adding the model to the set after being
1377      successfully created. Returns
1378      the model, or <tt>false</tt> if a validation error prevented the
1379      model from being created. In order for this to work, your should set the
1380      <a href="#Collection-model">model</a> property of the collection.
1381      The <b>create</b> method can accept either an attributes hash or an 
1382      existing, unsaved model object.
1383    </p>
1384
1385<pre>
1386var Library = Backbone.Collection.extend({
1387  model: Book
1388});
1389
1390var NYPL = new Library;
1391
1392var othello = NYPL.create({
1393  title: "Othello",
1394  author: "William Shakespeare"
1395});
1396</pre>
1397
1398    <h2 id="Controller">Backbone.Controll…

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