/etc/NEWS.18

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   1GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  17-Aug-1988
2
3Copyright (C) 1988, 2006-2012  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
4See the end of the file for license conditions.
5
6
7This file is about changes in emacs version 18.
8
9
10
11Changes in version 18.52.
12
13* X windows version 10 is supported under system V.
14
15* Pop-up menus are now supported with the same Lisp interface in
16both version 10 and 11 of X windows.
17
18* C-x 4 a is a new command to edit a change-log entry in another window.
19
20* The emacs client program now allows an option +NNN to specify the
21line number to go to in the file whose name follows.  Thus,
22    emacsclient foo.c +45 bar.c
23will find the files foo.c' and bar.c', going to line 45 in bar.c'.
24
25* Dired allows empty directories to be deleted like files.
26
27* When the terminal type is used to find a terminal-specific file to
28run, Emacs now tries the entire terminal type first.  If that doesn't
29yield a file that exists, the last hyphen and what follows it is
30stripped.  If that doesn't yield a file that exists, the previous
31hyphen is stripped, and so on until all hyphens are gone.  For
32example, if the terminal type is aaa-48-foo', Emacs will try first
33term/aaa-48-foo.el', then term/aaa-48.el' and finally term/aaa.el'.
34
35Underscores now receive the same treatment as hyphens.
36
37* Texinfo features: @defun, etc.  texinfo-show-structure.
38New template commands.  texinfo-format-region.
39
40* The special "local variable" eval' is now ignored if you are running
41as root.
42
43* New command c-macro-expand' shows the result of C macro expansion
44in the region.  It works using the C preprocessor, so its results
45are completely accurate.
46
47* Errors in trying to auto save now flash error messages for a few seconds.
48
49* Killing a buffer now sends SIGHUP to the buffer's process.
50
51* New hooks.
52
53** spell-region' now allows you to filter the text before spelling-checking.
54If the value of spell-filter' is non-nil, it is called, with no arguments,
55looking at a temporary buffer containing a copy of the text to be checked.
56It can alter the text freely before the spell program sees it.
57
58** The variable lpr-command' now specifies the command to be used when
59you use the commands to print text (such as M-x print-buffer).
60
61** Posting netnews now calls the value of news-inews-hook' (if not nil)
62as a function of no arguments before the actual posting.
63
64** Rmail now calls the value of rmail-show-message-hook' (if not nil)
65as a function of no arguments, each time a new message is selected.
66
67** kill-emacs' calls the value of kill-emacs-hook' as a function of no args.
68
69* New libraries.
71
72** icon.el: a major mode for editing programs written in Icon.
73
74** life.el: a simulator for the cellular automaton "life".  Load the
75library and run M-x life.
76
77** doctex.el: a library for converting the Emacs etc/DOC' file of
78documentation strings into TeX input.
79
80** saveconf.el: a library which records the arrangement of windows and
81buffers when you exit Emacs, and automatically recreates the same
82setup the next time you start Emacs.
83
84** uncompress.el: a library that automatically uncompresses files
85when you visit them.
86
87** c-fill.el: a mode for editing filled comments in C.
88
89** kermit.el: an extended version of shell-mode designed for running kermit.
90
91** spook.el: a library for adding some "distract the NSA" keywords to every
92message you send.
93
94** hideif.el: a library for hiding parts of a C program based on preprocessor
95conditionals.
96
97** autoinsert.el: a library to put in some initial text when you visit
98a nonexistent file.  The text used depends on the major mode, and
99comes from a directory of files created by you.
100
101* New programming features.
102
103** The variable window-system-version' now contains the version number
104of the window system you are using (if appropriate).  When using X windows,
105its value is either 10 or 11.
106
107** (interactive "N") uses the prefix argument if any; otherwise, it reads
108a number using the minibuffer.
109
110** VMS: there are two new functions vms-system-info' and shrink-to-icon'.
111The former allows you to get many kinds of system status information.
112See its self-documentation for full details.
113The second is used with the window system: it iconifies the Emacs window.
114
115** VMS: the new function define-logical-name' allows you to create
116job-wide logical names.  The old function define-dcl-symbol' has been
117removed.
118
119
120
121Changes in version 18.50.
122
123* X windows version 11 is supported.
124
125Define X11 in config.h if you want X version 11 instead of version 10.
126
127* The command M-x gdb runs the GDB debugger as an inferior.
128It asks for the filename of the executable you want to debug.
129
130GDB runs as an inferior with I/O through an Emacs buffer.  All the
131facilities of Shell mode are available.  In addition, each time your
132program stops, and each time you select a new stack frame, the source
133code is displayed in another window with an arrow added to the line
134where the program is executing.
135
136Special GDB-mode commands include M-s, M-n, M-i, M-u, M-d, and C-c C-f
137which send the GDB commands step', next', stepi', up', down'
138and finish'.
139
140In any source file, the commands C-x SPC tells GDB to set a breakpoint
141on the current line.
142
143* M-x calendar displays a three-month calendar.
144
145* C-u 0 C-x C-s never makes a backup file.
146
147This is a way you can explicitly request not to make a backup.
148
149* term-setup-hook' is for users only.
150
151Emacs never uses this variable for internal purposes, so you can freely
152set it in your .emacs' file to make Emacs do something special after
154
155* copy-keymap' now copies recursive submaps.
156
157* New overlay-arrow feature.
158
159If you set the variable overlay-arrow-string' to a string
160and overlay-arrow-position' to a marker, that string is displayed on
161the screen at the position of that marker, hiding whatever text would
162have appeared there.  If that position isn't on the screen, or if
163the buffer the marker points into isn't displayed, there is no effect.
164
165* -batch mode can read from the terminal.
166
167It now works to use read-char' to do terminal input in a noninteractive
168Emacs run.  End of file causes Emacs to exit.
169
170* Variables data-bytes-used' and data-bytes-free' removed.
171
172These variables cannot really work because the 24-bit range of an
173integer in (most ports of) GNU Emacs is not large enough to hold their
174values on many systems.
175
176
177
178Changes in version 18.45, since version 18.41.
179
180* C indentation parameter c-continued-brace-offset'.
181
182This parameter's value is added to the indentation of any
183line that is in a continuation context and starts with an open-brace.
184For example, it applies to the open brace shown here:
185
186     if (x)
187       {
188
189The default value is zero.
190
191* Dabbrev expansion (Meta-/) preserves case.
192
193When you use Meta-/ to search the buffer for an expansion of an
194abbreviation, if the expansion found is all lower case except perhaps
195for its first letter, then the case pattern of the abbreviation
196is carried over to the expansion that replaces it.
197
198* TeX-mode syntax.
199
200\ is no longer given "escape character" syntax in TeX mode.  It now
201has the syntax of an ordinary punctuation character.  As a result,
202$...$ and such like are considered to balance each other.
203
205
206If the variable mail-default-reply-to' is non-nil', then each time
207you start to compose a message, a Reply-to field is inserted with
208its contents taken from the value of mail-default-reply-to'.
209
210* Where is your .emacs file?
211
212If you run Emacs under su', so your real and effective uids are
213different, Emacs uses the home directory associated with the real uid
214(the name you actually logged in under) to find the .emacs file.
215
216Otherwise, Emacs uses the environment variable HOME to find the .emacs
217file.
218
219The .emacs file is not loaded at all if -batch is specified.
220
221* Prolog mode is the default for ".pl" files.
222
223* File names are not case-sensitive on VMS.
224
225On VMS systems, all file names that you specify are converted to upper
226case.  You can use either upper or lower case indiscriminately.
227
228* VMS-only function 'define-dcl-symbol'.
229
230This is a new name for the function formerly called
231define-logical-name'.
232
233
234
235Editing Changes in Emacs 18
236
237* Additional systems and machines are supported.
238
239GNU Emacs now runs on Vax VMS.  However, many facilities that are normally
240implemented by running subprocesses do not work yet.  This includes listing
241a directory and sending mail.  There are features for running subprocesses
242but they are incompatible with those on Unix.  I hope that some of
243the VMS users can reimplement these features for VMS (compatibly for
244the user, if possible).
245
246VMS wizards are also asked to work on making the subprocess facilities
247more upward compatible with those on Unix, and also to rewrite their
248internals to use the same Lisp objects that are used on Unix to
249represent processes.
250
251In addition, the TI Nu machine running Unix system V, the AT&T 3b, and
252the Wicat, Masscomp, Integrated Solutions, Alliant, Amdahl uts, Mips,
253Altos 3068 and Gould Unix systems are now supported.  The IBM PC-RT is
254supported under 4.2, but not yet under system V.  The GEC 93 is close
255to working.  The port for the Elxsi is partly merged.  See the file
256MACHINES for full status information and machine-specific installation
258
259* Searching is faster.
260
261Forward search for a text string, or for a regexp that is equivalent
262to a text string, is now several times faster.  Motion by lines and
263counting lines is also faster.
264
265* Memory usage improvements.
266
267It is no longer possible to run out of memory during garbage
268collection.  As a result, running out of memory is never fatal.  This
269is due to a new garbage collection algorithm which compactifies
270strings in place rather than copying them.  Another consequence of the
271change is a reduction in total memory usage and a slight increase in
272garbage collection speed.
273
274* Display changes.
275
276** Editing above top of screen.
277
278When you delete or kill or alter text that reaches to the top of the
279screen or above it, so that display would start in the middle of a
280line, Emacs will usually attempt to scroll the text so that display
281starts at the beginning of a line again.
282
283** Yanking in the minibuffer.
284
285The message "Mark Set" is no longer printed when the minibuffer is
286active.  This is convenient with many commands, including C-y, that
287normally print such a message.
288
289** Cursor appears in last line during y-or-n questions.
290
291Questions that want a y' or n' answer now move the cursor
292to the last line, following the question.
293
295
296load' now considers all possible suffixes (.elc', .el' and none)
297for each directory in load-path' before going on to the next directory.
298It now accepts an optional fourth argument which, if non-nil, says to
299use no suffixes; then the file name must be given in full.  The search
300of the directories in load-path' goes on as usual in this case, but
301it too can be prevented by passing an absolute file name.
302
303The value of load-path' no longer by default includes nil (meaning to
304look in the current default directory).  The idea is that load' should
305be used to search the path only for libraries to be found in the standard
306places.  If you want to override system libraries with your own, place
307your own libraries in one special directory and add that directory to the
309
310The function load' is no longer a command; that is to say, M-x load'
312M-x load-library' is equivalent to the old meaning of M-x load'.
313M-x load-file' reads a file name with completion and defaulting
314and then loads exactly that file, with no searching and no suffixes.
315
316* Emulation of other editors.
317
318** edt-emulation-on' starts emulating DEC's EDT editor.
319
320Do edt-emulation-off' to return Emacs to normal.
321
322** vi-mode' and vip-mode' starts emulating vi.
323
324These are two different vi emulations provided by GNU Emacs users.
325We are interested in feedback as to which emulation is preferable.
326
327See the documentation and source code for these functions
329
330** set-gosmacs-bindings' emulates Gosling Emacs.
331
332This command changes many global bindings to resemble those of
333Gosling Emacs.  The previous bindings are saved and can be restored using
334set-gnu-bindings'.
335
336* Emulation of a display terminal.
337
338Within Emacs it is now possible to run programs (such as emacs or
339supdup) which expect to do output to a visual display terminal.
340
342
343* New support for keypads and function keys.
344
345There is now a first attempt at terminal-independent support for
347
348Emacs now defines a standard set of key-names for function and keypad
349keys, and provides standard hooks for defining them.  Most of the
350standard key-names have default definitions built into Emacs; you can
351override these in a terminal-independent manner.  The default definitions
352and the conventions for redefining them are in the file lisp/keypad.el'.
353
354These keys on the terminal normally work by sending sequences of
355characters starting with ESC.  The exact sequences used vary from
356terminal to terminal.  Emacs interprets them in two stages:
357in the first stage, terminal-dependent sequences are mapped into
358the standard key-names; then second stage maps the standard key-names
359into their definitions in a terminal-independent fashion.
360
361The terminal-specific file term/$TERM.el' now is responsible only for 362establishing the mapping from the terminal's escape sequences into 363standard key-names. It no longer knows what Emacs commands are 364assigned to the standard key-names. 365 366One other change in terminal-specific files: if the value of the TERM 367variable contains a hyphen, only the part before the first hyphen is 368used in forming the name of the terminal-specific file. Thus, for 369terminal type aaa-48', the file loaded is now term/aaa.el' rather 370than term/aaa-48.el'. 371 372* New startup command line options. 373 374-i FILE' or -insert FILE' in the command line to Emacs tells Emacs to 375insert the contents of FILE into the current buffer at that point in 376command line processing. This is like using the command M-x insert-file. 377 378-funcall', -load', -user' and -no-init-file' are new synonyms for 379-f', -l', -u' and -q'. 380 381-nw' means don't use a window system. If you are using a terminal 382emulator on the X window system and you want to run Emacs to work through 383the terminal emulator instead of working directly with the window system, 384use this switch. 385 386* Buffer-sorting commands. 387 388Various M-x commands whose names start with sort-' sort parts of 389the region: 390 391sort-lines divides the region into lines and sorts them alphabetically. 392sort-pages divides into pages and sorts them alphabetically. 393sort-paragraphs divides into paragraphs and sorts them alphabetically. 394sort-fields divides into lines and sorts them alphabetically 395 according to one field in the line. 396 The numeric argument specifies which field (counting 397 from field 1 at the beginning of the line). Fields in a line 398 are separated by whitespace. 399sort-numeric-fields 400 is similar but converts the specified fields to numbers 401 and sorts them numerically. 402sort-columns divides into lines and sorts them according to the contents 403 of a specified range of columns. 404 405Refer to the self-documentation of these commands for full usage information. 406 407* Changes in various commands. 408 409** tags-query-replace' and tags-search' change. 410 411These functions now display the name of the file being searched at the moment. 412 413** occur' output now serves as a menu. occur-menu' command deleted. 414 415M-x occur' now allows you to move quickly to any of the occurrences 416listed. Select the *Occur*' buffer that contains the output of occur', 417move point to the occurrence you want, and type C-c C-c. 418This will move point to the same occurrence in the buffer that the 419occurrences were found in. 420 421The command occur-menu' is thus obsolete, and has been deleted. 422 423One way to get a list of matching lines without line numbers is to 424copy the text to another buffer and use the command keep-lines'. 425 426** Incremental search changes. 427 428Ordinary and regexp incremental searches now have distinct default 429search strings. Thus, regexp searches recall only previous regexp 430searches. 431 432If you exit an incremental search when the search string is empty, 433the old default search string is kept. The default does not become 434empty. 435 436Reversing the direction of an incremental search with C-s or C-r 437when the search string is empty now does not get the default search 438string. It leaves the search string empty. A second C-s or C-r 439will get the default search string. As a result, you can do a reverse 440incremental regexp search with C-M-s C-r. 441 442If you add a *', ?' or \|' to an incremental search regexp, 443point will back up if that is appropriate. For example, if 444you have searched for ab' and add a *', point moves to the 445first match for ab*', which may be before the match for ab' 446that was previously found. 447 448If an incremental search is failing and you ask to repeat it, 449it will start again from the beginning of the buffer (or the end, 450if it is a backward search). 451 452The search-controlling parameters isearch-slow-speed' and 453isearch-slow-window-lines' have now been renamed to start with 454search' instead of isearch'. Now all the parameters' names start 455with search'. 456 457If search-slow-window-lines' is negative, the slow search window 458is put at the top of the screen, and the absolute value or the 459negative number specifies the height of it. 460 461** Undo changes 462 463The undo command now will mark the buffer as unmodified only when it is 464identical to the contents of the visited file. 465 466** C-M-v in minibuffer. 467 468If while in the minibuffer you request help in a way that uses a 469window to display something, then until you exit the minibuffer C-M-v 470in the minibuffer window scrolls the window of help. 471 472For example, if you request a list of possible completions, C-M-v can 473be used reliably to scroll the completion list. 474 475** M-TAB command. 476 477Meta-TAB performs completion on the Emacs Lisp symbol names. The sexp 478in the buffer before point is compared against all existing nontrivial 479Lisp symbols and completed as far as is uniquely determined by them. 480Nontrivial symbols are those with either function definitions, values 481or properties. 482 483If there are multiple possibilities for the very next character, a 484list of possible completions is displayed. 485 486** Dynamic abbreviation package. 487 488The new command Meta-/ expands an abbreviation in the buffer before point 489by searching the buffer for words that start with the abbreviation. 490 491** Changes in saving kbd macros. 492 493The commands write-kbd-macro' and append-kbd-macro' have been 494deleted. The way to save a keyboard macro is to use the new command 495insert-kbd-macro', which inserts Lisp code to define the macro as 496it is currently defined into the buffer before point. Visit a Lisp 497file such as your Emacs init file ~/.emacs', insert the macro 498definition (perhaps deleting an old definition for the same macro) 499and then save the file. 500 501** C-x ' command. 502 503The new command C-x ' (expand-abbrev) expands the word before point as 504an abbrev, even if abbrev-mode is not turned on. 505 506** Sending to inferior Lisp. 507 508The command C-M-x in Lisp mode, which sends the current defun to 509an inferior Lisp process, now works by writing the text into a temporary 510file and actually sending only a load'-form to load the file. 511As a result, it avoids the Unix bugs that used to strike when the 512text was above a certain length. 513 514With a prefix argument, this command now makes the inferior Lisp buffer 515appear on the screen and scrolls it so that the bottom is showing. 516 517Two variables inferior-lisp-load-command' and inferior-lisp-prompt', 518exist to customize these feature for different Lisp implementations. 519 520** C-x p now disabled. 521 522The command C-x p, a nonrecommended command which narrows to the current 523page, is now initially disabled like C-x n. 524 525* Dealing with files. 526 527** C-x C-v generalized 528 529This command is now allowed even if the current buffer is not visiting 530a file. As usual, it kills the current buffer and replaces it with a 531newly found file. 532 533** M-x recover-file improved; auto save file names changed. 534 535M-x recover-file now checks whether the last auto-save file is more 536recent than the real visited file before offering to read in the 537auto-save file. If the auto-save file is newer, a directory listing 538containing the two files is displayed while you are asked whether you 539want the auto save file. 540 541Visiting a file also makes this check. If the auto-save file is more recent, 542a message is printed suggesting that you consider using M-x recover file. 543 544Auto save file names now by default have a #' at the end as well 545as at the beginning. This is so that *.c' in a shell command 546will never match auto save files. 547 548On VMS, auto save file names are made by appending _$' at the front
549and ' at the end. 550 551When you change the visited file name of a buffer, the auto save file 552is now renamed to belong to the new visited file name. 553 554You can customize the way auto save file names are made by redefining 555the two functions make-auto-save-file-name' and auto-save-file-name-p', 556both of which are defined in files.el'. 557 558** Modifying a buffer whose file is changed on disk is detected instantly. 559 560On systems where clash detection (locking of files being edited) is 561implemented, Emacs also checks the first time you modify a buffer 562whether the file has changed on disk since it was last visited or saved. 563If it has, you are asked to confirm that you want to change the buffer. 564 565** Exiting Emacs offers to save *mail*'. 566 567Emacs can now know about buffers that it should offer to save on exit 568even though they are not visiting files. This is done for any buffer 569which has a non-nil local value of buffer-offer-save'. By default, 570Mail mode provides such a local value. 571 572** Backup file changes. 573 574If a backup file cannot be written in the directory of the visited file 575due to fascist file protection, a backup file is now written in your home 576directory as ~/%backup%~'. Only one such file is made, ever, so only 577the most recently made such backup is available. 578 579When backup files are made by copying, the last-modification time of the 580original file is now preserved in the backup copy. 581 582** Visiting remote files. 583 584On an internet host, you can now visit and save files on any other 585internet host directly from Emacs with the commands M-x ftp-find-file 586and M-x ftp-write-file. Specify an argument of the form HOST:FILENAME. 587Since standard internet FTP is used, the other host may be any kind 588of machine and is not required to have any special facilities. 589 590The first time any one remote host is accessed, you will be asked to 591give the user name and password for use on that host. FTP is reinvoked 592each time you ask to use it, but previously specified user names and 593passwords are remembered automatically. 594 595** Dired g' command. 596 597g' in Dired mode is equivalent to M-x revert-buffer; it causes the 598current contents of the same directory to be read in. 599 600* Changes in major modes. 601 602** C mode indentation change. 603 604The binding of Linefeed is no longer changed by C mode. It once again 605has its normal meaning, which is to insert a newline and then indent 606afterward. 607 608The old definition did one additional thing: it reindented the line 609before the new newline. This has been removed because it made the 610command twice as slow. The only time it was really useful was after the 611insertion of an else', since the fact of starting with else' may change 612the way that line is indented. Now you will have to type TAB again 613yourself to reindent the else' properly. 614 615If the variable c-tab-always-indent' is set to nil', the TAB command 616in C mode, with no argument, will just insert a tab character if there 617is non-whitespace preceding point on the current line. Giving it a 618prefix argument will force reindentation of the line (as well as 619of the compound statement that begins after point, if any). 620 621** Fortran mode now exists. 622 623This mode provides commands for motion and indentation of Fortran code, 624plus built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords. For details, see the manual 625or the on-line documentation of the command fortran-mode'. 626 627** Scribe mode now exists. 628 629This mode does something useful for editing files of Scribe input. 630It is used automatically for files with names ending in ".mss". 631 632** Modula2 and Prolog modes now exist. 633 634These modes are for editing programs in the languages of the same names. 635They can be selected with M-x modula-2-mode and M-x prolog-mode. 636 637** Telnet mode changes. 638 639The telnet mode special commands have now been assigned to C-c keys. 640Most of them are the same as in Shell mode. 641 642** Picture mode changes. 643 644The special picture-mode commands to specify the direction of cursor 645motion after insertion have been moved to C-c keys. The commands to 646specify diagonal motion were already C-c keys; they are unchanged. 647The keys to specify horizontal or vertical motion are now 648C-c < (left), C-c > (right), C-c ^ (up) and C-c . (down). 649 650** Nroff mode comments. 651 652Comments are now supported in Nroff mode. The standard comment commands 653such as M-; and C-x ; know how to insert, align and delete comments 654that start with backslash-doublequote. 655 656** LaTeX mode. 657 658LaTeX mode now exists. Use M-x latex-mode to select this mode, and 659M-x plain-tex-mode to select the previously existing mode for Plain 660TeX. M-x tex-mode attempts to examine the contents of the buffer and 661choose between latex-mode and plain-tex-mode accordingly; if the 662buffer is empty or it cannot tell, the variable TeX-default-mode' 663controls the choice. Its value should be the symbol for the mode to 664be used. 665 666The facilities for running TeX on all or part of the buffer 667work with LaTeX as well. 668 669Some new commands available in both modes: 670 671C-c C-l recenter the window showing the TeX output buffer 672 so most recent line of output can be seen. 673C-c C-k kill the TeX subprocess. 674C-c C-q show the printer queue. 675C-c C-f close a block (appropriate for LaTeX only). 676 If the current line contains a \begin{...}, 677 this inserts an \end{...} on the following line 678 and puts point on a blank line between them. 679 680** Outline mode changes. 681 682Invisible lines in outline mode are now indicated by ...' at the 683end of the previous visible line. 684 685The special outline heading motion commands are now all on C-c keys. 686A few new ones have been added. Here is a full list: 687 688C-c C-n Move to next visible heading (formerly M-}) 689C-c C-p Move to previous visible heading (formerly M-{) 690C-c C-f Move to next visible heading at the same level. 691 Thus, if point is on a level-2 heading line, 692 this command moves to the next visible level-2 heading. 693C-c C-b Move to previous visible heading at the same level. 694C-c C-u Move up to previous visible heading at a higher level. 695 696The variable outline-regexp' now controls recognition of heading lines. 697Any line whose beginning matches this regexp is a heading line. 698The depth in outline structure is determined by the length of 699the string that matches. 700 701A line starting with a ^L (formfeed) is now by default considered 702a header line. 703 704* Mail reading and sending. 705 706** MH-E changes. 707 708MH-E has been extensively modified and improved since the v17 release. 709It contains many new features, including commands to: extracted failed 710messages, kill a draft message, undo changes to a mail folder, monitor 711delivery of a letter, print multiple messages, page digests backwards, 712insert signatures, and burst digests. Also, many commands have been 713made to able to deal with named sequences of messages, instead of 714single messages. MH-E also has had numerous bugs fixed and commands 715made to run faster. Furthermore, its keybindings have been changed to 716be compatible with Rmail and the rest of GNU Emacs. 717 718** Mail mode changes. 719 720The C-c commands of mail mode have been rearranged: 721 722C-c s, C-c c, C-c t and C-c b (move point to various header fields) 723have been reassigned as C-c C-f C-s, C-c C-f C-c, C-c C-f C-t and C-c 724C-f C-b. C-c C-f is for "field". 725 726C-c y, C-c w and C-c q have been changed to C-c C-y, C-c C-w and C-c C-q. 727 728Thus, C-c LETTER is always unassigned. 729 730** Rmail C-r command changed to w. 731 732The Rmail command to edit the current message is now w'. This change 733has been made because people frequently type C-r while in Rmail hoping 734to do a reverse incremental search. That now works. 735 736* Rnews changes. 737 738** Caesar rotation added. 739 740The function news-caesar-buffer-body performs encryption and 741decryption of the body of a news message. It defaults to the USENET 742standard of 13, and accepts any numeric arg between 1 to 25 and -25 to -1. 743The function is bound to C-c C-r in both news-mode and news-reply-mode. 744 745** rmail-output command added. 746 747The C-o command has been bound to rmail-output in news-mode. 748This allows one to append an article to a file which is in either Unix 749mail or RMAIL format. 750 751** news-reply-mode changes. 752 753The C-c commands of news reply mode have been rearranged and changed, 754so that C-c LETTER is always unassigned: 755 756C-c y, C-c w and C-c q have been changed to C-c C-y, C-c C-w and C-c C-q. 757 758C-c c, C-c t, and C-c b (move to various mail header fields) have been 759deleted (they make no sense for posting and replying to USENET). 760 761C-c s (move to Subject: header field) has been reassigned as C-c C-f 762C-s. C-c C-f is for "field". Several additional move to news header 763field commands have been added. 764 765The local news-reply-mode bindings now look like this: 766 767C-c C-s news-inews (post the message) C-c C-c news-inews 768C-c C-f move to a header field (and create it if there isn't): 769 C-c C-f C-n move to Newsgroups: C-c C-f C-s move to Subj: 770 C-c C-f C-f move to Followup-To: C-c C-f C-k move to Keywords: 771 C-c C-f C-d move to Distribution: C-c C-f C-a move to Summary: 772C-c C-y news-reply-yank-original (insert current message, in NEWS). 773C-c C-q mail-fill-yanked-message (fill what was yanked). 774C-c C-r caesar rotate all letters by 13 places in the article's body (rot13). 775 776* Existing Emacs usable as a server. 777 778Programs such as mailers that invoke "the editor" as an inferior 779to edit some text can now be told to use an existing Emacs process 780instead of creating a new editor. 781 782To do this, you must have an Emacs process running and capable of 783doing terminal I/O at the time you want to invoke it. This means that 784either you are using a window system and give Emacs a separate window 785or you run the other programs as inferiors of Emacs (such as, using 786M-x shell). 787 788First prepare the existing Emacs process by loading the server' 789library and executing M-x server-start. (Your .emacs can do this 790automatically.) 791 792Now tell the other programs to use, as "the editor", the Emacs client 793program (etc/emacsclient, located in the same directory as this file). 794This can be done by setting the environment variable EDITOR. 795 796When another program invokes the emacsclient as "the editor", the 797client actually transfers the file names to be edited to the existing 798Emacs, which automatically visits the files. 799 800When you are done editing a buffer for a client, do C-x # (server-edit). 801This marks that buffer as done, and selects the next buffer that the client 802asked for. When all the buffers requested by a client are marked in this 803way, Emacs tells the client program to exit, so that the program that 804invoked "the editor" will resume execution. 805 806You can only have one server Emacs at a time, but multiple client programs 807can put in requests at the same time. 808 809The client/server work only on Berkeley Unix, since they use the Berkeley 810sockets mechanism for their communication. 811 812 813Changes in Lisp programming in Emacs version 18. 814 815* Init file changes. 816 817** Suffixes no longer accepted on .emacs'. 818 819Emacs will no longer load a file named .emacs.el' or emacs.elc' 820in place of .emacs'. This is so that it will take less time to 821find .emacs'. If you want to compile your init file, give it another 822name and make .emacs' a link to the .elc' file, or make it contain 823a call to load' to load the .elc' file. 824 825** default-profile' renamed to default', and loaded after .emacs'. 826 827It used to be the case that the file default-profile' was loaded if 828and only if .emacs' was not found. 829 830Now the name default-profile' is not used at all. Instead, a library 831named default' is loaded after the .emacs' file. default' is loaded 832whether the .emacs' file exists or not. However, loading of default' 833can be prevented if the .emacs' file sets inhibit-default-init' to non-nil. 834 835In fact, you would call the default file default.el' and probably would 836byte-compile it to speed execution. 837 838Note that for most purposes you are better off using a site-init' library 839since that will be loaded before the runnable Emacs is dumped. By using 840a site-init' library, you avoid taking up time each time Emacs is started. 841 842** inhibit-command-line has been eliminated. 843 844This variable used to exist for .emacs files to set. It has been 845eliminated because you can get the same effect by setting 846command-line-args to nil and setting inhibit-startup-message to t. 847 848* apply' is more general. 849 850apply' now accepts any number of arguments. The first one is a function; 851the rest are individual arguments to pass to that function, except for the 852last, which is a list of arguments to pass. 853 854Previously, apply' required exactly two arguments. Its old behavior 855follows as a special case of the new definition. 856 857* New code-letter for interactive'. 858 859(interactive "NFoo: ") is like (interactive "nFoo: ") in reading 860a number using the minibuffer to serve as the argument; however, 861if a prefix argument was specified, it uses the prefix argument 862value as the argument, and does not use the minibuffer at all. 863 864This is used by the goto-line' and goto-char' commands. 865 866* Semantics of variables. 867 868** Built-in per-buffer variables improved. 869 870Several built-in variables which in the past had a different value in 871each buffer now behave exactly as if make-variable-buffer-local' had 872been done to them. 873 874These variables are tab-width', ctl-arrow', truncate-lines', 875fill-column', left-margin', mode-line-format', abbrev-mode', 876overwrite-mode', case-fold-search', auto-fill-hook', 877selective-display', selective-display-ellipses'. 878 879To be precise, each variable has a default value which shows through 880in most buffers and can be accessed with default-value' and set with 881set-default'. Setting the variable with setq' makes the variable 882local to the current buffer. Changing the default value has retroactive 883effect on all buffers in which the variable is not local. 884 885The variables default-case-fold-search', etc., are now obsolete. 886They now refer to the default value of the variable, which is not 887quite the same behavior as before, but it should enable old init files 888to continue to work. 889 890** New per-buffer variables. 891 892The variables fill-prefix', comment-column' and indent-tabs-mode' 893are now per-buffer. They work just like fill-column', etc. 894 895** New function setq-default'. 896 897setq-default' sets the default value of a variable, and uses the 898same syntax that setq' accepts: the variable name is not evaluated 899and need not be quoted. 900 901(setq-default case-fold-search nil)' would make searches case-sensitive 902in all buffers that do not have local values for case-fold-search'. 903 904** Functions global-set' and global-value' deleted. 905 906These functions were never used except by mistake by users expecting 907the functionality of set-default' and default-value'. 908 909* Changes in defaulting of major modes. 910 911When default-major-mode' is nil', new buffers are supposed to 912get their major mode from the buffer that is current. However, 913certain major modes (such as Dired mode, Rmail mode, Rmail Summary mode, 914and others) are not reasonable to use in this way. 915 916Now such modes' names have been given non-nil' mode-class' properties. 917If the current buffer's mode has such a property, Fundamental mode is 918used as the default for newly created buffers. 919 920* where-is-internal' requires additional arguments. 921 922This function now accepts three arguments, two of them required: 923DEFINITION, the definition to search for; LOCAL-KEYMAP, the keymap 924to use as the local map when doing the searching, and FIRST-ONLY, 925which is nonzero to return only the first key found. 926 927This function returns a list of keys (strings) whose definitions 928(in the LOCAL-KEYMAP or the current global map) are DEFINITION. 929 930If FIRST-ONLY is non-nil, it returns a single key (string). 931 932This function has changed incompatibly in that now two arguments 933are required when previously only one argument was allowed. To get 934the old behavior of this function, write (current-local-map)' as 935the expression for the second argument. 936 937The incompatibility is sad, but nil' is a legitimate value for the 938second argument (it means there is no local keymap), so it cannot also 939serve as a default meaning to use the current local keymap. 940 941* Abbrevs with hooks. 942 943When an abbrev defined with a hook is expanded, it now performs the 944usual replacement of the abbrev with the expansion before running the 945hook. Previously the abbrev itself was deleted but the expansion was 946not inserted. 947 948* Function scan-buffer' deleted. 949 950Use search-forward' or search-backward' in place of scan-buffer'. 951You will have to rearrange the arguments. 952 953* X window interface improvements. 954 955** Detect release of mouse buttons. 956 957Button-up events can now be detected. See the file lisp/x-mouse.el' 958for details. 959 960** New pop-up menu facility. 961 962The new function x-popup-menu' pops up a menu (in a X window) 963and returns an indication of which selection the user made. 964For more information, see its self-documentation. 965 966* M-x disassemble. 967 968This command prints the disassembly of a byte-compiled Emacs Lisp function. 969 970Would anyone like to interface this to the debugger? 971 972* insert-buffer-substring' can insert part of the current buffer. 973 974The old restriction that the text being inserted had to come from 975a different buffer is now lifted. 976 977When inserting text from the current buffer, the text to be inserted 978is determined from the specified bounds before any copying takes place. 979 980* New function substitute-key-definition'. 981 982This is a new way to replace one command with another command as the 983binding of whatever keys may happen to refer to it. 984 985(substitute-key-definition OLDDEF NEWDEF KEYMAP) looks through KEYMAP 986for keys defined to run OLDDEF, and rebinds those keys to run NEWDEF 987instead. 988 989* New function insert-char'. 990 991Insert a specified character, a specified number of times. 992 993* mark-marker' changed. 994 995When there is no mark, this now returns a marker that points 996nowhere, rather than nil'. 997 998* ding' accepts argument. 999 1000When given an argument, the function ding' does not terminate 1001execution of a keyboard macro. Normally, ding' does terminate 1002all macros that are currently executing. 1003 1004* New function minibuffer-depth'. 1005 1006This function returns the current depth in minibuffer activations. 1007The value is zero when the minibuffer is not in use. 1008Values greater than one are possible if the user has entered the 1009minibuffer recursively. 1010 1011* New function documentation-property'. 1012 1013(documentation-property SYMBOL PROPNAME) is like (get SYMBOL PROPNAME), 1014except that if the property value is a number documentation-property' 1015will take that number (or its absolute value) as a character position 1016in the DOC file and return the string found there. 1017 1018(documentation-property VAR 'variable-documentation) is the proper 1019way for a Lisp program to get the documentation of variable VAR. 1020 1021* New documentation-string expansion feature. 1022 1023If a documentation string (for a variable or function) contains text 1024of the form \<FOO>', it means that all command names specified in 1025\[COMMAND]' construct from that point on should be turned into keys 1026using the value of the variable FOO as the local keymap. Thus, for example, 1027 1028 \<emacs-lisp-mode-map>\[eval-defun] evaluates the defun containing point.' 1029 1030will expand into 1031 1032 "ESC C-x evaluates the defun containing point." 1033 1034regardless of the current major mode, because ESC C-x is defined to 1035run eval-defun' in the keymap emacs-lisp-mode-map'. The effect is 1036to show the key for eval-defun' in Emacs Lisp mode regardless of the 1037current major mode. 1038 1039The \<...>' construct applies to all \[...]' constructs that follow it, 1040up to the end of the documentation string or the next \<...>'. 1041 1042Without \<...>', the keys for commands specified in \[...]' are found 1043in the current buffer's local map. 1044 1045The current global keymap is always searched second, whether \<...>' 1046has been used or not. 1047 1048* Multiple hooks allowed in certain contexts. 1049 1050The old hook variables find-file-hook', find-file-not-found-hook' and 1051write-file-hook' have been replaced. 1052 1053The replacements are find-file-hooks', find-file-not-found-hooks' 1054and write-file-hooks'. Each holds a list of functions to be called; 1055by default, nil', for no functions. The functions are called in 1056order of appearance in the list. 1057 1058In the case of find-file-hooks', all the functions are executed. 1059 1060In the case of find-file-not-found-hooks', if any of the functions 1061returns non-nil', the rest of the functions are not called. 1062 1063In the case of write-file-hooks', if any of the functions returns 1064non-nil', the rest of the functions are not called, and the file is 1065considered to have been written already; so actual writing in the 1066usual way is not done. If write-file-hooks' is local to a buffer, 1067it is set to its global value if set-visited-file-name' is called 1068(and thus by C-x C-w as well). 1069 1070find-file-not-found-hooks' and write-file-hooks' can be used 1071together to implement editing of files that are not stored as Unix 1072files: stored in archives, or inside version control systems, or on 1073other machines running other operating systems and accessible via ftp. 1074 1075* New hooks for suspending Emacs. 1076 1077Suspending Emacs runs the hook suspend-hook' before suspending 1078and the hook suspend-resume-hook' if the suspended Emacs is resumed. 1079Running a hook is done by applying the variable's value to no arguments 1080if the variable has a non-nil' value. If suspend-hook' returns 1081non-nil', then suspending is inhibited and so is running the 1082suspend-resume-hook'. The non-nil' value means that the suspend-hook' 1083has done whatever suspending is required. 1084 1085* Disabling commands can print a special message. 1086 1087A command is disabled by giving it a non-nil' disabled' property. 1088Now, if this property is a string, it is included in the message 1089printed when the user tries to run the command. 1090 1091* Emacs can open TCP connections. 1092 1093The function open-network-stream' opens a TCP connection to 1094a specified host and service. Its value is a Lisp object that represents 1095the connection. The object is a kind of "subprocess", and I/O are 1096done like I/O to subprocesses. 1097 1098* Display-related changes. 1099 1100** New mode-line control features. 1101 1102The display of the mode line used to be controlled by a format-string 1103that was the value of the variable mode-line-format'. 1104 1105This variable still exists, but it now allows more general values, 1106not just strings. Lists, cons cells and symbols are also meaningful. 1107 1108The mode line contents are created by outputting various mode elements 1109one after the other. Here are the kinds of objects that can be 1110used as mode elements, and what they do in the display: 1111 1112 string the contents of the string are output to the mode line, 1113 and %-constructs are replaced by other text. 1114 1115 t or nil ignored; no output results. 1116 1117 symbol the symbol's value is used. If the value is a string, 1118 the string is output verbatim to the mode line 1119 (so %-constructs are not interpreted). Otherwise, 1120 the symbol's value is processed as a mode element. 1121 1122 list (whose first element is a string or list or cons cell) 1123 the elements of the list are treated as as mode elements, 1124 so that the output they generate is concatenated, 1125 1126 list (whose car is a symbol) 1127 if the symbol's value is non-nil, the second element of the 1128 list is treated as a mode element. Otherwise, the third 1129 element (if any) of the list is treated as a mode element. 1130 1131 cons (whose car is a positive integer) 1132 the cdr of the cons is used as a mode element, but 1133 the text it produces is padded, if necessary, to have 1134 at least the width specified by the integer. 1135 1136 cons (whose car is a negative integer) 1137 the cdr of the cons is used as a mode element, but 1138 the text it produces is truncated, if necessary, to have 1139 at most the width specified by the integer. 1140 1141There is always one mode element to start with, that being the value of 1142mode-line-format', but if this value is a list then it leads to several 1143more mode elements, which can lead to more, and so on. 1144 1145There is one new %-construct for mode elements that are strings: 1146%n' displays  Narrow' for a buffer that is narrowed. 1147 1148The default value of mode-line-format' refers to several other variables. 1149These variables are mode-name', mode-line-buffer-identification', 1150mode-line-process', mode-line-modified', global-mode-string' and 1151minor-mode-alist'. The first four are local in every buffer in which they 1152are changed from the default. 1153 1154mode-name Name of buffer's major mode. Local in every buffer. 1155 1156mode-line-buffer-identification 1157 Normally the list ("Emacs: %17b"), it is responsible 1158 for displaying text to indicate what buffer is being shown 1159 and what kind of editing it is doing. Emacs' means 1160 that a file of characters is being edited. Major modes 1161 such as Info and Dired which edit or view other kinds 1162 of data often change this value. This variables becomes 1163 local to the current buffer if it is setq'd. 1164 1165mode-line-process 1166 Normally nil, this variable is responsible for displaying 1167 information about the process running in the current buffer. 1168 M-x shell-mode and M-x compile alter this variable. 1169 1170mode-line-modified 1171 This variable is responsible for displaying the indication 1172 of whether the current buffer is modified or read-only. 1173 By default its value is ("--%*%*-")'. 1174 1175minor-mode-alist 1176 This variable is responsible for displaying text for those 1177 minor modes that are currently enabled. Its value 1178 is a list of elements of the form (VARIABLE STRING), 1179 where STRING is to be displayed if VARIABLE's value 1180 (in the buffer whose mode line is being displayed) 1181 is non-nil. This variable is not made local to particular 1182 buffers, but loading some libraries may add elements to it. 1183 1184global-mode-string 1185 This variable is used to display the time, if you ask 1186 for that. 1187 1188The idea of these variables is to eliminate the need for major modes 1189to alter mode-line-format itself. 1190 1191** window-point' valid for selected window. 1192 1193The value returned by window-point' used to be incorrect when its 1194argument was the selected window. Now the value is correct. 1195 1196** Window configurations may be saved as Lisp objects. 1197 1198The function current-window-configuration' returns a special type of 1199Lisp object that represents the current layout of windows: the 1200sizes and positions of windows, which buffers appear in them, and 1201which parts of the buffers appear on the screen. 1202 1203The function set-window-configuration' takes one argument, which must 1204be a window configuration object, and restores that configuration. 1205 1206** New hook temp-output-buffer-show-hook'. 1207 1208This hook allows you to control how help buffers are displayed. 1209Whenever with-output-to-temp-buffer' has executed its body and wants 1210to display the temp buffer, if this variable is bound and non-nil' 1211then its value is called with one argument, the temp buffer. 1212The hook function is solely responsible for displaying the buffer. 1213The standard manner of display--making the buffer appear in a window--is 1214used only if there is no hook function. 1215 1216** New function minibuffer-window'. 1217 1218This function returns the window used (sometimes) for displaying 1219the minibuffer. It can be used even when the minibuffer is not active. 1220 1221** New feature to next-window'. 1222 1223If the optional second argument is neither nil' nor t', the minibuffer 1224window is omitted from consideration even when active; if the starting 1225window was the last non-minibuffer window, the value will be the first 1226non-minibuffer window. 1227 1228** New variable minibuffer-scroll-window'. 1229 1230When this variable is non-nil', the command scroll-other-window' 1231uses it as the window to be scrolled. Displays of completion-lists 1232set this variable to the window containing the display. 1233 1234** New argument to sit-for'. 1235 1236A non-nil second argument to sit-for' means do not redisplay; 1237just wait for the specified time or until input is available. 1238 1239** Deleted function set-minor-mode'; minor modes must be changed. 1240 1241The function set-minor-mode' has been eliminated. The display 1242of minor mode names in the mode line is now controlled by the 1243variable minor-mode-alist'. To specify display of a new minor 1244mode, it is sufficient to add an element to this list. Once that 1245is done, you can turn the mode on and off just by setting a variable, 1246and the display will show its status automatically. 1247 1248** New variable cursor-in-echo-area'. 1249 1250If this variable is non-nil, the screen cursor appears on the 1251last line of the screen, at the end of the text displayed there. 1252 1253Binding this variable to t is useful at times when reading single 1254characters of input with read-char'. 1255 1256** New per-buffer variable selective-display-ellipses'. 1257 1258If this variable is non-nil, an ellipsis (...') appears on the screen 1259at the end of each text line that is followed by invisible text. 1260 1261If this variable is nil, no ellipses appear. Then there is no sign 1262on the screen that invisible text is present. 1263 1264Text is made invisible under the control of the variable 1265selective-display'; this is how Outline mode and C-x work.
1266
1267** New variable no-redraw-on-reenter'.
1268
1269If you set this variable non-nil, Emacs will not clear the screen when
1270you resume it after suspending it.  This is for the sake of terminals
1271with multiple screens of memory, where the termcap entry has been set
1272up to switch between screens when Emacs is suspended and resumed.
1273
1274** New argument to set-screen-height' or set-screen-width'.
1275
1276These functions now take an optional second argument which says
1277what significance the newly specified height or width has.
1278
1279If the argument is nil, or absent, it means that Emacs should
1280believe that the terminal height or width really is as just specified.
1281
1282If the argument is t, it means Emacs should not believe that the
1283terminal really is this high or wide, but it should use the
1284specific height or width as the number of lines or columns to display.
1285Thus, you could display only 24 lines on a screen known to have 48 lines.
1286
1287What practical difference is there between using only 24 lines for display
1288and really believing that the terminal has 24 lines?
1289
12901. The real'' height of the terminal says what the terminal command
1291to move the cursor to the last line will do.
1292
12932. The real'' height of the terminal determines how much padding is
1294needed.
1295
1296* File-related changes.
1297
1298** New parameter backup-by-copying-when-mismatch'.
1299
1300If this variable is non-nil', then when Emacs is about to save a
1301file, it will create the backup file by copying if that would avoid
1302changing the file's uid or gid.
1303
1304The default value of this variable is nil', because usually it is
1305useful to have the uid of a file change according to who edited it
1306last.  I recommend that this variable be left normally nil' and
1307changed with a local variables list in those particular files where
1308the uid needs to be preserved.
1309
1310** New parameter file-precious-flag'.
1311
1312If this variable is non-nil', saving the buffer tries to avoid
1313leaving an incomplete file due to disk full or other I/O errors.
1314It renames the old file before saving.  If saving is successful,
1315the renamed file is deleted; if saving gets an error, the renamed
1316file is renamed back to the name you visited.
1317
1318Backups are always made by copying for such files.
1319
1320** New variable buffer-offer-save'.
1321
1322If the value of this variable is non-nil' in a buffer then exiting
1323Emacs will offer to save the buffer (if it is modified and nonempty)
1324even if the buffer is not visiting a file.  This variable is
1325automatically made local to the current buffer whenever it is set.
1326
1327** rename-file', copy-file', add-name-to-file' and make-symbolic-link'.
1328
1329The third argument to these functions used to be t' or nil'; t'
1330meaning go ahead even if the specified new file name already has a file,
1331and nil' meaning to get an error.
1332
1333Now if the third argument is a number it means to ask the user for
1334confirmation in this case.
1335
1336** New optional argument to copy-file'.
1337
1338If copy-file' receives a non-nil fourth argument, it attempts
1339to give the new copy the same time-of-last-modification that the
1340original file has.
1341
1343
1344(file-newer-than-file-p FILE1 FILE2) returns non-nil if FILE1 has been
1345modified more recently than FILE2.  If FILE1 does not exist, the value
1346is always nil; otherwise, if FILE2 does not exist, the value is t.
1347This is meant for use when FILE2 depends on FILE1, to see if changes
1348in FILE1 make it necessary to recompute FILE2 from it.
1349
1350** Changed function file-exists-p'.
1351
1352This function is no longer the same as file-readable-p'.
1353file-exists-p' can now return t for a file that exists but which
1354the fascists won't allow you to read.
1355
1356** New function file-locked-p'.
1357
1358This function receives a file name as argument and returns nil'
1359if the file is not locked, t' if locked by this Emacs, or a
1360string giving the name of the user who has locked it.
1361
1362** New function file-name-sans-versions'.
1363
1364(file-name-sans-versions NAME) returns a substring of NAME, with any
1365version numbers or other backup suffixes deleted from the end.
1366
1367** New functions for directory names.
1368
1369Although a directory is really a kind of file, specifying a directory
1370uses a somewhat different syntax from specifying a file.
1371In Emacs, a directory name is used as part of a file name.
1372
1373On Unix, the difference is small: a directory name ends in a slash,
1374while a file name does not: thus, /usr/rms/' to name a directory,
1375while /usr/rms' names the file which holds that directory.
1376
1377On VMS, the difference is considerable: du:[rms.foo]' specifies a
1378directory, but the name of the file that holds that directory is
1379du:[rms]foo.dir'.
1380
1381There are two new functions for converting between directory names
1382and file names.  directory-file-name' takes a directory name and
1383returns the name of the file in which that directory's data is stored.
1384file-name-as-directory' takes the name of a file and returns
1385the corresponding directory name.  These always understand Unix file name
1386syntax; on VMS, they understand VMS syntax as well.
1387
1388For example, (file-name-as-directory "/usr/rms") returns "/usr/rms/"
1389and (directory-file-name "/usr/rms/") returns "/usr/rms".
1390On VMS, (file-name-as-directory "du:[rms]foo.dir") returns "du:[rms.foo]"
1391and (directory-file-name "du:[rms.foo]") returns "du:[rms]foo.dir".
1392
1393** Value of file-attributes' changed.
1394
1395The function file-attributes returns a list containing many kinds of
1396information about a file.  Now the list has eleven elements.
1397
1398The tenth element is t' if deleting the file and creating another
1399file of the same name would result in a change in the file's group;
1400nil' if there would be no change.  You can also think of this as
1401comparing the file's group with the default group for files created in
1402the same directory by you.
1403
1404The eleventh element is the inode number of the file.
1405
1406** VMS-only function file-name-all-versions'.
1407
1408This function returns a list of all the completions, including version
1409number, of a specified version-number-less file name.  This is like
1410file-name-all-completions', except that the latter returns values
1411that do not include version numbers.
1412
1413** VMS-only variable vms-stmlf-recfm'.
1414
1415On a VMS system, if this variable is non-nil, Emacs will give newly
1416created files the record format stmlf'.  This is necessary for files
1417that must contain lines of arbitrary length, such as compiled Emacs
1418Lisp.
1419
1420When writing a new version of an existing file, Emacs always keeps
1421the same record format as the previous version; so this variable has
1422no effect.
1423
1424This variable has no effect on Unix systems.
1425
1426** insert-file-contents' on an empty file.
1427
1428This no longer sets the buffer's "modified" flag.
1429
1430** New function (VMS only) define-logical-name':
1431
1432(define-logical-name LOGICAL TRANSLATION) defines a VMS logical name
1433LOGICAL whose translation is TRANSLATION.  The new name applies to
1434the current process only.
1435
1436** Deleted variable ask-about-buffer-names'.
1437
1438If you want buffer names for files to be generated in a special way,
1439you must redefine create-file-buffer'.
1440
1441* Subprocess-related changes.
1442
1443** New function process-list'.
1444
1445This function takes no arguments and returns a list of all
1446of Emacs's asynchronous subprocesses.
1447
1448** New function process-exit-status'.
1449
1450This function, given a process, process name or buffer as argument,
1451returns the exit status code or signal number of the process.
1452If the process has not yet exited or died, this function returns 0.
1453
1454** Process output ignores buffer-read-only'.
1455
1456Output from a process will go into the process's buffer even if the
1458
1459** Switching buffers in filter functions and sentinels.
1460
1461Emacs no longer saves and restore the current buffer around calling
1462the filter and sentinel functions, so these functions can now
1463permanently alter the selected buffer in a straightforward manner.
1464
1465** Specifying environment variables for subprocesses.
1466
1467When a subprocess is started with start-process' or call-process',
1468the value of the variable process-environment' is taken to
1469specify the environment variables to give the subprocess.  The
1470value should be a list of strings, each of the form "VAR=VALUE".
1471
1472process-environment' is initialized when Emacs starts up
1473based on Emacs's environment.
1474
1475** New variable process-connection-type'.
1476
1477If this variable is nil', when a subprocess is created, Emacs uses
1478a pipe rather than a pty to communicate with it.  Normally this
1479variable is t', telling Emacs to use a pty if ptys are supported
1480and one is available.
1481
1482** New function waiting-for-user-input-p'.
1483
1484This function, given a subprocess as argument, returns t' if that
1485subprocess appears to be waiting for input sent from Emacs,
1486or nil' otherwise.
1487
1488** New hook shell-set-directory-error-hook'.
1489
1490The value of this variable is called, with no arguments, whenever
1491Shell mode gets an error trying to keep track of directory-setting
1492commands (such as cd' and pushd') used in the shell buffer.
1493
1494* New functions user-uid' and user-real-uid'.
1495
1496These functions take no arguments and return, respectively,
1497the effective uid and the real uid of the Emacs process.
1498The value in each case is an integer.
1499
1500* New variable print-escape-newlines' controls string printing.
1501
1502If this variable is non-nil', then when a Lisp string is printed
1503by the Lisp printing function prin1' or print', newline characters
1504are printed as \n' rather than as a literal newline.
1505
1506* New function sysnetunam' on HPUX.
1507
1508This function takes two arguments, a network address PATH and a
1509login string LOGIN, and executes the system call netunam'.
1510It returns t' if the call succeeds, otherwise nil'.
1511
1512News regarding installation:
1513
1514* Many s-...' file names changed.
1515
1516Many s-...' files have been renamed.  All periods in such names,
1517except the ones just before the final h', have been changed to
1518hyphens.  Thus, s-bsd4.2.h' has been renamed to s-bsd4-2.h'.
1519
1520This is so a Unix distribution can be moved mechanically to VMS.
1521
1522* DOCSTR...' file now called DOC-...'.
1523
1524The file of on-line documentation strings, that used to be
1525DOCSTR.mm.nn.oo' in this directory, is now called DOC-mm.nn.oo'.
1526This is so that it can port to VMS using the standard conventions
1527for translating filenames for VMS.
1528
1529This file also now contains the doc strings for variables as
1530well as functions.
1531
1532* Emacs no longer uses floating point arithmetic.
1533
1534This may make it easier to port to some machines.
1535
1536* Macros XPNTR' and XSETPNTR'; flag DATA_SEG_BITS'.
1537
1538These macros exclusively are used to unpack a pointer from a Lisp_Object
1539and to insert a pointer into a Lisp_Object.  Redefining them may help
1540port Emacs to machines in which all pointers to data objects have
1541certain high bits set.
1542
1543If DATA_SEG_BITS' is defined, it should be a number which contains
1544the high bits to be inclusive or'ed with pointers that are unpacked.
1545
1546* New flag HAVE_X_MENU'.
1547
1548Define this flag in config.h' in addition to HAVE_X_WINDOWS'
1549to enable use of the Emacs interface to X Menus.  On some operating
1550systems, the rest of the X interface works properly but X Menus
1551do not work; hence this separate flag.  See the file src/xmenu.c'
1553
1554* Macros ARRAY_MARK_FLAG' and DONT_COPY_FLAG'.
1555
1556* HAVE_ALLOCA' prevents assembly of alloca.s'.
1557
1558* SYSTEM_MALLOC' prevents use of GNU malloc.c'.
1559
1560SYSTEM_MALLOC, if defined, means use the system's own malloc' routines
1561rather than those that come with Emacs.
1562
1563Use this only if absolutely necessary, because if it is used you do
1564not get warnings when space is getting low.
1565
1566* New flags to control unexec.
1567
1568See the file unexec.c' for a long comment on the compilation
1569switches that suffice to make it work on many machines.
1570
1571* PNTR_COMPARISON_TYPE'
1572
1573Pointers that need to be compared for ordering are converted to this type
1574first.  Normally this is unsigned int'.
1575
1576* HAVE_VFORK', HAVE_DUP2' and HAVE_GETTIMEOFDAY'.
1577
1578These flags just say whether certain system calls are available.
1579
1580* New macros control compiler switches, linker switches and libraries.
1581
1582The m- and s- files can now control in a modular fashion the precise
1583arguments passed to cc' and ld'.
1584
1585LIBS_STANDARD defines the standard C libraries.  Default is -lc'.
1586LIBS_DEBUG defines the extra libraries to use when debugging.  Default -lg'.
1587LIBS_SYSTEM can be defined by the s- file to specify extra libraries.
1588LIBS_MACHINE can be defined by the m- file to specify extra libraries.
1589LIBS_TERMCAP defines the libraries for Termcap or Terminfo.
1590  It is defined by default in a complicated fashion but the m- or s- file
1591  can override it.
1592
1593LD_SWITCH_SYSTEM can be defined by the s- file to specify extra ld' switches.
1594  The default is -X' on BSD systems except those few that use COFF object files.
1595LD_SWITCH_MACHINE can be defined by the m- file to specify extra ld' switches.
1596
1597C_DEBUG_SWITCH defines the switches to give cc' when debugging.  Default -g'.
1598C_OPTIMIZE_SWITCH defines the switches to give cc' to optimize.  Default -O'.
1599C_SWITCH_MACHINE can be defined by the m- file to specify extra cc' switches.
1600
1601
1602
1603----------------------------------------------------------------------
1604This file is part of GNU Emacs.
1605
1606GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
1608the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
1609(at your option) any later version.
1610
1611GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
1612but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
1613MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
1614GNU General Public License for more details.
1615
1616You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
1617along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
1618
1619
1620Local variables:
1621mode: text
1622end: