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/docs/ref/contrib/formtools/form-wizard.txt

https://code.google.com/p/mango-py/
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  1===========
  2Form wizard
  3===========
  4
  5.. module:: django.contrib.formtools.wizard
  6    :synopsis: Splits forms across multiple Web pages.
  7
  8Django comes with an optional "form wizard" application that splits
  9:doc:`forms </topics/forms/index>` across multiple Web pages. It maintains
 10state in hashed HTML :samp:`<input type="hidden">` fields so that the full
 11server-side processing can be delayed until the submission of the final form.
 12
 13You might want to use this if you have a lengthy form that would be too
 14unwieldy for display on a single page. The first page might ask the user for
 15core information, the second page might ask for less important information,
 16etc.
 17
 18The term "wizard," in this context, is `explained on Wikipedia`_.
 19
 20.. _explained on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wizard_%28software%29
 21.. _forms: ../forms/
 22
 23How it works
 24============
 25
 26Here's the basic workflow for how a user would use a wizard:
 27
 28    1. The user visits the first page of the wizard, fills in the form and
 29       submits it.
 30    2. The server validates the data. If it's invalid, the form is displayed
 31       again, with error messages. If it's valid, the server calculates a
 32       secure hash of the data and presents the user with the next form,
 33       saving the validated data and hash in :samp:`<input type="hidden">`
 34       fields.
 35    3. Step 1 and 2 repeat, for every subsequent form in the wizard.
 36    4. Once the user has submitted all the forms and all the data has been
 37       validated, the wizard processes the data -- saving it to the database,
 38       sending an e-mail, or whatever the application needs to do.
 39
 40Usage
 41=====
 42
 43This application handles as much machinery for you as possible. Generally, you
 44just have to do these things:
 45
 46    1. Define a number of :class:`~django.forms.Form` classes -- one per wizard
 47       page.
 48
 49    2. Create a :class:`FormWizard` class that specifies what to do once all of
 50       your forms have been submitted and validated. This also lets you
 51       override some of the wizard's behavior.
 52
 53    3. Create some templates that render the forms. You can define a single,
 54       generic template to handle every one of the forms, or you can define a
 55       specific template for each form.
 56
 57    4. Point your URLconf at your :class:`FormWizard` class.
 58
 59Defining ``Form`` classes
 60=========================
 61
 62The first step in creating a form wizard is to create the
 63:class:`~django.forms.Form` classes.  These should be standard
 64:class:`django.forms.Form` classes, covered in the :doc:`forms documentation
 65</topics/forms/index>`.  These classes can live anywhere in your codebase, but
 66convention is to put them in a file called :file:`forms.py` in your
 67application.
 68
 69For example, let's write a "contact form" wizard, where the first page's form
 70collects the sender's e-mail address and subject, and the second page collects
 71the message itself. Here's what the :file:`forms.py` might look like::
 72
 73    from django import forms
 74
 75    class ContactForm1(forms.Form):
 76        subject = forms.CharField(max_length=100)
 77        sender = forms.EmailField()
 78
 79    class ContactForm2(forms.Form):
 80        message = forms.CharField(widget=forms.Textarea)
 81
 82**Important limitation:** Because the wizard uses HTML hidden fields to store
 83data between pages, you may not include a :class:`~django.forms.FileField`
 84in any form except the last one.
 85
 86Creating a ``FormWizard`` class
 87===============================
 88
 89The next step is to create a
 90:class:`django.contrib.formtools.wizard.FormWizard` subclass.  As with your
 91:class:`~django.forms.Form` classes, this :class:`FormWizard` class can live
 92anywhere in your codebase, but convention is to put it in :file:`forms.py`.
 93
 94The only requirement on this subclass is that it implement a
 95:meth:`~FormWizard.done()` method.
 96
 97.. method:: FormWizard.done
 98
 99    This method specifies what should happen when the data for *every* form is
100    submitted and validated.  This method is passed two arguments:
101
102        * ``request`` -- an :class:`~django.http.HttpRequest` object
103        * ``form_list`` -- a list of :class:`~django.forms.Form` classes
104
105In this simplistic example, rather than perform any database operation, the
106method simply renders a template of the validated data::
107
108    from django.shortcuts import render_to_response
109    from django.contrib.formtools.wizard import FormWizard
110
111    class ContactWizard(FormWizard):
112        def done(self, request, form_list):
113            return render_to_response('done.html', {
114                'form_data': [form.cleaned_data for form in form_list],
115            })
116
117Note that this method will be called via ``POST``, so it really ought to be a
118good Web citizen and redirect after processing the data. Here's another
119example::
120
121    from django.http import HttpResponseRedirect
122    from django.contrib.formtools.wizard import FormWizard
123
124    class ContactWizard(FormWizard):
125        def done(self, request, form_list):
126            do_something_with_the_form_data(form_list)
127            return HttpResponseRedirect('/page-to-redirect-to-when-done/')
128
129See the section `Advanced FormWizard methods`_ below to learn about more
130:class:`FormWizard` hooks.
131
132Creating templates for the forms
133================================
134
135Next, you'll need to create a template that renders the wizard's forms. By
136default, every form uses a template called :file:`forms/wizard.html`. (You can
137change this template name by overriding :meth:`~FormWizard.get_template()`,
138which is documented below. This hook also allows you to use a different
139template for each form.)
140
141This template expects the following context:
142
143    * ``step_field`` -- The name of the hidden field containing the step.
144    * ``step0`` -- The current step (zero-based).
145    * ``step`` -- The current step (one-based).
146    * ``step_count`` -- The total number of steps.
147    * ``form`` -- The :class:`~django.forms.Form` instance for the current step
148      (either empty or with errors).
149    * ``previous_fields`` -- A string representing every previous data field,
150      plus hashes for completed forms, all in the form of hidden fields. Note
151      that you'll need to run this through the :tfilter:`safe` template filter,
152      to prevent auto-escaping, because it's raw HTML.
153
154You can supply extra context to this template in two ways:
155
156    * Set the :attr:`~FormWizard.extra_context` attribute on your
157      :class:`FormWizard` subclass to a dictionary.
158
159    * Pass a dictionary as a parameter named ``extra_context`` to your wizard's
160      URL pattern in your URLconf.  See :ref:`hooking-wizard-into-urlconf`.
161
162Here's a full example template:
163
164.. code-block:: html+django
165
166    {% extends "base.html" %}
167
168    {% block content %}
169    <p>Step {{ step }} of {{ step_count }}</p>
170    <form action="." method="post">{% csrf_token %}
171    <table>
172    {{ form }}
173    </table>
174    <input type="hidden" name="{{ step_field }}" value="{{ step0 }}" />
175    {{ previous_fields|safe }}
176    <input type="submit">
177    </form>
178    {% endblock %}
179
180Note that ``previous_fields``, ``step_field`` and ``step0`` are all required
181for the wizard to work properly.
182
183.. _hooking-wizard-into-urlconf:
184
185Hooking the wizard into a URLconf
186=================================
187
188Finally, we need to specify which forms to use in the wizard, and then
189deploy the new :class:`FormWizard` object a URL in ``urls.py``. The
190wizard takes a list of your :class:`~django.forms.Form` objects as
191arguments when you instantiate the Wizard::
192
193    from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
194    from testapp.forms import ContactForm1, ContactForm2, ContactWizard
195
196    urlpatterns = patterns('',
197        (r'^contact/$', ContactWizard([ContactForm1, ContactForm2])),
198    )
199
200Advanced ``FormWizard`` methods
201===============================
202
203.. class:: FormWizard
204
205    Aside from the :meth:`~done()` method, :class:`FormWizard` offers a few
206    advanced method hooks that let you customize how your wizard works.
207
208    Some of these methods take an argument ``step``, which is a zero-based
209    counter representing the current step of the wizard. (E.g., the first form
210    is ``0`` and the second form is ``1``.)
211
212.. method:: FormWizard.prefix_for_step
213
214    Given the step, returns a form prefix to use.  By default, this simply uses
215    the step itself. For more, see the :ref:`form prefix documentation
216    <form-prefix>`.
217
218    Default implementation::
219
220        def prefix_for_step(self, step):
221            return str(step)
222
223.. method:: FormWizard.render_hash_failure
224
225    Renders a template if the hash check fails. It's rare that you'd need to
226    override this.
227
228    Default implementation::
229
230        def render_hash_failure(self, request, step):
231            return self.render(self.get_form(step), request, step,
232                context={'wizard_error':
233                             'We apologize, but your form has expired. Please'
234                             ' continue filling out the form from this page.'})
235
236.. method:: FormWizard.security_hash
237
238    Calculates the security hash for the given request object and
239    :class:`~django.forms.Form` instance.
240
241    By default, this generates a SHA1 HMAC using your form data and your
242    :setting:`SECRET_KEY` setting. It's rare that somebody would need to
243    override this.
244
245    Example::
246
247        def security_hash(self, request, form):
248            return my_hash_function(request, form)
249
250.. method:: FormWizard.parse_params
251
252    A hook for saving state from the request object and ``args`` / ``kwargs``
253    that were captured from the URL by your URLconf.
254
255    By default, this does nothing.
256
257    Example::
258
259        def parse_params(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
260            self.my_state = args[0]
261
262.. method:: FormWizard.get_template
263
264    Returns the name of the template that should be used for the given step.
265
266    By default, this returns :file:`'forms/wizard.html'`, regardless of step.
267
268    Example::
269
270        def get_template(self, step):
271            return 'myapp/wizard_%s.html' % step
272
273    If :meth:`~FormWizard.get_template` returns a list of strings, then the
274    wizard will use the template system's
275    :func:`~django.template.loader.select_template` function.
276    This means the system will use the first template that exists on the
277    filesystem. For example::
278
279        def get_template(self, step):
280            return ['myapp/wizard_%s.html' % step, 'myapp/wizard.html']
281
282.. method:: FormWizard.render_template
283
284    Renders the template for the given step, returning an
285    :class:`~django.http.HttpResponse` object.
286
287    Override this method if you want to add a custom context, return a
288    different MIME type, etc. If you only need to override the template name,
289    use :meth:`~FormWizard.get_template` instead.
290
291    The template will be rendered with the context documented in the
292    "Creating templates for the forms" section above.
293
294.. method:: FormWizard.process_step
295
296    Hook for modifying the wizard's internal state, given a fully validated
297    :class:`~django.forms.Form` object. The Form is guaranteed to have clean,
298    valid data.
299
300    This method should *not* modify any of that data. Rather, it might want to
301    set ``self.extra_context`` or dynamically alter ``self.form_list``, based
302    on previously submitted forms.
303
304    Note that this method is called every time a page is rendered for *all*
305    submitted steps.
306
307    The function signature::
308
309        def process_step(self, request, form, step):
310            # ...
311
312Providing initial data for the forms
313====================================
314
315.. attribute:: FormWizard.initial
316
317    Initial data for a wizard's :class:`~django.forms.Form` objects can be
318    provided using the optional :attr:`~FormWizard.initial` keyword argument.
319    This argument should be a dictionary mapping a step to a dictionary
320    containing the initial data for that step. The dictionary of initial data
321    will be passed along to the constructor of the step's
322    :class:`~django.forms.Form`::
323
324        >>> from testapp.forms import ContactForm1, ContactForm2, ContactWizard
325        >>> initial = {
326        ...     0: {'subject': 'Hello', 'sender': 'user@example.com'},
327        ...     1: {'message': 'Hi there!'}
328        ... }
329        >>> wiz = ContactWizard([ContactForm1, ContactForm2], initial=initial)
330        >>> form1 = wiz.get_form(0)
331        >>> form2 = wiz.get_form(1)
332        >>> form1.initial
333        {'sender': 'user@example.com', 'subject': 'Hello'}
334        >>> form2.initial
335        {'message': 'Hi there!'}