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 58<h4 class="subsection">16.8.2 Closing a Socket</h4>
 59
 60<p><a name="index-socket_002c-closing-1777"></a><a name="index-closing-a-socket-1778"></a><a name="index-shutting-down-a-socket-1779"></a><a name="index-socket-shutdown-1780"></a>
 61When you have finished using a socket, you can simply close its
 62file descriptor with <code>close</code>; see <a href="Opening-and-Closing-Files.html#Opening-and-Closing-Files">Opening and Closing Files</a>. 
 63If there is still data waiting to be transmitted over the connection,
 64normally <code>close</code> tries to complete this transmission.  You
 65can control this behavior using the <code>SO_LINGER</code> socket option to
 66specify a timeout period; see <a href="Socket-Options.html#Socket-Options">Socket Options</a>.
 67
 68   <p><a name="index-sys_002fsocket_002eh-1781"></a>You can also shut down only reception or transmission on a
 69connection by calling <code>shutdown</code>, which is declared in
 70<samp><span class="file">sys/socket.h</span></samp>.
 71
 72<!-- sys/socket.h -->
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 74<div class="defun">
 75&mdash; Function: int <b>shutdown</b> (<var>int socket, int how</var>)<var><a name="index-shutdown-1782"></a></var><br>
 76<blockquote><p>The <code>shutdown</code> function shuts down the connection of socket
 77<var>socket</var>.  The argument <var>how</var> specifies what action to
 78perform:
 79
 80          <dl>
 81<dt><code>0</code><dd>Stop receiving data for this socket.  If further data arrives,
 82reject it.
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 84          <br><dt><code>1</code><dd>Stop trying to transmit data from this socket.  Discard any data
 85waiting to be sent.  Stop looking for acknowledgement of data already
 86sent; don't retransmit it if it is lost.
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 88          <br><dt><code>2</code><dd>Stop both reception and transmission. 
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 92following <code>errno</code> error conditions are defined for this function:
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 94          <dl>
 95<dt><code>EBADF</code><dd><var>socket</var> is not a valid file descriptor.
 96
 97          <br><dt><code>ENOTSOCK</code><dd><var>socket</var> is not a socket.
 98
 99          <br><dt><code>ENOTCONN</code><dd><var>socket</var> is not connected. 
100</dl>
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