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1================================== 2Customizing the comments framework 3================================== 4 5.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.comments 6 7If the built-in comment framework doesn't quite fit your needs, you can extend 8the comment app's behavior to add custom data and logic. The comments framework 9lets you extend the built-in comment model, the built-in comment form, and the 10various comment views. 11 12The :setting:`COMMENTS_APP` setting is where this customization begins. Set 13:setting:`COMMENTS_APP` to the name of the app you'd like to use to provide 14custom behavior. You'll use the same syntax as you'd use for 15:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`, and the app given must also be in the 16:setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` list. 17 18For example, if you wanted to use an app named ``my_comment_app``, your 19settings file would contain:: 20 21 INSTALLED_APPS = [ 22 ... 23 'my_comment_app', 24 ... 25 ] 26 27 COMMENTS_APP = 'my_comment_app' 28 29The app named in :setting:`COMMENTS_APP` provides its custom behavior by 30defining some module-level functions in the app's ``__init__.py``. The 31:ref:`complete list of these functions <custom-comment-app-api>` can be found 32below, but first let's look at a quick example. 33 34An example custom comments app 35============================== 36 37One of the most common types of customization is modifying the set of fields 38provided on the built-in comment model. For example, some sites that allow 39comments want the commentator to provide a title for their comment; the built-in 40comment model has no field for that title. 41 42To make this kind of customization, we'll need to do three things: 43 44 #. Create a custom comment :class:`~django.db.models.Model` that adds on the 45 "title" field. 46 47 #. Create a custom comment :class:`~django.forms.Form` that also adds this 48 "title" field. 49 50 #. Inform Django of these objects by defining a few functions in a 51 custom :setting:`COMMENTS_APP`. 52 53So, carrying on the example above, we're dealing with a typical app structure in 54the ``my_custom_app`` directory:: 55 56 my_custom_app/ 57 __init__.py 58 models.py 59 forms.py 60 61In the ``models.py`` we'll define a ``CommentWithTitle`` model:: 62 63 from django.db import models 64 from django.contrib.comments.models import Comment 65 66 class CommentWithTitle(Comment): 67 title = models.CharField(max_length=300) 68 69Most custom comment models will subclass the :class:`Comment` model. However, 70if you want to substantially remove or change the fields available in the 71:class:`Comment` model, but don't want to rewrite the templates, you could 72try subclassing from :class:`BaseCommentAbstractModel`. 73 74Next, we'll define a custom comment form in ``forms.py``. This is a little more 75tricky: we have to both create a form and override 76:meth:`CommentForm.get_comment_model` and 77:meth:`CommentForm.get_comment_create_data` to return deal with our custom title 78field:: 79 80 from django import forms 81 from django.contrib.comments.forms import CommentForm 82 from my_comment_app.models import CommentWithTitle 83 84 class CommentFormWithTitle(CommentForm): 85 title = forms.CharField(max_length=300) 86 87 def get_comment_model(self): 88 # Use our custom comment model instead of the built-in one. 89 return CommentWithTitle 90 91 def get_comment_create_data(self): 92 # Use the data of the superclass, and add in the title field 93 data = super(CommentFormWithTitle, self).get_comment_create_data() 94 data['title'] = self.cleaned_data['title'] 95 return data 96 97Django provides a couple of "helper" classes to make writing certain types of 98custom comment forms easier; see :mod:`django.contrib.comments.forms` for 99more. 100 101Finally, we'll define a couple of methods in ``my_custom_app/__init__.py`` to 102point Django at these classes we've created:: 103 104 from my_comments_app.models import CommentWithTitle 105 from my_comments_app.forms import CommentFormWithTitle 106 107 def get_model(): 108 return CommentWithTitle 109 110 def get_form(): 111 return CommentFormWithTitle 112 113 114.. warning:: 115 116 Be careful not to create cyclic imports in your custom comments app. 117 If you feel your comment configuration isn't being used as defined -- 118 for example, if your comment moderation policy isn't being applied -- 119 you may have a cyclic import problem. 120 121 If you are having unexplained problems with comments behavior, check 122 if your custom comments application imports (even indirectly) 123 any module that itself imports Django's comments module. 124 125The above process should take care of most common situations. For more 126advanced usage, there are additional methods you can define. Those are 127explained in the next section. 128 129.. _custom-comment-app-api: 130 131Custom comment app API 132====================== 133 134The :mod:`django.contrib.comments` app defines the following methods; any 135custom comment app must define at least one of them. All are optional, 136however. 137 138.. function:: get_model() 139 140 Return the :class:`~django.db.models.Model` class to use for comments. This 141 model should inherit from 142 :class:`django.contrib.comments.models.BaseCommentAbstractModel`, which 143 defines necessary core fields. 144 145 The default implementation returns 146 :class:`django.contrib.comments.models.Comment`. 147 148.. function:: get_form() 149 150 Return the :class:`~django.forms.Form` class you want to use for 151 creating, validating, and saving your comment model. Your custom 152 comment form should accept an additional first argument, 153 ``target_object``, which is the object the comment will be 154 attached to. 155 156 The default implementation returns 157 :class:`django.contrib.comments.forms.CommentForm`. 158 159 .. note:: 160 161 The default comment form also includes a number of unobtrusive 162 spam-prevention features (see 163 :ref:`notes-on-the-comment-form`). If replacing it with your 164 own form, you may want to look at the source code for the 165 built-in form and consider incorporating similar features. 166 167.. function:: get_form_target() 168 169 Return the URL for POSTing comments. This will be the ``<form action>`` 170 attribute when rendering your comment form. 171 172 The default implementation returns a reverse-resolved URL pointing 173 to the :func:`post_comment` view. 174 175 .. note:: 176 177 If you provide a custom comment model and/or form, but you 178 want to use the default :func:`post_comment` view, you will 179 need to be aware that it requires the model and form to have 180 certain additional attributes and methods: see the 181 :func:`post_comment` view documentation for details. 182 183.. function:: get_flag_url() 184 185 Return the URL for the "flag this comment" view. 186 187 The default implementation returns a reverse-resolved URL pointing 188 to the :func:`django.contrib.comments.views.moderation.flag` view. 189 190.. function:: get_delete_url() 191 192 Return the URL for the "delete this comment" view. 193 194 The default implementation returns a reverse-resolved URL pointing 195 to the :func:`django.contrib.comments.views.moderation.delete` view. 196 197.. function:: get_approve_url() 198 199 Return the URL for the "approve this comment from moderation" view. 200 201 The default implementation returns a reverse-resolved URL pointing 202 to the :func:`django.contrib.comments.views.moderation.approve` view.