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Possible License(s): BSD-3-Clause
  1. ==============
  2. Sending e-mail
  3. ==============
  4. .. module:: django.core.mail
  5. :synopsis: Helpers to easily send e-mail.
  6. Although Python makes sending e-mail relatively easy via the `smtplib
  7. library`_, Django provides a couple of light wrappers over it. These wrappers
  8. are provided to make sending e-mail extra quick, to make it easy to test
  9. e-mail sending during development, and to provide support for platforms that
  10. can't use SMTP.
  11. The code lives in the ``django.core.mail`` module.
  12. .. _smtplib library:
  13. Quick example
  14. =============
  15. In two lines::
  16. from django.core.mail import send_mail
  17. send_mail('Subject here', 'Here is the message.', '',
  18. [''], fail_silently=False)
  19. Mail is sent using the SMTP host and port specified in the
  20. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST` and :setting:`EMAIL_PORT` settings. The
  21. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER` and :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD` settings, if
  22. set, are used to authenticate to the SMTP server, and the
  23. :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` setting controls whether a secure connection is used.
  24. .. note::
  25. The character set of e-mail sent with ``django.core.mail`` will be set to
  26. the value of your :setting:`DEFAULT_CHARSET` setting.
  27. send_mail()
  28. ===========
  29. .. function:: send_mail(subject, message, from_email, recipient_list, fail_silently=False, auth_user=None, auth_password=None, connection=None)
  30. The simplest way to send e-mail is using
  31. ``django.core.mail.send_mail()``.
  32. The ``subject``, ``message``, ``from_email`` and ``recipient_list`` parameters
  33. are required.
  34. * ``subject``: A string.
  35. * ``message``: A string.
  36. * ``from_email``: A string.
  37. * ``recipient_list``: A list of strings, each an e-mail address. Each
  38. member of ``recipient_list`` will see the other recipients in the "To:"
  39. field of the e-mail message.
  40. * ``fail_silently``: A boolean. If it's ``False``, ``send_mail`` will raise
  41. an ``smtplib.SMTPException``. See the `smtplib docs`_ for a list of
  42. possible exceptions, all of which are subclasses of ``SMTPException``.
  43. * ``auth_user``: The optional username to use to authenticate to the SMTP
  44. server. If this isn't provided, Django will use the value of the
  45. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER` setting.
  46. * ``auth_password``: The optional password to use to authenticate to the
  47. SMTP server. If this isn't provided, Django will use the value of the
  48. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD` setting.
  49. * ``connection``: The optional e-mail backend to use to send the mail.
  50. If unspecified, an instance of the default backend will be used.
  51. See the documentation on :ref:`E-mail backends <topic-email-backends>`
  52. for more details.
  53. .. _smtplib docs:
  54. send_mass_mail()
  55. ================
  56. .. function:: send_mass_mail(datatuple, fail_silently=False, auth_user=None, auth_password=None, connection=None)
  57. ``django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()`` is intended to handle mass e-mailing.
  58. ``datatuple`` is a tuple in which each element is in this format::
  59. (subject, message, from_email, recipient_list)
  60. ``fail_silently``, ``auth_user`` and ``auth_password`` have the same functions
  61. as in :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`.
  62. Each separate element of ``datatuple`` results in a separate e-mail message.
  63. As in :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`, recipients in the same
  64. ``recipient_list`` will all see the other addresses in the e-mail messages'
  65. "To:" field.
  66. For example, the following code would send two different messages to
  67. two different sets of recipients; however, only one connection to the
  68. mail server would be opened::
  69. message1 = ('Subject here', 'Here is the message', '', ['', ''])
  70. message2 = ('Another Subject', 'Here is another message', '', [''])
  71. send_mass_mail((message1, message2), fail_silently=False)
  72. send_mass_mail() vs. send_mail()
  73. --------------------------------
  74. The main difference between :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` and
  75. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` is that
  76. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` opens a connection to the mail server
  77. each time it's executed, while :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` uses
  78. a single connection for all of its messages. This makes
  79. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` slightly more efficient.
  80. mail_admins()
  81. =============
  82. .. function:: mail_admins(subject, message, fail_silently=False, connection=None, html_message=None)
  83. ``django.core.mail.mail_admins()`` is a shortcut for sending an e-mail to the
  84. site admins, as defined in the :setting:`ADMINS` setting.
  85. ``mail_admins()`` prefixes the subject with the value of the
  86. :setting:`EMAIL_SUBJECT_PREFIX` setting, which is ``"[Django] "`` by default.
  87. The "From:" header of the e-mail will be the value of the
  88. :setting:`SERVER_EMAIL` setting.
  89. This method exists for convenience and readability.
  90. .. versionchanged:: 1.3
  91. If ``html_message`` is provided, the resulting e-mail will be a
  92. multipart/alternative e-mail with ``message`` as the "text/plain"
  93. content type and ``html_message`` as the "text/html" content type.
  94. mail_managers()
  95. ===============
  96. .. function:: mail_managers(subject, message, fail_silently=False, connection=None, html_message=None)
  97. ``django.core.mail.mail_managers()`` is just like ``mail_admins()``, except it
  98. sends an e-mail to the site managers, as defined in the :setting:`MANAGERS`
  99. setting.
  100. Examples
  101. ========
  102. This sends a single e-mail to and, with them
  103. both appearing in the "To:"::
  104. send_mail('Subject', 'Message.', '',
  105. ['', ''])
  106. This sends a message to and, with them both
  107. receiving a separate e-mail::
  108. datatuple = (
  109. ('Subject', 'Message.', '', ['']),
  110. ('Subject', 'Message.', '', ['']),
  111. )
  112. send_mass_mail(datatuple)
  113. Preventing header injection
  114. ===========================
  115. `Header injection`_ is a security exploit in which an attacker inserts extra
  116. e-mail headers to control the "To:" and "From:" in e-mail messages that your
  117. scripts generate.
  118. The Django e-mail functions outlined above all protect against header injection
  119. by forbidding newlines in header values. If any ``subject``, ``from_email`` or
  120. ``recipient_list`` contains a newline (in either Unix, Windows or Mac style),
  121. the e-mail function (e.g. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()`) will raise
  122. ``django.core.mail.BadHeaderError`` (a subclass of ``ValueError``) and, hence,
  123. will not send the e-mail. It's your responsibility to validate all data before
  124. passing it to the e-mail functions.
  125. If a ``message`` contains headers at the start of the string, the headers will
  126. simply be printed as the first bit of the e-mail message.
  127. Here's an example view that takes a ``subject``, ``message`` and ``from_email``
  128. from the request's POST data, sends that to and redirects to
  129. "/contact/thanks/" when it's done::
  130. from django.core.mail import send_mail, BadHeaderError
  131. def send_email(request):
  132. subject = request.POST.get('subject', '')
  133. message = request.POST.get('message', '')
  134. from_email = request.POST.get('from_email', '')
  135. if subject and message and from_email:
  136. try:
  137. send_mail(subject, message, from_email, [''])
  138. except BadHeaderError:
  139. return HttpResponse('Invalid header found.')
  140. return HttpResponseRedirect('/contact/thanks/')
  141. else:
  142. # In reality we'd use a form class
  143. # to get proper validation errors.
  144. return HttpResponse('Make sure all fields are entered and valid.')
  145. .. _Header injection:
  146. .. _emailmessage-and-smtpconnection:
  147. The EmailMessage class
  148. ======================
  149. Django's :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and
  150. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mass_mail()` functions are actually thin
  151. wrappers that make use of the :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class.
  152. Not all features of the :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class are
  153. available through the :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and related
  154. wrapper functions. If you wish to use advanced features, such as BCC'ed
  155. recipients, file attachments, or multi-part e-mail, you'll need to create
  156. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances directly.
  157. .. note::
  158. This is a design feature. :meth:`~django.core.mail.send_mail()` and
  159. related functions were originally the only interface Django provided.
  160. However, the list of parameters they accepted was slowly growing over
  161. time. It made sense to move to a more object-oriented design for e-mail
  162. messages and retain the original functions only for backwards
  163. compatibility.
  164. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` is responsible for creating the e-mail
  165. message itself. The :ref:`e-mail backend <topic-email-backends>` is then
  166. responsible for sending the e-mail.
  167. For convenience, :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` provides a simple
  168. ``send()`` method for sending a single e-mail. If you need to send multiple
  169. messages, the e-mail backend API :ref:`provides an alternative
  170. <topics-sending-multiple-emails>`.
  171. EmailMessage Objects
  172. --------------------
  173. .. class:: EmailMessage
  174. The :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class is initialized with the
  175. following parameters (in the given order, if positional arguments are used).
  176. All parameters are optional and can be set at any time prior to calling the
  177. ``send()`` method.
  178. .. versionchanged:: 1.3
  179. The ``cc`` argument was added.
  180. * ``subject``: The subject line of the e-mail.
  181. * ``body``: The body text. This should be a plain text message.
  182. * ``from_email``: The sender's address. Both ```` and
  183. ``Fred <>`` forms are legal. If omitted, the
  184. :setting:`DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL` setting is used.
  185. * ``to``: A list or tuple of recipient addresses.
  186. * ``bcc``: A list or tuple of addresses used in the "Bcc" header when
  187. sending the e-mail.
  188. * ``connection``: An e-mail backend instance. Use this parameter if
  189. you want to use the same connection for multiple messages. If omitted, a
  190. new connection is created when ``send()`` is called.
  191. * ``attachments``: A list of attachments to put on the message. These can
  192. be either ``email.MIMEBase.MIMEBase`` instances, or ``(filename,
  193. content, mimetype)`` triples.
  194. * ``headers``: A dictionary of extra headers to put on the message. The
  195. keys are the header name, values are the header values. It's up to the
  196. caller to ensure header names and values are in the correct format for
  197. an e-mail message.
  198. * ``cc``: A list or tuple of recipient addresses used in the "Cc" header
  199. when sending the e-mail.
  200. For example::
  201. email = EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', '',
  202. ['', ''], [''],
  203. headers = {'Reply-To': ''})
  204. The class has the following methods:
  205. * ``send(fail_silently=False)`` sends the message. If a connection was
  206. specified when the e-mail was constructed, that connection will be used.
  207. Otherwise, an instance of the default backend will be instantiated and
  208. used. If the keyword argument ``fail_silently`` is ``True``, exceptions
  209. raised while sending the message will be quashed.
  210. * ``message()`` constructs a ``django.core.mail.SafeMIMEText`` object (a
  211. subclass of Python's ``email.MIMEText.MIMEText`` class) or a
  212. ``django.core.mail.SafeMIMEMultipart`` object holding the message to be
  213. sent. If you ever need to extend the
  214. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class, you'll probably want to
  215. override this method to put the content you want into the MIME object.
  216. * ``recipients()`` returns a list of all the recipients of the message,
  217. whether they're recorded in the ``to`` or ``bcc`` attributes. This is
  218. another method you might need to override when subclassing, because the
  219. SMTP server needs to be told the full list of recipients when the message
  220. is sent. If you add another way to specify recipients in your class, they
  221. need to be returned from this method as well.
  222. * ``attach()`` creates a new file attachment and adds it to the message.
  223. There are two ways to call ``attach()``:
  224. * You can pass it a single argument that is an
  225. ``email.MIMEBase.MIMEBase`` instance. This will be inserted directly
  226. into the resulting message.
  227. * Alternatively, you can pass ``attach()`` three arguments:
  228. ``filename``, ``content`` and ``mimetype``. ``filename`` is the name
  229. of the file attachment as it will appear in the e-mail, ``content`` is
  230. the data that will be contained inside the attachment and
  231. ``mimetype`` is the optional MIME type for the attachment. If you
  232. omit ``mimetype``, the MIME content type will be guessed from the
  233. filename of the attachment.
  234. For example::
  235. message.attach('design.png', img_data, 'image/png')
  236. * ``attach_file()`` creates a new attachment using a file from your
  237. filesystem. Call it with the path of the file to attach and, optionally,
  238. the MIME type to use for the attachment. If the MIME type is omitted, it
  239. will be guessed from the filename. The simplest use would be::
  240. message.attach_file('/images/weather_map.png')
  241. .. _DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL: ../settings/#default-from-email
  242. Sending alternative content types
  243. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  244. It can be useful to include multiple versions of the content in an e-mail; the
  245. classic example is to send both text and HTML versions of a message. With
  246. Django's e-mail library, you can do this using the ``EmailMultiAlternatives``
  247. class. This subclass of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` has an
  248. ``attach_alternative()`` method for including extra versions of the message
  249. body in the e-mail. All the other methods (including the class initialization)
  250. are inherited directly from :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage`.
  251. To send a text and HTML combination, you could write::
  252. from django.core.mail import EmailMultiAlternatives
  253. subject, from_email, to = 'hello', '', ''
  254. text_content = 'This is an important message.'
  255. html_content = '<p>This is an <strong>important</strong> message.</p>'
  256. msg = EmailMultiAlternatives(subject, text_content, from_email, [to])
  257. msg.attach_alternative(html_content, "text/html")
  258. msg.send()
  259. By default, the MIME type of the ``body`` parameter in an
  260. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` is ``"text/plain"``. It is good
  261. practice to leave this alone, because it guarantees that any recipient will be
  262. able to read the e-mail, regardless of their mail client. However, if you are
  263. confident that your recipients can handle an alternative content type, you can
  264. use the ``content_subtype`` attribute on the
  265. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` class to change the main content type.
  266. The major type will always be ``"text"``, but you can change the
  267. subtype. For example::
  268. msg = EmailMessage(subject, html_content, from_email, [to])
  269. msg.content_subtype = "html" # Main content is now text/html
  270. msg.send()
  271. .. _topic-email-backends:
  272. E-Mail Backends
  273. ===============
  274. .. versionadded:: 1.2
  275. The actual sending of an e-mail is handled by the e-mail backend.
  276. The e-mail backend class has the following methods:
  277. * ``open()`` instantiates an long-lived e-mail-sending connection.
  278. * ``close()`` closes the current e-mail-sending connection.
  279. * ``send_messages(email_messages)`` sends a list of
  280. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` objects. If the connection is
  281. not open, this call will implicitly open the connection, and close the
  282. connection afterwards. If the connection is already open, it will be
  283. left open after mail has been sent.
  284. Obtaining an instance of an e-mail backend
  285. ------------------------------------------
  286. The :meth:`get_connection` function in ``django.core.mail`` returns an
  287. instance of the e-mail backend that you can use.
  288. .. currentmodule:: django.core.mail
  289. .. function:: get_connection(backend=None, fail_silently=False, *args, **kwargs)
  290. By default, a call to ``get_connection()`` will return an instance of the
  291. e-mail backend specified in :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND`. If you specify the
  292. ``backend`` argument, an instance of that backend will be instantiated.
  293. The ``fail_silently`` argument controls how the backend should handle errors.
  294. If ``fail_silently`` is True, exceptions during the e-mail sending process
  295. will be silently ignored.
  296. All other arguments are passed directly to the constructor of the
  297. e-mail backend.
  298. Django ships with several e-mail sending backends. With the exception of the
  299. SMTP backend (which is the default), these backends are only useful during
  300. testing and development. If you have special e-mail sending requirements, you
  301. can :ref:`write your own e-mail backend <topic-custom-email-backend>`.
  302. .. _topic-email-smtp-backend:
  303. SMTP backend
  304. ~~~~~~~~~~~~
  305. This is the default backend. E-mail will be sent through a SMTP server.
  306. The server address and authentication credentials are set in the
  307. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST`, :setting:`EMAIL_PORT`, :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_USER`,
  308. :setting:`EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD` and :setting:`EMAIL_USE_TLS` settings in your
  309. settings file.
  310. The SMTP backend is the default configuration inherited by Django. If you
  311. want to specify it explicitly, put the following in your settings::
  312. EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.smtp.EmailBackend'
  313. .. admonition:: SMTPConnection objects
  314. Prior to version 1.2, Django provided a
  315. :class:`~django.core.mail.SMTPConnection` class. This class provided a way
  316. to directly control the use of SMTP to send e-mail. This class has been
  317. deprecated in favor of the generic e-mail backend API.
  318. For backwards compatibility :class:`~django.core.mail.SMTPConnection` is
  319. still available in ``django.core.mail`` as an alias for the SMTP backend.
  320. New code should use :meth:`~django.core.mail.get_connection` instead.
  321. .. _topic-email-console-backend:
  322. Console backend
  323. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  324. Instead of sending out real e-mails the console backend just writes the
  325. e-mails that would be send to the standard output. By default, the console
  326. backend writes to ``stdout``. You can use a different stream-like object by
  327. providing the ``stream`` keyword argument when constructing the connection.
  328. To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::
  329. EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.console.EmailBackend'
  330. This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
  331. convenience that can be used during development.
  332. .. _topic-email-file-backend:
  333. File backend
  334. ~~~~~~~~~~~~
  335. The file backend writes e-mails to a file. A new file is created for each new
  336. session that is opened on this backend. The directory to which the files are
  337. written is either taken from the :setting:`EMAIL_FILE_PATH` setting or from
  338. the ``file_path`` keyword when creating a connection with
  339. :meth:`~django.core.mail.get_connection`.
  340. To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::
  341. EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.filebased.EmailBackend'
  342. EMAIL_FILE_PATH = '/tmp/app-messages' # change this to a proper location
  343. This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
  344. convenience that can be used during development.
  345. .. _topic-email-memory-backend:
  346. In-memory backend
  347. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  348. The ``'locmem'`` backend stores messages in a special attribute of the
  349. ``django.core.mail`` module. The ``outbox`` attribute is created when the
  350. first message is sent. It's a list with an
  351. :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instance for each message that would
  352. be send.
  353. To specify this backend, put the following in your settings::
  354. EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.locmem.EmailBackend'
  355. This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
  356. convenience that can be used during development and testing.
  357. .. _topic-email-dummy-backend:
  358. Dummy backend
  359. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  360. As the name suggests the dummy backend does nothing with your messages. To
  361. specify this backend, put the following in your settings::
  362. EMAIL_BACKEND = 'django.core.mail.backends.dummy.EmailBackend'
  363. This backend is not intended for use in production -- it is provided as a
  364. convenience that can be used during development.
  365. .. _topic-custom-email-backend:
  366. Defining a custom e-mail backend
  367. --------------------------------
  368. If you need to change how e-mails are sent you can write your own e-mail
  369. backend. The :setting:`EMAIL_BACKEND` setting in your settings file is then
  370. the Python import path for your backend class.
  371. Custom e-mail backends should subclass ``BaseEmailBackend`` that is located in
  372. the ``django.core.mail.backends.base`` module. A custom e-mail backend must
  373. implement the ``send_messages(email_messages)`` method. This method receives a
  374. list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances and returns the
  375. number of successfully delivered messages. If your backend has any concept of
  376. a persistent session or connection, you should also implement the ``open()``
  377. and ``close()`` methods. Refer to ``smtp.EmailBackend`` for a reference
  378. implementation.
  379. .. _topics-sending-multiple-emails:
  380. Sending multiple e-mails
  381. ------------------------
  382. Establishing and closing an SMTP connection (or any other network connection,
  383. for that matter) is an expensive process. If you have a lot of e-mails to send,
  384. it makes sense to reuse an SMTP connection, rather than creating and
  385. destroying a connection every time you want to send an e-mail.
  386. There are two ways you tell an e-mail backend to reuse a connection.
  387. Firstly, you can use the ``send_messages()`` method. ``send_messages()`` takes
  388. a list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` instances (or subclasses),
  389. and sends them all using a single connection.
  390. For example, if you have a function called ``get_notification_email()`` that
  391. returns a list of :class:`~django.core.mail.EmailMessage` objects representing
  392. some periodic e-mail you wish to send out, you could send these e-mails using
  393. a single call to send_messages::
  394. from django.core import mail
  395. connection = mail.get_connection() # Use default e-mail connection
  396. messages = get_notification_email()
  397. connection.send_messages(messages)
  398. In this example, the call to ``send_messages()`` opens a connection on the
  399. backend, sends the list of messages, and then closes the connection again.
  400. The second approach is to use the ``open()`` and ``close()`` methods on the
  401. e-mail backend to manually control the connection. ``send_messages()`` will not
  402. manually open or close the connection if it is already open, so if you
  403. manually open the connection, you can control when it is closed. For example::
  404. from django.core import mail
  405. connection = mail.get_connection()
  406. # Manually open the connection
  408. # Construct an e-mail message that uses the connection
  409. email1 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', '',
  410. [''], connection=connection)
  411. email1.send() # Send the e-mail
  412. # Construct two more messages
  413. email2 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', '',
  414. [''])
  415. email3 = mail.EmailMessage('Hello', 'Body goes here', '',
  416. [''])
  417. # Send the two e-mails in a single call -
  418. connection.send_messages([email2, email3])
  419. # The connection was already open so send_messages() doesn't close it.
  420. # We need to manually close the connection.
  421. connection.close()
  422. Testing e-mail sending
  423. ======================
  424. There are times when you do not want Django to send e-mails at
  425. all. For example, while developing a Web site, you probably don't want
  426. to send out thousands of e-mails -- but you may want to validate that
  427. e-mails will be sent to the right people under the right conditions,
  428. and that those e-mails will contain the correct content.
  429. The easiest way to test your project's use of e-mail is to use the ``console``
  430. e-mail backend. This backend redirects all e-mail to stdout, allowing you to
  431. inspect the content of mail.
  432. The ``file`` e-mail backend can also be useful during development -- this backend
  433. dumps the contents of every SMTP connection to a file that can be inspected
  434. at your leisure.
  435. Another approach is to use a "dumb" SMTP server that receives the e-mails
  436. locally and displays them to the terminal, but does not actually send
  437. anything. Python has a built-in way to accomplish this with a single command::
  438. python -m smtpd -n -c DebuggingServer localhost:1025
  439. This command will start a simple SMTP server listening on port 1025 of
  440. localhost. This server simply prints to standard output all e-mail headers and
  441. the e-mail body. You then only need to set the :setting:`EMAIL_HOST` and
  442. :setting:`EMAIL_PORT` accordingly, and you are set.
  443. For a more detailed discussion of testing and processing of e-mails locally,
  444. see the Python documentation on the `SMTP Server`_.
  445. .. _SMTP Server:
  446. SMTPConnection
  447. ==============
  448. .. class:: SMTPConnection
  449. .. deprecated:: 1.2
  450. The ``SMTPConnection`` class has been deprecated in favor of the generic e-mail
  451. backend API.
  452. For backwards compatibility ``SMTPConnection`` is still available in
  453. ``django.core.mail`` as an alias for the :ref:`SMTP backend
  454. <topic-email-smtp-backend>`. New code should use
  455. :meth:`~django.core.mail.get_connection` instead.