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1\fBimport\fR. 2.\" $FreeBSD$ 3.de Id 4.ds Rv \\$3 5.ds Dt \\$4 6.. 7.TH CVS 1 "\*(Dt" 8.\" Full space in nroff; half space in troff 9.de SP 10.if n .sp 11.if t .sp .5 12.. 13.\" quoted command 14.de ` 15.RB ` "\|\\$1\|" '\\$2 16.. 17.SH "NAME" 18cvs \- Concurrent Versions System 19.SH "SYNOPSIS" 20.TP 21\fBcvs\fP [ \fIcvs_options\fP ] 22.I cvs_command 23[ 24.I command_options 25] [ 26.I command_args 27] 28.SH "NOTE" 29This manpage is a summary of some of the features of 30.B cvs 31but it may no longer be kept up-to-date. 32For more current and in-depth documentation, please consult the 33Cederqvist manual (via the 34.B info cvs 35command or otherwise, 36as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage). 37.SH "DESCRIPTION" 38.IX "revision control system" "\fLcvs\fR" 39.IX cvs "" "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system" 40.IX "concurrent versions system \- \fLcvs\fP" 41.IX "release control system" "cvs command" "" "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system" 42.IX "source control system" "cvs command" "" "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system" 43.IX revisions "cvs command" "" "\fLcvs\fP \- source control" 44CVS is a version control system, which allows you to keep old versions 45of files (usually source code), keep a log of who, when, and why 46changes occurred, etc., like RCS or SCCS. Unlike the simpler systems, 47CVS does not just operate on one file at a time or one directory at a 48time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories 49consisting of version controlled files. CVS helps to manage releases 50and to control the concurrent editing of source files among multiple 51authors. CVS allows triggers to enable/log/control various 52operations and works well over a wide area network. 53.SP 54.B cvs 55keeps a single copy of the master sources. 56This copy is called the source ``repository''; it contains all the 57information to permit extracting previous software releases at any 58time based on either a symbolic revision tag, or a date in the past. 59.SH "ESSENTIAL COMMANDS" 60.B cvs 61provides a rich variety of commands (\fIcvs_command\fP in the 62Synopsis), each of which often has a wealth of options, to satisfy the 63many needs of source management in distributed environments. However, 64you don't have to master every detail to do useful work with 65.BR cvs ; 66in fact, five commands are sufficient to use (and contribute to) 67the source repository. 68.TP 69\fBcvs checkout\fP \fImodules\fP\|.\|.\|. 70A necessary preliminary for most \fBcvs\fP work: creates your private 71copy of the source for \fImodules\fP (named collections of source; you 72can also use a path relative to the source repository here). You can 73work with this copy without interfering with others' work. At least 74one subdirectory level is always created. 75.TP 76.B cvs update 77Execute this command from \fIwithin\fP your private source 78directory when you wish to update your copies of source files from 79changes that other developers have made to the source in the 80repository. 81.TP 82\fBcvs add\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|. 83Use this command to enroll new files in \fBcvs\fP records of your 84working directory. The files will be added to the repository the next 85time you run 86.` "cvs commit". 87Note: 88You should use the 89.` "cvs import" 90command to bootstrap new sources into the source repository. 91.` "cvs add" 92is only used for new files to an already checked-out module. 93.TP 94\fBcvs remove\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|. 95Use this command (after erasing any files listed) to declare that you 96wish to eliminate files from the repository. The removal does not 97affect others until you run 98.` "cvs commit". 99.TP 100\fBcvs commit\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|. 101Use this command when you wish to ``publish'' your changes to other 102developers, by incorporating them in the source repository. 103.SH "OPTIONS" 104The 105.B cvs 106command line can include 107.IR cvs_options , 108which apply to the overall 109.B cvs 110program; a 111.IR cvs_command , 112which specifies a particular action on the source repository; and 113.I command_options 114and 115.I command_arguments 116to fully specify what the 117.I cvs_command 118will do. 119.SP 120.I Warning: 121you must be careful of precisely where you place options relative to the 122.IR cvs_command . 123The same option can mean different things depending on whether it 124is in the 125.I cvs_options 126position (to the left of a 127.B cvs 128command) or in the 129.I command_options 130position (to the right of a 131.B cvs 132command). 133.SP 134There are only two situations where you may omit 135.IR cvs_command : 136.` "cvs \-H" 137or 138.` "cvs --help" 139elicits a list of available commands, and 140.` "cvs \-v" 141or 142.` "cvs --version" 143displays version information on \fBcvs\fP itself. 144.SP 145.SH "CVS OPTIONS" 146As of release 1.6, 147.B cvs 148supports 149.SM GNU 150style long options as well as short options. Only 151a few long options are currently supported, these are listed in 152brackets after the short options whose functions they duplicate. 153.SP 154Use these options to control the overall 155.B cvs 156program: 157.TP 158.B \-H [ --help ] 159Display usage information about the specified 160.I cvs_command 161(but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a 162command name, 163.` "cvs \-H" 164displays a summary of all the commands available. 165.TP 166.B \-Q 167Causes the command to be 168.I really 169quiet; the command will generate output only for serious problems. 170.TP 171.B \-q 172Causes the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such 173as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. 174.TP 175\fB\-b\fP \fIbindir\fP 176Use 177.I bindir 178as the directory where 179.SM RCS 180programs are located (CVS 1.9 and older). 181Overrides the setting of the 182.SM RCSBIN 183environment variable. 184This value should be specified as an absolute pathname. 185.TP 186\fB\-d\fP \fICVS_root_directory\fP 187Use 188.I CVS_root_directory 189as the root directory pathname of the master 190source repository. 191Overrides the setting of the 192.SM CVSROOT 193environment variable. 194This value should be specified as an absolute pathname. 195.TP 196\fB\-e\fP \fIeditor\fP 197Use 198.I editor 199to enter revision log information. 200Overrides the setting of the 201.SM CVSEDITOR\c 202, 203.SM VISUAL\c 204, and 205.SM EDITOR 206environment variables. 207.TP 208.B \-f 209Do not read the 210.B cvs 211startup file (\fI~/.cvsrc\fP). 212.TP 213.B \-n 214Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the 215.IR cvs_command , 216but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any 217existing files, or create any new files. 218.TP 219.B \-t 220Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of 221.B cvs 222activity. Particularly useful with 223.B \-n 224to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command. 225.TP 226.B \-r 227Makes new working files read-only. 228Same effect as if the 229.SM CVSREAD 230environment variable is set. 231.TP 232.B \-R 233Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a 234read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a CDROM 235repository. 236Same effect as if the 237.SM CVSREADONLYFS 238environment variable is set. Using 239.B \-R 240can also considerably speed up checkout's over NFS. 241.TP 242.B \-v [ --version ] 243Displays version and copyright information for 244.BR cvs . 245.TP 246.B \-w 247Makes new working files read-write (default). 248Overrides the setting of the 249.SM CVSREAD 250environment variable. 251.TP 252.B \-g 253Forces group-write perms on working files. This option is typically 254used when you have multiple users sharing a single checked out source 255tree, allowing them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask. 256To use this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source 257tree, set it to a private group, and set up the directory such that 258files created under it inherit the group id of the directory. This occurs 259automatically with FreeBSD. With SysV you must typically set the SGID bit 260on the directory. The users who are to share the checked out tree must 261be placed in that group. Note that the sharing of a single checked-out 262source tree is very different from giving several users access to a common 263CVS repository. Access to a common CVS repository already maintains shared 264group-write perms and does not require this option. 265 266To use the option transparently, simply place the line 'cvs -g' in your 267~/.cvsrc file. Doing this is not recommended unless you firewall all your 268source checkouts within a private group or within a private mode 0700 269directory. 270.TP 271.B \-x 272Encrypt all communication between the client and the server. As of 273this writing, this is only implemented when using a Kerberos 274connection. 275.TP 276\fB\-z\fP \fIcompression\-level\fP 277When transferring files across the network use 278.B gzip 279with compression level \fIcompression\-level\fP to compress and 280de-compress data as it is transferred. Requires the presence of 281the 282.SM GNU 283.B gzip 284program in the current search path at both ends of the link. 285.SH "USAGE" 286Except when requesting general help with 287.` "cvs \-H", 288you must specify a 289.I cvs_command 290to 291.B cvs 292to select a specific release control function to perform. 293Each 294.B cvs 295command accepts its own collection of options and arguments. 296However, many options are available across several commands. 297You can display a usage summary for each command by specifying the 298.B \-H 299option with the command. 300.SH "CVS STARTUP FILE" 301Normally, when CVS starts up, it reads the 302.I .cvsrc 303file from the home directory of the user reading it. This startup 304procedure can be turned off with the 305.B \-f 306flag. 307.SP 308The 309.I .cvsrc 310file lists CVS commands with a list of arguments, one command per 311line. For example, the following line in \fI.cvsrc\fP: 312.SP 313diff \-c 314.SP 315will mean that the 316.` "cvs diff" 317command will always be passed the \-c option in addition to any 318other options that are specified in the command line (in this case 319it will have the effect of producing context sensitive diffs for 320all executions of 321.` "cvs diff" 322). 323.SP 324Global options are specified using the \fBcvs\fP keyword. For example, 325the following: 326.SP 327cvs \-q 328.SP 329will mean that all 330.` "cvs" 331commands will behave as thought he \-q global option had been supplied. 332.SH "CVS COMMAND SUMMARY" 333Here are brief descriptions of all the 334.B cvs 335commands: 336.TP 337.B add 338Add a new file or directory to the repository, pending a 339.` "cvs commit" 340on the same file. 341Can only be done from within sources created by a previous 342.` "cvs checkout" 343invocation. 344Use 345.` "cvs import" 346to place whole new hierarchies of sources under 347.B cvs 348control. 349(Does not directly affect repository; changes 350working directory.) 351.TP 352.B admin 353Execute 354control functions on the source repository. (Changes 355repository directly; uses working directory without changing it.) 356.TP 357.B checkout 358Make a working directory of source files for editing. (Creates or changes 359working directory.) 360.TP 361.B commit 362Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions from your 363working directory. (Changes repository.) 364.TP 365.B diff 366Show differences between files in working directory and source 367repository, or between two revisions in source repository. 368(Does not change either repository or working directory.) 369.TP 370.B export 371Prepare copies of a set of source files for shipment off site. 372Differs from 373.` "cvs checkout" 374in that no 375.B cvs 376administrative directories are created (and therefore 377.` "cvs commit" 378cannot be executed from a directory prepared with 379.` "cvs export"), 380and a symbolic tag must be specified. 381(Does not change repository; creates directory similar to working 382directories). 383.TP 384.B history 385Show reports on 386.B cvs 387commands that you or others have executed on a particular file or 388directory in the source repository. (Does not change repository or 389working directory.) History logs are kept only if enabled by creation 390of the 391.` "$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history" 392file; see 393.BR cvs ( 5 ). 394.TP 395.B import 396Incorporate a set of updates from off-site into the source repository, 397as a ``vendor branch''. (Changes repository.) 398.TP 399.B init 400Initialize a repository by adding the CVSROOT subdirectory and some default 401control files. You must use this command or initialize the repository in 402some other way before you can use it. 403.TP 404.B log 405Display 406log information. 407(Does not change repository or working directory.) 408.TP 409.B rdiff 410Prepare a collection of diffs as a patch file between two releases in 411the repository. (Does not change repository or working directory.) 412.TP 413.B release 414Cancel a 415.` "cvs checkout", 416abandoning any changes. 417(Can delete working directory; no effect on repository.) 418.TP 419.B remove 420Remove files from the source repository, pending a 421.` "cvs commit" 422on the same files. (Does not directly affect repository; 423changes working directory.) 424.TP 425.B rtag 426Explicitly specify a symbolic tag for particular revisions of files in the 427source repository. See also 428.` "cvs tag". 429(Changes repository directly; does not require or affect 430working directory.) 431.TP 432.B status 433Show current status of files: latest version, version in working 434directory, whether working version has been edited and, optionally, 435symbolic tags in the 436.SM RCS 437file. (Does not change 438repository or working directory.) 439.TP 440.B tag 441Specify a symbolic tag for files in the repository. By default, tags 442the revisions 443that were last synchronized with your working directory. (Changes 444repository directly; uses working directory without changing it.) 445.TP 446.B update 447Bring your working directory up to date with changes from the 448repository. Merges are performed automatically when possible; a 449warning is issued if manual resolution is required for conflicting 450changes. (Changes working directory; does not change repository.) 451.SH "COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS" 452This section describes the 453.I command_options 454that are available across several 455.B cvs 456commands. Not all commands support all of these options; each option 457is only supported for commands where it makes sense. However, when 458a command has one of these options you can count on the same meaning 459for the option as in other commands. (Other command 460options, which are listed with the individual commands, may have 461different meanings from one 462.B cvs 463command to another.) 464.I "Warning:" 465the 466.B history 467command is an exception; 468it supports many options that conflict 469even with these standard options. 470.TP 471\fB\-D\fP \fIdate_spec\fP 472Use the most recent revision no later than \fIdate_spec\fP (a single 473argument, date description specifying a date in the 474past). A wide variety of date formats are supported, in particular 475ISO ("1972-09-24 20:05") or Internet ("24 Sep 1972 20:05"). 476The \fIdate_spec\fP is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a 477specific timezone is specified. 478The specification is ``sticky'' when you use it to make a 479private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working file 480using \fB\-D\fP, \fBcvs\fP records the date you 481specified, so that further updates in the same directory will use the 482same date (unless you explicitly override it; see the description of 483the \fBupdate\fP command). 484.B \-D 485is available with the 486.BR checkout ", " diff ", " history ", " export ", " 487.BR rdiff ", " rtag ", and " 488.B update 489commands. 490Examples of valid date specifications include: 491.in +1i 492.ft B 493.nf 4941 month ago 4952 hours ago 496400000 seconds ago 497last year 498last Monday 499yesterday 500a fortnight ago 5013/31/92 10:00:07 PST 502January 23, 1987 10:05pm 50322:00 GMT 504.fi 505.ft P 506.in -1i 507.TP 508.B \-f 509When you specify a particular date or tag to \fBcvs\fP commands, they 510normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist on 511the date) that you specified. Use the \fB\-f\fP option if you want 512files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The 513most recent version is used in this situation.) 514.B \-f 515is available with these commands: 516.BR checkout ", " export ", " 517.BR rdiff ", " rtag ", and " update . 518.TP 519\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP 520Alter the default 521processing of keywords. 522The \fB\-k\fP option is available with the 523.BR add ", " checkout ", " diff ", " rdiff ", " export ", and " 524BR update 525commands. Your \fIkflag\fP specification is ``sticky'' when you use 526it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use 527this option with the \fBcheckout\fP or \fBupdate\fP commands, 528\fBcvs\fP associates your selected \fIkflag\fP with the file, and 529continues to use it with future \fBupdate\fP commands on the same file 530until you specify otherwise. 531.SP 532Some of the more useful \fIkflag\fPs are \-ko and \-kb (for binary files), 533and \-kv which is useful for an 534.B export 535where you wish to retain keyword information after an 536.B import 537at some other site. 538.TP 539.B \-l 540Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recurring through 541subdirectories. Available with the following commands: 542.BR checkout ", " commit ", " diff ", " 543.BR export ", " remove ", " rdiff ", " rtag ", " 544.BR status ", " tag ", and " update . 545.TP 546.B \-n 547Do 548.I not 549run any 550.BR checkout / commit / tag / update 551program. (A program can be specified to run on each of these 552activities, in the modules database; this option bypasses it.) 553Available with the 554.BR checkout ", " export ", and " 555.B rtag 556commands. 557.I Warning: 558this is not the same 559as the overall 560.` "cvs \-n" 561option, which you can specify to the 562.I left 563of a 564.B cvs 565command! 566.TP 567.B \-P 568Prune (remove) directories that are empty after being updated, on 569.BR checkout ", or " update . 570Normally, an empty directory (one that is void of revision-controlled 571files) is left alone. 572Specifying 573.B \-P 574will cause these directories to be silently removed from your checked-out 575sources. 576This does not remove the directory from the repository, only from your 577checked out copy. 578Note that this option is implied by the 579.B \-r 580or 581.B \-D 582options of 583.BR checkout " and " export . 584.TP 585.B \-T 586Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the (local) repository. 587This option is useful for developers maintaining a local cvs repository 588but committing to a remote repository. By maintaining CVS/Template the 589remote commits will still be able to bring up the proper template in the 590commit editor session. 591Available with the 592.BR checkout " and " update 593commands. 594.TP 595.B \-p 596Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, 597rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the 598.BR checkout " and " update 599commands. 600.TP 601\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP 602Use the revision specified by the 603.I tag 604argument instead of the default ``head'' revision. As well as 605arbitrary tags defined with the \fBtag\fP or \fBrtag\fP command, two 606special tags are always available: 607.` "HEAD" 608refers to the most 609recent version available in the repository, and 610.` "BASE" 611refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working 612directory. 613.SP 614The \fItag\fP specification is ``sticky'' when you use 615this option with 616.` "cvs checkout" 617or 618.` "cvs update" 619to 620make your own copy of a file: \fBcvs\fP remembers the \fItag\fP and 621continues to use it on future \fBupdate\fP commands, until you specify 622otherwise. 623.I tag 624can be either a symbolic or numeric tag. 625When a command expects a specific revision, 626the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent 627revision on that branch. 628Specifying the 629.B \-q 630global option along with the 631.B \-r 632command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the 633.SM RCS 634file does not contain the specified tag. 635.B \-r 636is available with the 637.BR annotate ", " checkout ", " 638.BR commit ", " diff ", " history ", " export ", " rdiff ", " 639.BR rtag ", and " update 640commands. 641.I Warning: 642this is not the same 643as the overall 644.` "cvs \-r" 645option, which you can specify to the 646.I left 647of a 648.B cvs 649command! 650.SH "CVS COMMANDS" 651Here (finally) are details on all the 652.B cvs 653commands and the options each accepts. The summary lines at the top 654of each command's description highlight three kinds of things: 655.TP 1i 656\ \ \ \ Command Options and Arguments 657Special options are described in detail below; common command options 658may appear only in the summary line. 659.TP 1i 660\ \ \ \ Working Directory, or Repository? 661Some \fBcvs\fP commands require a working directory to operate; some 662require a repository. Also, some commands \fIchange\fP the 663repository, some change the working directory, and some change 664nothing. 665.TP 1i 666\ \ \ \ Synonyms 667Many commands have synonyms, which you may find easier to 668remember (or type) than the principal name. 669.PP 670.TP 671\fBadd\fP [\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP] [\fB\-m '\fP\fImessage\fP\fB'\fP] \fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP 672.I Requires: 673repository, working directory. 674.br 675.I Changes: 676working directory. 677.br 678.I Synonym: 679.B new 680.br 681Use the 682.B add 683command to create a new file or directory in the 684source repository. 685The files or directories specified with 686.B add 687must already exist in the current directory (which must have been created 688with the 689.B checkout 690command). 691To add a whole new directory hierarchy to the source repository 692(for example, files received from a third-party vendor), use the 693.` "cvs import" 694command instead. 695.SP 696If the argument to 697.` "cvs add" 698refers to an immediate sub-directory, the directory is 699created at the correct place in the 700source repository, and the necessary 701.B cvs 702administration files are created in your working directory. 703If the directory already exists in the source repository, 704.` "cvs add" 705still creates the administration files in your version of the directory. 706This allows you to use 707.` "cvs add" 708to add a particular directory to your private sources even if 709someone else created that directory after your 710.B checkout 711of the sources. You can do the following: 712.SP 713.in +1i 714.ft B 715.nf 716example% mkdir new_directory 717example% cvs add new_directory 718example% cvs update new_directory 719.fi 720.ft P 721.in -1i 722.SP 723An alternate approach using 724.` "cvs update" 725might be: 726.SP 727.in +1i 728.ft B 729.nf 730example% cvs update -d new_directory 731.fi 732.ft P 733.in -1i 734.SP 735(To add \fIany available\fP new directories to your working directory, it's 736probably simpler to use 737.` "cvs checkout" 738or 739.` "cvs update -d".) 740.SP 741The added files are not placed in the 742source repository until you use 743.` "cvs commit" 744to make the change permanent. 745Doing a 746.` "cvs add" 747on a file that was removed with the 748.` "cvs remove" 749command will resurrect the file, if no 750.` "cvs commit" 751command intervened. 752.SP 753You will have the opportunity to specify a logging message, as usual, 754when you use 755.` "cvs commit" 756to make the new file permanent. If you'd like to have another 757logging message associated with just 758.I creation 759of the file (for example, to describe the file's purpose), you can 760specify it with the 761.` "\-m \fImessage\fP" 762option to the 763.B add 764command. 765.SP 766The 767.` "-k kflag" 768option specifies the default way that this 769file will be checked out. 770The 771.` "kflag" 772argument is stored in the 773.SM RCS 774file and can be changed with 775.` "cvs admin". 776Specifying 777.` "-ko" 778is useful for checking in binaries that 779shouldn't have 780keywords expanded. 781.TP 782\fBadmin\fP [\fIrcs-options\fP] \fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP 783.I Requires: 784repository, working directory. 785.br 786.I Changes: 787repository. 788.br 789.I Synonym: 790.B rcs 791.br 792This is the 793.B cvs 794interface to assorted administrative 795facilities, similar to 796.BR rcs ( 1 ). 797This command works recursively, so extreme care should be 798used. 799.TP 800\fBcheckout\fP [\fBoptions\fP] \fImodules\fP.\|.\|. 801.I Requires: 802repository. 803.br 804.I Changes: 805working directory. 806.br 807.I Synonyms: 808.BR co ", " get 809.br 810Make a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by 811.IR modules . 812You must execute 813.` "cvs checkout" 814before using most of the other 815.B cvs 816commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. 817.SP 818\fImodules\fP are either symbolic names (themselves defined as the 819module 820.` "modules" 821in the source repository; see 822.BR cvs ( 5 )) 823for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to 824directories or files in the repository. 825.SP 826Depending on the 827.I modules 828you specify, 829.B checkout 830may recursively create directories and populate them with the appropriate 831source files. 832You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether 833other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); 834update them to include new changes applied by others to the source 835repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the 836repository. 837.SP 838Note that 839.B checkout 840is used to create directories. 841The top-level directory created is always added to the directory 842where 843.B checkout 844is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified 845.IR module . 846In the case of a 847.I module 848alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be 849sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that 850.B checkout 851will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into 852your private work area (unless you specify the 853.B \-Q 854global option). 855.SP 856Running 857.` "cvs checkout" 858on a directory that was already built by a prior 859.B checkout 860is also permitted, and 861has the same effect as specifying the 862.B \-d 863option to the 864.B update 865command described below. 866.SP 867The 868.I options 869permitted with 870.` "cvs checkout" 871include the standard command options 872.BR \-P ", " \-f ", " 873.BI \-k " kflag" 874\&, 875.BR \-l ", " \-n ", " \-p ", " 876.BR \-r 877.IR tag ", and" 878.BI \-D " date"\c 879\&. 880.SP 881In addition to those, you can use these special command options 882with 883.BR checkout : 884.SP 885Use the 886.B \-A 887option to reset any sticky tags, dates, or 888.B \-k 889options. (If you get a working file using one of the 890\fB\-r\fP, \fB\-D\fP, or \fB\-k\fP options, \fBcvs\fP remembers the 891corresponding tag, date, or \fIkflag\fP and continues using it on 892future updates; use the \fB\-A\fP option to make \fBcvs\fP forget these 893specifications, and retrieve the ``head'' version of the file). 894Does not reset sticky 895.B \-k 896options on modified files. 897.SP 898The 899.BI \-j " branch" 900option merges the changes made between the 901resulting revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g., if 902the tag refers to a branch, 903.B cvs 904will merge all changes made in that branch into your working file). 905.SP 906With two \fB-j\fP options, 907.B cvs 908will merge in the changes between the two respective revisions. 909This can be used to ``remove'' a certain delta from your working file. 910.SP 911In addition, each \fB-j\fP option can contain on optional date 912specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen 913revision to one within a specific date. 914An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag. 915An example might be what 916.` "cvs import" 917tells you to do when you have 918just imported sources that have conflicts with local changes: 919.SP 920.in +1i 921.ft B 922.nf 923example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module 924.fi 925.ft P 926.in -1i 927.SP 928Use the 929.B \-N 930option with 931.` "\-d \fIdir\fP" 932to avoid shortening module paths in your working directory. (Normally, \fBcvs\fP shortens paths as much as possible when you specify an explicit target directory.) 933.SP 934Use the 935.B \-c 936option to copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, 937instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your 938working directory. 939.SP 940Use the 941.BI \-d " dir" 942option to create a directory called 943.I dir 944for the working files, instead of using the module name. Unless you 945also use \fB\-N\fP, the paths created under \fIdir\fP will be as short 946as possible. 947.SP 948Use the 949.B \-s 950option to display per-module status information stored with 951the 952.B \-s 953option within the modules file. 954.TP 955\fBcommit\fP [\fB\-lR\fP] [\fB\-m\fP '\fIlog_message\fP' | \fB\-F\fP \fIfile\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIrevision\fP] [\fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP] 956.I Requires: 957working directory, repository. 958.br 959.I Changes: 960repository. 961.br 962.I Synonym: 963.B ci 964.br 965Use 966.` "cvs commit" 967when you want to incorporate changes from your working source 968files into the general source repository. 969.SP 970If you don't specify particular \fIfiles\fP to commit, all 971of the files in your working current directory are examined. 972.B commit 973is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have 974really changed. By default (or if you explicitly specify the 975.B \-R 976option), files 977in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have 978changed; you can use the 979.B \-l 980option to limit 981.B commit 982to the current directory only. 983Sometimes you may want to force a file to be committed even though it 984is unchanged; this is achieved with the 985.B \-f 986flag, which also has the effect of disabling recursion (you can turn 987it back on with 988.B \-R 989of course). 990.SP 991.B commit 992verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions 993in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without 994committing, if any of the specified files must be made current first 995with 996.` "cvs update". 997.B commit 998does not call the 999.B update 1000command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when 1001the time is right. 1002.SP 1003When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log 1004message that will be written to one or more logging programs and placed in the 1005source repository file. 1006You can instead specify the log message on the command line with the 1007.B \-m 1008option, thus suppressing the editor invocation, or use the 1009.B \-F 1010option to specify that the argument \fIfile\fP contains the log message. 1011.SP 1012The 1013.B \-r 1014option can be used to commit to a particular symbolic or numeric revision. 1015For example, to bring all your files up to the 1016revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you might do: 1017.SP 1018.in +1i 1019.ft B 1020.nf 1021example% cvs commit -r3.0 1022.fi 1023.ft P 1024.in -1i 1025.SP 1026.B cvs 1027will only allow you to commit to a revision that is on the main trunk (a 1028revision with a single dot). 1029However, you can also commit to a branch revision (one that has an even 1030number of dots) with the 1031.B \-r 1032option. 1033To create a branch revision, one typically use the 1034.B \-b 1035option of the 1036.BR rtag " or " tag 1037commands. 1038Then, either 1039.BR checkout " or " update 1040can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. 1041From that point on, all 1042.B commit 1043changes made within these working sources will be automatically added 1044to a branch revision, thereby not perturbing main-line development in any 1045way. 1046For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the 1047product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you 1048might do: 1049.SP 1050.in +1i 1051.ft B 1052.nf 1053example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module 1054example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module 1055example% cd product_module 1056[[ hack away ]] 1057example% cvs commit 1058.fi 1059.ft P 1060.in -1i 1061.SP 1062Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on 1063whatever revision you happened to checkout last week. 1064If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but 1065without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a 1066new branch. 1067Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full 1068benefit of 1069.B cvs 1070conflict resolution. 1071The scenario might look like: 1072.SP 1073.in +1i 1074.ft B 1075.nf 1076example% cvs tag -b EXPR1 1077example% cvs update -rEXPR1 1078[[ hack away ]] 1079example% cvs commit 1080.fi 1081.ft P 1082.in -1i 1083.SP 1084Others would simply do 1085.` "cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module" 1086to work with you on the experimental change. 1087.TP 1088\fBdiff\fP [\fB\-kl\fP] [\fIformat_options\fP] [[\fB\-r\fP \fIrev1\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate1\fP | \fB\-j\fP \fIrev1:date1\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIrev2\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate2\fP | \fB\-j\fP \fIrev2:date2\fP]] [\fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP] 1089.I Requires: 1090working directory, repository. 1091.br 1092.I Changes: 1093nothing. 1094.br 1095You can compare your working files with revisions in the source 1096repository, with the 1097.` "cvs diff" 1098command. If you don't specify a particular revision, your files 1099are compared with the revisions they were based on. You can also use 1100the standard 1101.B cvs 1102command option 1103.B \-r 1104to specify a particular revision to compare your files with. Finally, 1105if you use 1106.B \-r 1107twice, you can see differences between two revisions in the 1108repository. 1109You can also specify 1110.B \-D 1111options to diff against a revision (on the head branch) in the past, and 1112you can also specify 1113.B \-j 1114options to diff against a revision relative to a branch tag in the past. 1115The 1116.B \-r 1117and 1118.B \-D 1119and 1120.B \-j 1121options can be mixed together with at most two options ever specified. 1122.SP 1123See 1124.` "cvs --help diff" 1125for a list of supported 1126.IR format_options . 1127.SP 1128If you don't specify any files, 1129.B diff 1130will display differences for all those files in the current directory 1131(and its subdirectories, unless you use the standard option 1132.BR \-l ) 1133that 1134differ from the corresponding revision in the source repository 1135(i.e. files that 1136.I you 1137have changed), or that differ from the revision specified. 1138.TP 1139\fBexport\fP [\-\fBf\|lNnQq\fP] \fB\-r\fP \fIrev\fP\||\|\fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP [\fB\-d\fP \fIdir\fP] [\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP] \fImodule\fP.\|.\|. 1140.I Requires: 1141repository. 1142.br 1143.I Changes: 1144current directory. 1145.br 1146This command is a variant of 1147.` "cvs checkout"; 1148use it when you want a copy of the source for \fImodule\fP 1149without the \fBcvs\fP administrative directories. For example, you 1150might use 1151.` "cvs export" 1152to prepare source for shipment 1153off-site. This command \fIrequires\fP that you specify a date or tag 1154(with \fB\-D\fP or \fB\-r\fP), so that you can count on reproducing 1155the source you ship to others. 1156.SP 1157The only non-standard options are 1158.` "\-d \fIdir\fP" 1159(write the 1160source into directory \fIdir\fP) and 1161.` "\-N" 1162(don't shorten 1163module paths). 1164These have the same meanings as the same options in 1165.` "cvs checkout". 1166.SP 1167The 1168.B \-kv 1169option is useful when 1170.B export 1171is used. 1172This causes any 1173keywords to be expanded such that an 1174.B import 1175done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. 1176Other \fIkflag\fPs may be used with 1177.` "cvs export" 1178and are described in 1179.BR co ( 1 ). 1180.TP 1181\fBhistory\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIreport\fP] [\fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP] [\fB\-\fP\fIoptions args\fP] [\fIfiles\fP.\|.\|.] 1182.I Requires: 1183the file 1184.` "$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history" 1185.br 1186.I Changes: 1187nothing. 1188.br 1189\fBcvs\fP keeps a history file that tracks each use of the 1190\fBcheckout\fP, \fBcommit\fP, \fBrtag\fP, \fBupdate\fP, and \fBrelease\fP 1191commands. You can use 1192.` "cvs history" 1193to display this 1194information in various formats. 1195.SP 1196.I Warning: 1197.` "cvs history" 1198uses 1199.` "\-f", 1200.` "\-l", 1201.` "\-n", 1202and 1203.` "\-p" 1204in ways that conflict with the 1205descriptions in 1206.SM 1207COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS\c 1208\&. 1209.SP 1210Several options (shown above as \fB\-\fP\fIreport\fP) control what 1211kind of report is generated: 1212.TP 1i 1213.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-c 1214Report on each time \fBcommit\fP was used (i.e., each time the 1215repository was modified). 1216.TP 1i 1217\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-m\fP \fImodule\fP 1218Report on a particular \fImodule\fP. (You can meaningfully use 1219\fB\-m\fP more than once on the command line.) 1220.TP 1i 1221.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-o 1222Report on checked-out modules. 1223.TP 1i 1224.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-T 1225Report on all tags. 1226.TP 1i 1227\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-x\fP \fItype\fP 1228Extract a particular set of record types \fIX\fP from the \fBcvs\fP 1229history. The types are indicated by single letters, which you may 1230specify in combination. 1231Certain commands have a single record type: \fBcheckout\fP (type `O'), 1232\fBrelease\fP (type `F'), and \fBrtag\fP (type `T'). One of four 1233record types may result from an \fBupdate\fP: `W', when the working copy 1234of a file is deleted during update (because it was gone from the 1235repository); `U', when a working file was copied from the 1236repository; `G', when a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C', 1237when a merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring 1238manual merging). Finally, one of three record types results from 1239\fBcommit\fP: `M', when a file was modified; `A', when a file is first 1240added; and `R', when a file is removed. 1241.TP 1i 1242.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-e 1243Everything (all record types); equivalent to specifying 1244.` "\-xMACFROGWUT". 1245.TP 1i 1246\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-z\fP \fIzone\fP 1247Use time zone 1248.I zone 1249when outputting history records. 1250The zone name 1251.B LT 1252stands for local time; 1253numeric offsets stand for hours and minutes ahead of UTC. 1254For example, 1255.B +0530 1256stands for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east of) UTC. 1257.PP 1258.RS .5i 1259The options shown as \fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP constrain the report without 1260requiring option arguments: 1261.RE 1262.TP 1i 1263.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-a 1264Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user 1265executing 1266.` "cvs history"). 1267.TP 1i 1268.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-l 1269Show last modification only. 1270.TP 1i 1271.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-w 1272Show only the records for modifications done from the same working 1273directory where 1274.` "cvs history" 1275is executing. 1276.PP 1277.RS .5i 1278The options shown as \fB\-\fP\fIoptions args\fP constrain the report 1279based on an argument: 1280.RE 1281.TP 1i 1282\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-b\fP \fIstr\fP 1283Show data back to a record containing the string \fIstr\fP in either 1284the module name, the file name, or the repository path. 1285.TP 1i 1286\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-D\fP \fIdate\fP 1287Show data since \fIdate\fP. 1288.TP 1i 1289\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-p\fP \fIrepository\fP 1290Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several 1291\fB\-p\fP options on the same command line). 1292.TP 1i 1293\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-r\fP \fIrev\fP 1294Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag 1295named \fIrev\fP appears in individual RCS files. 1296Each 1297.SM RCS 1298file is searched for the revision or tag. 1299.TP 1i 1300\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-t\fP \fItag\fP 1301Show records since tag \fItag\fP was last added to the history file. 1302This differs from the \fB-r\fP flag above in that it reads 1303only the history file, not the 1304.SM RCS 1305files, and is much faster. 1306.TP 1i 1307\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-u\fP \fIname\fP 1308Show records for user \fIname\fP. 1309.PP 1310.TP 1311\fBimport\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIoptions\fP] \fIrepository vendortag releasetag\fP.\|.\|. 1312.I Requires: 1313Repository, source distribution directory. 1314.br 1315.I Changes: 1316repository. 1317.br 1318Use 1319.` "cvs import" 1320to incorporate an entire source 1321distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your 1322source repository directory. You can use this command both for 1323initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the 1324module form the outside source. 1325.SP 1326The \fIrepository\fP argument gives a directory name (or a path to a 1327directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories; if the 1328directory did not exist, \fBimport\fP creates it. 1329.SP 1330When you use \fBimport\fP for updates to source that has been modified in your 1331source repository (since a prior \fBimport\fP), it 1332will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of 1333development; use 1334.` "cvs checkout -j" 1335to reconcile the differences, as \fBimport\fP instructs you to do. 1336.SP 1337By default, certain file names are ignored during 1338.` "cvs import": 1339names associated with 1340.SM CVS 1341administration, or with other common source control systems; common 1342names for patch files, object files, archive files, and editor backup 1343files; and other names that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities. 1344For an up to date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as 1345described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage). 1346.SP 1347The outside source is saved in a first-level 1348branch, by default 1349.` "1.1.1". 1350Updates are leaves of this 1351branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of 1352source will be revision 1353.` "126.96.36.199", 1354then files from the first 1355imported update will be revision 1356.` "188.8.131.52", 1357and so on. 1358.SP 1359At least three arguments are required. \fIrepository\fP is needed to 1360identify the collection of source. \fIvendortag\fP is a tag for the 1361entire branch (e.g., for 1362.` "1.1.1"). 1363You must also specify at 1364least one \fIreleasetag\fR to uniquely identify the files at 1365the leaves created each time you execute 1366.` "cvs import". 1367The 1368\fIreleasetag\fR should be new, not previously existing in the 1369repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release. 1370.SP 1371One of the standard 1372.B cvs 1373command options is available: \fB\-m\fP 1374\fImessage\fP. If you do not specify a logging message with 1375\fB\-m\fP, your editor is invoked (as with \fBcommit\fP) to allow you 1376to enter one. 1377.SP 1378There are three additional special options. 1379.SP 1380Use 1381.` "\-d" 1382to specify that each file's time of last modification should be used 1383for the checkin date and time. 1384.SP 1385Use 1386.` "\-b \fIbranch\fP" 1387to specify a first-level branch other 1388than 1389.` "1.1.1". 1390.SP 1391Use 1392.` "\-I \fIname\fP" 1393to specify file names that should be 1394ignored during \fBimport\fP. You can use this option repeatedly. 1395To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), 1396specify 1397.` "\-I !". 1398.TP 1399\fBlog\fP [\fB\-l\fP] \fIrlog-options [files\fP\|.\|.\|.] 1400.I Requires: 1401repository, working directory. 1402.br 1403.I Changes: 1404nothing. 1405.br 1406.I Synonym: 1407.B rlog 1408.br 1409Display log information for \fIfiles\fP. 1410Among the more useful options are \fB\-h\fP 1411to display only the header (including tag definitions, but omitting 1412most of the full log); \fB\-r\fP to select logs on particular 1413revisions or ranges of revisions; and \fB\-d\fP to select particular 1414dates or date ranges. See 1415.BR rlog ( 1 ) 1416for full explanations. 1417This command is recursive by default, unless the 1418.B \-l 1419option is specified. 1420.TP 1421\fBrdiff\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP] [\fB\-V\fP \fIvn\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIt\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fId\fP [\fB\-r\fP \fIt2\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fId2\fP]] \fImodules\|.\|.\|.\fP 1422.I Requires: 1423repository. 1424.br 1425.I Changes: 1426nothing. 1427.br 1428.I Synonym: 1429.B patch 1430.br 1431Builds a Larry Wall format 1432.BR patch ( 1 ) 1433file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the 1434.B patch 1435program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. 1436(This is one of the few \fBcvs\fP commands that operates directly from 1437the repository, and doesn't require a prior 1438.BR checkout .) 1439The diff output is sent to the standard output device. 1440You can specify (using the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options) 1441any combination of one or two revisions or dates. 1442If only one revision or date is specified, the 1443patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the 1444current ``head'' revisions in the 1445.SM RCS 1446file. 1447.SP 1448Note that if the software release affected 1449is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to 1450specify the 1451.B \-p 1452option to the 1453.B patch 1454command when patching the old sources, so that 1455.B patch 1456is able to find the files that are located in other directories. 1457.SP 1458The standard option \fIflags\fP \fB\-f\fP, and \fB\-l\fP 1459are available with this command. There are also several 1460special option flags: 1461.SP 1462If you use the 1463.B \-s 1464option, no patch output is produced. 1465Instead, a summary of the changed or added files between the two 1466releases is sent to the standard output device. 1467This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed 1468between two dates or revisions. 1469.SP 1470If you use the 1471.B \-t 1472option, a diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. 1473This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. 1474.SP 1475If you use the 1476.B \-u 1477option, the patch output uses the newer ``unidiff'' format for context 1478diffs. 1479.SP 1480You can use 1481.B \-c 1482to explicitly specify the 1483.` "diff \-c" 1484form of context diffs 1485(which is the default), if you like. 1486.TP 1487\fBrelease\fP [\fB\-dQq\fP] \fImodules\fP\|.\|.\|. 1488.I Requires: 1489Working directory. 1490.br 1491.I Changes: 1492Working directory, history log. 1493.br 1494This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of 1495.` "cvs checkout". 1496Since 1497.B cvs 1498doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. 1499You can always simply delete your working directory, if you 1500like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you 1501leave no trace in the 1502.B cvs 1503history file that you've abandoned your checkout. 1504.SP 1505Use 1506.` "cvs release" 1507to avoid these problems. This command 1508checks that no un-committed changes are present; that you are 1509executing it from immediately above, or inside, a \fBcvs\fP working 1510directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same 1511as the repository defined in the module database. 1512.SP 1513If all these conditions are true, 1514.` "cvs release" 1515leaves a 1516record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning 1517your checkout) in the 1518.B cvs 1519history log. 1520.SP 1521You can use the \fB\-d\fP flag to request that your working copies of 1522the source files be deleted if the \fBrelease\fP succeeds. 1523.TP 1524\fBremove\fP [\fB\-lR\fP] [\fIfiles\|.\|.\|.\fP] 1525.I Requires: 1526Working directory. 1527.br 1528.I Changes: 1529Working directory. 1530.br 1531.I Synonyms: 1532.BR rm ", " delete 1533.br 1534Use this command to declare that you wish to remove \fIfiles\fP from 1535the source repository. Like most 1536.B cvs 1537commands, 1538.` "cvs remove" 1539works on files in your working 1540directory, not directly on the repository. As a safeguard, it also 1541requires that you first erase the specified files from your working 1542directory. 1543.SP 1544The files are not actually removed until you apply your changes to the 1545repository with 1546.BR commit ; 1547at that point, the corresponding 1548.SM RCS 1549files in the source repository are 1550.I moved 1551into the 1552.` "Attic" 1553directory (also within the source repository). 1554.SP 1555This command is recursive by default, scheduling all physically removed 1556files that it finds for removal by the next 1557.BR commit . 1558Use the 1559.B \-l 1560option to avoid this recursion, or just specify that actual files that you 1561wish remove to consider. 1562.TP 1563\fBrtag\fP [\fB\-f\|alnRQq\fP] [\fB\-b\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] \fIsymbolic_tag\fP \fImodules\|.\|.\|.\fP 1564.I Requires: 1565repository. 1566.br 1567.I Changes: 1568repository. 1569.br 1570.I Synonym: 1571.B rfreeze 1572.br 1573You can use this command to assign symbolic tags to particular, 1574explicitly specified source versions in the repository. 1575.` "cvs rtag" 1576works directly on the repository contents (and requires no 1577prior 1578.BR checkout ). 1579Use 1580.` "cvs tag" 1581instead, to base the selection of 1582versions to tag on the contents of your working directory. 1583.SP 1584In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distributions) 1585should not be removed, but the 1586.B \-d 1587option is available as a means to remove completely obsolete symbolic names 1588if necessary (as might be the case for an Alpha release, say). 1589.SP 1590.` "cvs rtag" 1591will not move a tag that already exists. With the \fB\-F\fP option, 1592however, 1593.` "cvs rtag" 1594will re-locate any instance of \fIsymbolic_tag\fP that already exists 1595on that file to the new repository versions. Without the \fB\-F\fP 1596option, attempting to use 1597.` "cvs rtag" 1598to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce an error 1599message. 1600.SP 1601The \fB-b\fP option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing 1602concurrent, isolated development. 1603This is most useful for creating a patch to a previously released software 1604distribution. 1605.SP 1606You can use the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options to tag only those 1607files that already contain a certain tag. This method would be used 1608to rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old tag, then delete the 1609old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the same files as the old tag. 1610.SP 1611.B rtag 1612executes recursively by default, tagging all subdirectories of 1613\fImodules\fP you specify in the argument. You can restrict its 1614operation to top-level directories with the standard \fB\-l\fP option; 1615or you can explicitly request recursion with \fB\-R\fP. 1616.SP 1617The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a tag 1618is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to a group of 1619interested parties. If you want to bypass that program, use the 1620standard \fB\-n\fP option. 1621.SP 1622Use the 1623.B \-a 1624option to have 1625.B rtag 1626look in the 1627.` "Attic" 1628for removed files that contain the specified tag. 1629The tag is removed from these files, which makes it convenient to re-use a 1630symbolic tag as development continues (and files get removed from the 1631up-coming distribution). 1632.TP 1633\fBstatus\fP [\fB\-lRqQ\fP] [\fB\-v\fP] [\fIfiles\fP\|.\|.\|.] 1634.I Requires: 1635working directory, repository. 1636.br 1637.I Changes: 1638nothing. 1639.br 1640Display a brief report on the current status of \fIfiles\fP with 1641respect to the source repository, including any ``sticky'' tags, 1642dates, or \fB\-k\fP options. (``Sticky'' options will restrict how 1643.` "cvs update" 1644operates until you reset them; see the 1645description of 1646.` "cvs update \-A\|.\|.\|.".) 1647.SP 1648You can also use this command to anticipate the potential impact of a 1649.` "cvs update" 1650on your working source directory. If you do 1651not specify any \fIfiles\fP explicitly, reports are shown for all 1652files that \fBcvs\fP has placed in your working directory. You can 1653limit the scope of this search to the current directory itself (not 1654its subdirectories) with the standard \fB\-l\fP option flag; or you 1655can explicitly request recursive status reports with the \fB\-R\fP 1656option. 1657.SP 1658The 1659.B \-v 1660option causes the symbolic tags for the 1661.SM RCS 1662file to be displayed as well. 1663.TP 1664\fBtag\fP [\fB\-lQqR\fP] [\fB\-F\fP] [\fB\-b\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] [\fB\-f\fP] \fIsymbolic_tag\fP [\fIfiles\fP\|.\|.\|.\|] 1665.I Requires: 1666working directory, repository. 1667.br 1668.I Changes: 1669repository. 1670.br 1671.I Synonym: 1672.B freeze 1673.br 1674Use this command to assign symbolic tags to the nearest repository 1675versions to your working sources. The tags are applied immediately to 1676the repository, as with \fBrtag\fP. 1677.SP 1678One potentially surprising aspect of the fact that \fBcvs tag\fP 1679operates on the repository is that you are tagging the checked-in 1680revisions, which may differ from locally modified files in your working 1681directory. If you want to avoid doing this by mistake, specify the 1682\fB-c\fP option to \fBcvs tag\fP. If there are any locally modified files, CVS 1683will abort with an error before it tags any files. 1684.SP 1685One use for tags is to record a ``snapshot'' of the current sources 1686when the software freeze date of a project arrives. As bugs are fixed 1687after the freeze date, only those changed sources that are to be part 1688of the release need be re-tagged. 1689.SP 1690The symbolic tags are meant to permanently record which revisions of which 1691files were used in creating a software distribution. 1692The 1693.BR checkout , 1694.B export 1695and 1696.B update 1697commands allow you to extract an exact copy of a tagged release at any time in 1698the future, regardless of whether files have been changed, added, or removed 1699since the release was tagged. 1700.SP 1701You can use the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options to tag only those 1702files that already contain a certain tag. This method would be used 1703to rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old tag, then delete the 1704old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the same files as the old tag. 1705.SP 1706Specifying the \fB\-f\fP flag in addition to the \fB\-r\fP or \fB\-D\fP 1707flags will tag those files named on the command line even if they do not 1708contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date. 1709.SP 1710By default (without a \fB\-r\fP or \fB\-D\fP flag) 1711the versions to be tagged are supplied 1712implicitly by the \fBcvs\fP records of your working files' history 1713rather than applied explicitly. 1714.SP 1715If you use 1716.` "cvs tag \-d \fIsymbolic_tag\fP\|.\|.\|.", 1717the 1718symbolic tag you specify is 1719.I deleted 1720instead of being added. \fIWarning\fP: Be very certain of your ground 1721before you delete a tag; doing this effectively discards some 1722historical information, which may later turn out to have been valuable. 1723.SP 1724.` "cvs tag" 1725will not move a tag that already exists. With the \fB\-F\fP option, 1726however, 1727.` "cvs tag" 1728will re-locate any instance of \fIsymbolic_tag\fP that already exists 1729on that file to the new repository versions. Without the \fB\-F\fP 1730option, attempting to use 1731.` "cvs tag" 1732to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce an error 1733message. 1734.SP 1735The \fB-b\fP option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing 1736concurrent, isolated development. 1737This is most useful for creating a patch to a previously released software 1738distribution. 1739.SP 1740Normally, 1741.B tag 1742executes recursively through subdirectories; you can prevent this by 1743using the standard \fB\-l\fP option, or specify the recursion 1744explicitly by using \fB\-R\fP. 1745.TP 1746\fBupdate\fP [\fB\-ACdf\|lPpQqR\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] \fIfiles\|.\|.\|.\fP 1747.I Requires: 1748repository, working directory. 1749.br 1750.I Changes: 1751working directory. 1752.br 1753After you've run 1754.B checkout 1755to create your private copy of source from the common repository, 1756other developers will continue changing the central source. From time 1757to time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can 1758use the 1759.B update 1760command 1761from within your working directory to reconcile your work with any 1762revisions applied to the source repository since your last 1763.B checkout 1764or 1765.BR update . 1766.SP 1767.B update 1768keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, 1769prefaced with one of the characters 1770.` "U P A R M C ?" 1771to indicate the status of the file: 1772.TP 1i 1773\fBU\fP \fIfile\fP 1774The file was brought \fIup to date\fP with respect to the repository. 1775This is done for any file that exists in the repository but not in your 1776working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not the most 1777recent versions available in the repository. 1778.TP 1i 1779\fBP\fP \fIfile\fP 1780Like \fBU\fP, but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an entire file. 1781This accomplishes the same thing as \fBU\fP using less bandwidth. 1782.TP 1i 1783\fBA\fP \fIfile\fP 1784The file has been \fIadded\fP to your private copy of the sources, and 1785will be added to the 1786source repository when you run 1787.` "cvs commit" 1788on the file. 1789This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed. 1790.TP 1i 1791\fBR\fP \fIfile\fP 1792The file has been \fIremoved\fP from your private copy of the sources, and 1793will be removed from the 1794source repository when you run 1795.` "cvs commit" 1796on the file. 1797This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed. 1798.TP 1i 1799\fBM\fP \fIfile\fP 1800The file is \fImodified\fP in your working directory. 1801.` "M" 1802can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either 1803there were no modifications to the same file in the repository, so 1804that your file remains as you last saw it; or there were modifications 1805in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were 1806\fImerged\fP successfully, without conflict, in your working 1807directory. 1808.TP 1i 1809\fBC\fP \fIfile\fP 1810A \fIconflict\fP was detected while trying to merge your changes to 1811\fIfile\fP with changes from the source repository. \fIfile\fP (the 1812copy in your working directory) is now the result of merging 1813the two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also 1814in your working directory, with the name `\fB.#\fP\fIfile\fP\fB.\fP\fIversion\fP', 1815where 1816.I version 1817is the 1818revision that your modified file started from. 1819(Note that some systems automatically purge files that begin with 1820\& 1821.` ".#" 1822if they have not been accessed for a few days. 1823If you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is a very good 1824idea to rename it.) 1825.TP 1i 1826\fB?\fP \fIfile\fP 1827\fIfile\fP is in your working directory, but does not correspond to 1828anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files 1829for \fBcvs\fP to ignore (see the description of the \fB\-I\fP option). 1830.PP 1831.RS .5i 1832.SP 1833Use the 1834.B \-A 1835option to reset any sticky tags, dates, or 1836.B \-k 1837options. (If you get a working copy of a file by using one of the 1838\fB\-r\fP, \fB\-D\fP, or \fB\-k\fP options, \fBcvs\fP remembers the 1839corresponding tag, date, or \fIkflag\fP and continues using it on 1840future updates; use the \fB\-A\fP option to make \fBcvs\fP forget these 1841specifications, and retrieve the ``head'' version of the file). 1842.SP 1843The \fB\-j\fP\fIbranch\fP option 1844merges the changes made between the 1845resulting revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g., if 1846the tag refers to a branch, 1847.B cvs 1848will merge all changes made in 1849that branch into your working file). 1850.SP 1851With two \fB-j\fP options, 1852.B cvs 1853will merge in the changes between the two respective revisions. 1854This can be used to ``remove'' a certain delta from your working file. 1855E.g., If the file foo.c is based on 1856revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and 18571.5, I might do: 1858.SP 1859.in +1i 1860.ft B 1861.nf 1862example% cvs update -j1.5 -j1.3 foo.c # note the order... 1863.fi 1864.ft P 1865.in -1i 1866.SP 1867In addition, each \fB-j\fP option can contain on optional date 1868specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen 1869revision to one within a specific date. 1870An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag. 1871.SP 1872.in +1i 1873.ft B 1874.nf 1875-jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier 1876.fi 1877.ft P 1878.in -1i 1879.SP 1880Use the 1881.B \-d 1882option to create any directories that exist in the repository if they're 1883missing from the working directory. (Normally, update acts only on 1884directories and files that were already enrolled in your 1885working directory.) This is useful for updating directories 1886that were created in the repository since the initial 1887\fBcheckout\fP; but it has an unfortunate side effect. If you 1888deliberately avoided certain directories in the repository when you 1889created your working directory (either through use of a module name or by 1890listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on the 1891command line), then updating with 1892.B \-d 1893will create those directories, which may not be what you want. 1894.SP 1895Use \fB\-I\fP \fIname\fP to ignore files whose names match \fIname\fP 1896(in your working directory) during the update. You can specify 1897\fB\-I\fP more than once on the command line to specify several files 1898to ignore. By default, 1899\fBupdate\fP ignores files whose names match certain patterns; for 1900an up to date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as 1901described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage). 1902.SP 1903Use 1904.` "\-I !" 1905to avoid ignoring any files at all. 1906.SP 1907Use the 1908.` "\-C" 1909option to overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from 1910the repository (the modified file is saved in 1911`\fB.#\fP\fIfile\fP\fB.\fP\fIrevision\fP', however). 1912.SP 1913The standard \fBcvs\fP command options \fB\-f\fP, \fB\-k\fP, 1914\fB\-l\fP, \fB\-P\fP, \fB\-p\fP, and \fB\-r\fP 1915are also available with \fBupdate\fP. 1916.RE 1917.SH "FILES" 1918For more detailed information on 1919.B cvs 1920supporting files, see 1921.BR cvs ( 5 ). 1922.LP 1923.I 1924Files in home directories: 1925.TP 1926\&.cvsrc 1927The 1928.B cvs 1929initialization file. Lines in this file can be used to specify default 1930options for each 1931.B cvs 1932command. For example the line 1933.` "diff \-c" 1934will ensure that 1935.` "cvs diff" 1936is always passed the 1937.B \-c 1938option in addition to any other options passed on the command line. 1939.TP 1940\&.cvswrappers 1941Specifies wrappers to be used in addition to those specified in the 1942CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository. 1943.LP 1944.I 1945Files in working directories: 1946.TP 1947CVS 1948A directory of \fBcvs\fP administrative files. 1949.I 1950Do not delete. 1951.TP 1952CVS/Entries 1953List and status of files in your working directory. 1954.TP 1955CVS/Entries.Backup 1956A backup of 1957.` "CVS/Entries". 1958.TP 1959CVS/Entries.Static 1960Flag: do not add more entries on 1961.` "cvs update". 1962.TP 1963CVS/Root 1964Pathname to the repository ( 1965.SM CVSROOT 1966) location at the time of checkout. This file is used instead 1967of the 1968.SM CVSROOT 1969environment variable if the environment variable is not 1970set. A warning message will be issued when the contents of this 1971file and the 1972.SM CVSROOT 1973environment variable differ. The file may be over-ridden by the 1974presence of the 1975.SM CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT 1976environment variable. 1977.TP 1978CVS/Repository 1979Pathname to the corresponding directory in the source repository. 1980.TP 1981CVS/Tag 1982Contains the per-directory ``sticky'' tag or date information. 1983This file is created/updated when you specify 1984.B \-r 1985or 1986.B \-D 1987to the 1988.B checkout 1989or 1990.B update 1991commands, and no files are specified. 1992.TP 1993CVS/Checkin.prog 1994Name of program to run on 1995.` "cvs commit". 1996.TP 1997CVS/Update.prog 1998Name of program to run on 1999.` "cvs update". 2000.LP 2001.I 2002Files in source repositories: 2003.TP 2004$CVSROOT/CVSROOT 2005Directory of global administrative files for repository. 2006.TP 2007CVSROOT/commitinfo,v 2008Records programs for filtering 2009.` "cvs commit" 2010requests. 2011.TP 2012CVSROOT/cvswrappers,v 2013Records 2014.B cvs 2015wrapper commands to be used when checking files into and out of the 2016repository. Wrappers allow the file or directory to be processed 2017on the way in and out of CVS. The intended uses are many, one 2018possible use would be to reformat a C file before the file is checked 2019in, so all of the code in the repository looks the same. 2020.TP 2021CVSROOT/editinfo,v 2022Records programs for editing/validating 2023.` "cvs commit" 2024log entries. 2025.TP 2026CVSROOT/history 2027Log file of \fBcvs\fP transactions. 2028.TP 2029CVSROOT/loginfo,v 2030Records programs for piping 2031.` "cvs commit" 2032log entries. 2033.TP 2034CVSROOT/modules,v 2035Definitions for modules in this repository. 2036.TP 2037CVSROOT/rcsinfo,v 2038Records pathnames to templates used during a 2039.` "cvs commit" 2040operation. 2041.TP 2042CVSROOT/taginfo,v 2043Records programs for validating/logging 2044.` "cvs tag" 2045and 2046.` "cvs rtag" 2047operations. 2048.TP 2049MODULE/Attic 2050Directory for removed source files. 2051.TP 2052#cvs.lock 2053A lock directory created by 2054.B cvs 2055when doing sensitive changes to the 2056source repository. 2057.TP 2058#cvs.tfl.\fIpid\fP 2059Temporary lock file for repository. 2060.TP 2061#cvs.rfl.\fIpid\fP 2062A read lock. 2063.TP 2064#cvs.wfl.\fIpid\fP 2065A write lock. 2066.SH "ENVIRONMENT" 2067.TP 2068.SM CVSROOT 2069Should contain the full pathname to the root of the 2070.B cvs 2071source repository (where the 2072.SM RCS 2073files are kept). This information must be available to \fBcvs\fP for 2074most commands to execute; if 2075.SM CVSROOT 2076is not set, or if you wish to override it for one invocation, you can 2077supply it on the command line: 2078.` "cvs \-d \fIcvsroot cvs_command\fP\|.\|.\|." 2079You may not need to set 2080.SM CVSROOT 2081if your \fBcvs\fP binary has the right path compiled in. 2082.TP 2083.SM CVSREAD 2084If this is set, 2085.B checkout 2086and 2087.B update 2088will try hard to make the files in your working directory read-only. 2089When this is not set, the default behavior is to permit modification 2090of your working files. 2091.TP 2092.SM CVSREADONLYFS 2093If this is set, the 2094.B \-R 2095option is assumed, and 2096.B cvs 2097operates in read-only repository mode. 2098.TP 2099.SM RCSBIN 2100Specifies the full pathname where to find 2101.SM RCS 2102programs, such as 2103.BR co ( 1 ) 2104and 2105.BR ci ( 1 ) 2106(CVS 1.9 and older). 2107.TP 2108.SM CVSEDITOR 2109Specifies the program to use for recording log messages during 2110.BR commit . 2111If not set, the 2112.SM VISUAL 2113and 2114.SM EDITOR 2115environment variables are tried (in that order). 2116If neither is set, a system-dependent default editor (e.g., 2117.BR vi ) 2118is used. 2119.TP 2120.SM CVS_CLIENT_PORT 2121If this variable is set then 2122.B cvs 2123will use this port in 2124\fIpserver mode\fP 2125rather than the default port (cvspserver 2401). 2126.TP 2127.SM CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT 2128If this variable is set then 2129.B cvs 2130will ignore all references to remote repositories in the CVS/Root file. 2131.TP 2132.SM CVS_OPTIONS 2133Specifies a set of default options for 2134.B cvs. 2135These options are interpreted before the startup file (\fI~/.cvsrc\fP) is read 2136and can be overridden by explicit command line parameters. 2137.TP 2138.SM CVS_RSH 2139.B cvs 2140uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the 2141remote shell command to use when starting a 2142.B cvs 2143server. If this variable is not set then 2144.` "ssh" 2145is used. 2146.TP 2147.SM CVS_SERVER 2148.B cvs 2149uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the 2150.B cvs 2151server command. If this variable is not set then 2152.` "cvs" 2153is used. 2154.TP 2155.SM CVSWRAPPERS 2156This variable is used by the 2157.` "cvswrappers" 2158script to determine the name of the wrapper file, in addition to the 2159wrappers defaults contained in the repository 2160.SM (CVSROOT/cvswrappers) 2161and the user's home directory (~/.cvswrappers). 2162.SH "AUTHORS" 2163.TP 2164Dick Grune 2165Original author of the 2166.B cvs 2167shell script version posted to 2168.B comp.sources.unix 2169in the volume6 release of December, 1986. 2170Credited with much of the 2171.B cvs 2172conflict resolution algorithms. 2173.TP 2174Brian Berliner 2175Coder and designer of the 2176.B cvs 2177program itself in April, 1989, based on the original work done by Dick. 2178.TP 2179Jeff Polk 2180Helped Brian with the design of the 2181.B cvs 2182module and vendor branch support and author of the 2183.BR checkin ( 1 ) 2184shell script (the ancestor of 2185.` "cvs import"). 2186.TP 2187And many others too numerous to mention here. 2188.SH "SEE ALSO" 2189The most comprehensive manual for CVS is 2190Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al. Depending on 2191your system, you may be able to get it with the 2192.B info cvs 2193command or it may be available as cvs.ps (postscript), cvs.texinfo 2194(texinfo source), or cvs.html. 2195.SP 2196For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related 2197to CVS, development of CVS, and more, see: 2198.in +1i 2199.B http://cvs.nongnu.org 2200.in -1i 2201.SP 2202.BR ci ( 1 ), 2203.BR co ( 1 ), 2204.BR cvs ( 5 ), 2205.BR cvsbug ( 8 ), 2206.BR diff ( 1 ), 2207.BR grep ( 1 ), 2208.BR patch ( 1 ), 2209.BR rcs ( 1 ), 2210.BR rcsdiff ( 1 ), 2211.BR rcsmerge ( 1 ), 2212.BR rlog ( 1 ).