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   2.\" $FreeBSD$ Id
   4.ds Rv \\$3
   5.ds Dt \\$4
   7.TH CVS 1 "\*(Dt"
   8.\" Full space in nroff; half space in troff SP
  10.if n .sp
  11.if t .sp .5
  13.\" quoted command `
  15.RB ` "\|\\$1\|" '\\$2
  17.SH "NAME"
  18cvs \- Concurrent Versions System
  21\fBcvs\fP [ \fIcvs_options\fP ]
  22.I cvs_command
  24.I command_options
  25] [
  26.I command_args
  28.SH "NOTE"
  29This manpage is a summary of some of the features of
  30.B cvs
  31but it may no longer be kept up-to-date.  
  32For more current and in-depth documentation, please consult the
  33Cederqvist manual (via the
  34.B info cvs
  35command or otherwise,
  36as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).
  38.IX "revision control system" "\fLcvs\fR"
  39.IX  cvs  ""  "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system"
  40.IX  "concurrent versions system \- \fLcvs\fP"
  41.IX  "release control system"  "cvs command"  ""  "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system"
  42.IX  "source control system"  "cvs command"  ""  "\fLcvs\fP \- concurrent versions system"
  43.IX  revisions  "cvs command"  ""  "\fLcvs\fP \- source control"
  44CVS is a version control system, which allows you to keep old versions
  45of files (usually source code), keep a log of who, when, and why
  46changes occurred, etc., like RCS or SCCS.  Unlike the simpler systems,
  47CVS does not just operate on one file at a time or one directory at a
  48time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories
  49consisting of version controlled files.  CVS helps to manage releases
  50and to control the concurrent editing of source files among multiple
  51authors.  CVS allows triggers to enable/log/control various
  52operations and works well over a wide area network.
  54.B cvs
  55keeps a single copy of the master sources.
  56This copy is called the source ``repository''; it contains all the
  57information to permit extracting previous software releases at any
  58time based on either a symbolic revision tag, or a date in the past.
  60.B cvs
  61provides a rich variety of commands (\fIcvs_command\fP in the
  62Synopsis), each of which often has a wealth of options, to satisfy the
  63many needs of source management in distributed environments.  However,
  64you don't have to master every detail to do useful work with
  65.BR cvs ;
  66in fact, five commands are sufficient to use (and contribute to)
  67the source repository.
  69\fBcvs checkout\fP \fImodules\fP\|.\|.\|.
  70A necessary preliminary for most \fBcvs\fP work: creates your private
  71copy of the source for \fImodules\fP (named collections of source; you
  72can also use a path relative to the source repository here).  You can
  73work with this copy without interfering with others' work.  At least
  74one subdirectory level is always created.
  76.B cvs update
  77Execute this command from \fIwithin\fP your private source
  78directory when you wish to update your copies of source files from
  79changes that other developers have made to the source in the
  82\fBcvs add\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|.
  83Use this command to enroll new files in \fBcvs\fP records of your
  84working directory.  The files will be added to the repository the next
  85time you run
  86.` "cvs commit".
  88You should use the
  89.` "cvs import"
  90command to bootstrap new sources into the source repository.
  91.` "cvs add"
  92is only used for new files to an already checked-out module.
  94\fBcvs remove\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|.
  95Use this command (after erasing any files listed) to declare that you
  96wish to eliminate files from the repository.  The removal does not
  97affect others until you run
  98.` "cvs commit".
 100\fBcvs commit\fP \fIfile\fP\|.\|.\|.
 101Use this command when you wish to ``publish'' your changes to other
 102developers, by incorporating them in the source repository.
 105.B cvs
 106command line can include
 107.IR cvs_options ,
 108which apply to the overall
 109.B cvs
 110program; a
 111.IR cvs_command ,
 112which specifies a particular action on the source repository; and
 113.I command_options
 115.I command_arguments
 116to fully specify what the
 117.I cvs_command
 118will do.
 120.I Warning:
 121you must be careful of precisely where you place options relative to the
 122.IR cvs_command .
 123The same option can mean different things depending on whether it
 124is in the
 125.I cvs_options
 126position (to the left of a
 127.B cvs
 128command) or in the
 129.I command_options
 130position (to the right of a
 131.B cvs
 134There are only two situations where you may omit
 135.IR cvs_command :
 136.` "cvs \-H"
 138.` "cvs --help"
 139elicits a list of available commands, and
 140.` "cvs \-v"
 142.` "cvs --version"
 143displays version information on \fBcvs\fP itself.
 146As of release 1.6,
 147.B cvs
 149.SM GNU
 150style long options as well as short options.  Only
 151a few long options are currently supported, these are listed in
 152brackets after the short options whose functions they duplicate.
 154Use these options to control the overall
 155.B cvs
 158.B \-H [ --help ]
 159Display usage information about the specified
 160.I cvs_command
 161(but do not actually execute the command).  If you don't specify a
 162command name,
 163.` "cvs \-H"
 164displays a summary of all the commands available.
 166.B \-Q
 167Causes the command to be
 168.I really
 169quiet; the command will generate output only for serious problems.
 171.B \-q
 172Causes the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such
 173as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.
 175\fB\-b\fP \fIbindir\fP
 177.I bindir
 178as the directory where
 179.SM RCS
 180programs are located (CVS 1.9 and older).
 181Overrides the setting of the
 183environment variable.
 184This value should be specified as an absolute pathname.
 186\fB\-d\fP \fICVS_root_directory\fP
 188.I CVS_root_directory
 189as the root directory pathname of the master
 190source repository.
 191Overrides the setting of the
 193environment variable.
 194This value should be specified as an absolute pathname.
 196\fB\-e\fP \fIeditor\fP
 198.I editor
 199to enter revision log information.
 200Overrides the setting of the
 203.SM VISUAL\c
 204, and
 206environment variables.
 208.B \-f
 209Do not read the
 210.B cvs
 211startup file (\fI~/.cvsrc\fP).
 213.B \-n
 214Do not change any files.  Attempt to execute the
 215.IR cvs_command ,
 216but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any
 217existing files, or create any new files.
 219.B \-t
 220Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of
 221.B cvs
 222activity.  Particularly useful with
 223.B \-n
 224to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.
 226.B \-r
 227Makes new working files read-only.
 228Same effect as if the
 230environment variable is set.
 232.B \-R
 233Turns on read-only repository mode.  This allows one to check out from a
 234read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a CDROM
 236Same effect as if the
 238environment variable is set.  Using
 239.B \-R
 240can also considerably speed up checkout's over NFS.
 242.B \-v [ --version ]
 243Displays version and copyright information for
 244.BR cvs .
 246.B \-w
 247Makes new working files read-write (default).
 248Overrides the setting of the
 250environment variable.
 252.B \-g
 253Forces group-write perms on working files.  This option is typically
 254used when you have multiple users sharing a single checked out source
 255tree, allowing them to operate their shells with a less dangerous umask.
 256To use this feature, create a directory to hold the checked-out source
 257tree, set it to a private group, and set up the directory such that
 258files created under it inherit the group id of the directory.  This occurs 
 259automatically with FreeBSD.  With SysV you must typically set the SGID bit
 260on the directory.  The users who are to share the checked out tree must
 261be placed in that group.  Note that the sharing of a single checked-out
 262source tree is very different from giving several users access to a common
 263CVS repository.  Access to a common CVS repository already maintains shared
 264group-write perms and does not require this option.
 266To use the option transparently, simply place the line 'cvs -g' in your
 267~/.cvsrc file.  Doing this is not recommended unless you firewall all your
 268source checkouts within a private group or within a private mode 0700
 271.B \-x
 272Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  As of
 273this writing, this is only implemented when using a Kerberos
 276\fB\-z\fP \fIcompression\-level\fP
 277When transferring files across the network use
 278.B gzip
 279with compression level \fIcompression\-level\fP to compress and
 280de-compress data as it is transferred.  Requires the presence of
 282.SM GNU
 283.B gzip
 284program in the current search path at both ends of the link.
 285.SH "USAGE"
 286Except when requesting general help with
 287.` "cvs \-H",
 288you must specify a
 289.I cvs_command
 291.B cvs
 292to select a specific release control function to perform.
 294.B cvs
 295command accepts its own collection of options and arguments.
 296However, many options are available across several commands.
 297You can display a usage summary for each command by specifying the
 298.B \-H
 299option with the command.
 301Normally, when CVS starts up, it reads the
 302.I .cvsrc
 303file from the home directory of the user reading it.  This startup
 304procedure can be turned off with the
 305.B \-f
 309.I .cvsrc
 310file lists CVS commands with a list of arguments, one command per
 311line.  For example, the following line in \fI.cvsrc\fP:
 313diff \-c
 315will mean that the
 316.` "cvs diff"
 317command will always be passed the \-c option in addition to any
 318other options that are specified in the command line (in this case
 319it will have the effect of producing context sensitive diffs for
 320all executions of
 321.` "cvs diff"
 324Global options are specified using the \fBcvs\fP keyword.  For example,
 325the following:
 327cvs \-q
 329will mean that all
 330.` "cvs"
 331commands will behave as thought he \-q global option had been supplied.
 333Here are brief descriptions of all the
 334.B cvs
 337.B add
 338Add a new file or directory to the repository, pending a
 339.` "cvs commit"
 340on the same file.
 341Can only be done from within sources created by a previous
 342.` "cvs checkout"
 345.` "cvs import"
 346to place whole new hierarchies of sources under
 347.B cvs
 349(Does not directly affect repository; changes
 350working directory.)
 352.B admin
 354control functions on the source repository.  (Changes
 355repository directly; uses working directory without changing it.)
 357.B checkout
 358Make a working directory of source files for editing.  (Creates or changes
 359working directory.)
 361.B commit
 362Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions from your
 363working directory.  (Changes repository.)
 365.B diff
 366Show differences between files in working directory and source
 367repository, or between two revisions in source repository.
 368(Does not change either repository or working directory.)
 370.B export
 371Prepare copies of a set of source files for shipment off site.
 372Differs from
 373.` "cvs checkout"
 374in that no
 375.B cvs
 376administrative directories are created (and therefore
 377.` "cvs commit"
 378cannot be executed from a directory prepared with
 379.` "cvs export"),
 380and a symbolic tag must be specified.
 381(Does not change repository; creates directory similar to working
 384.B history
 385Show reports on
 386.B cvs
 387commands that you or others have executed on a particular file or
 388directory in the source repository.  (Does not change repository or
 389working directory.)  History logs are kept only if enabled by creation
 390of the
 391.` "$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history"
 392file; see
 393.BR cvs ( 5 ).
 395.B import
 396Incorporate a set of updates from off-site into the source repository,
 397as a ``vendor branch''.  (Changes repository.)
 399.B init
 400Initialize a repository by adding the CVSROOT subdirectory and some default
 401control files. You must use this command or initialize the repository in
 402some other way before you can use it.
 404.B log
 406log information.
 407(Does not change repository or working directory.)
 409.B rdiff
 410Prepare a collection of diffs as a patch file between two releases in
 411the repository.  (Does not change repository or working directory.)
 413.B release
 414Cancel a
 415.` "cvs checkout",
 416abandoning any changes.
 417(Can delete working directory; no effect on repository.)
 419.B remove
 420Remove files from the source repository, pending a
 421.` "cvs commit"
 422on the same files.  (Does not directly affect repository;
 423changes working directory.)
 425.B rtag
 426Explicitly specify a symbolic tag for particular revisions of files in the
 427source repository.  See also
 428.` "cvs tag".
 429(Changes repository directly; does not require or affect
 430working directory.)
 432.B status
 433Show current status of files: latest version, version in working
 434directory, whether working version has been edited and, optionally,
 435symbolic tags in the
 436.SM RCS
 437file.  (Does not change
 438repository or working directory.)
 440.B tag
 441Specify a symbolic tag for files in the repository.  By default, tags
 442the revisions
 443that were last synchronized with your working directory.   (Changes
 444repository directly; uses working directory without changing it.)
 446.B update
 447Bring your working directory up to date with changes from the
 448repository.  Merges are performed automatically when possible; a
 449warning is issued if manual resolution is required for conflicting
 450changes.  (Changes working directory; does not change repository.)
 452This section describes the
 453.I command_options
 454that are available across several
 455.B cvs
 456commands.  Not all commands support all of these options; each option
 457is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  However, when
 458a command has one of these options you can count on the same meaning
 459for the option as in other commands.  (Other command
 460options, which are listed with the individual commands, may have
 461different meanings from one
 462.B cvs
 463command to another.)
 464.I "Warning:"
 466.B history
 467command is an exception;
 468it supports many options that conflict
 469even with these standard options.
 471\fB\-D\fP \fIdate_spec\fP
 472Use the most recent revision no later than \fIdate_spec\fP (a single
 473argument, date description specifying a date in the
 474past).  A wide variety of date formats are supported, in particular
 475ISO ("1972-09-24 20:05") or Internet ("24 Sep 1972 20:05").
 476The \fIdate_spec\fP is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a
 477specific timezone is specified.
 478The specification is ``sticky'' when you use it to make a
 479private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working file
 480using \fB\-D\fP, \fBcvs\fP records the date you
 481specified, so that further updates in the same directory will use the
 482same date (unless you explicitly override it; see the description of
 483the \fBupdate\fP command).
 484.B \-D
 485is available with the
 486.BR checkout ", " diff ", " history ", " export ", "
 487.BR rdiff ", " rtag ", and "
 488.B update
 490Examples of valid date specifications include: +1i
 492.ft B
 4941 month ago
 4952 hours ago
 496400000 seconds ago
 497last year
 498last Monday
 500a fortnight ago
 5013/31/92 10:00:07 PST
 502January 23, 1987 10:05pm
 50322:00 GMT
 505.ft P -1i
 508.B \-f
 509When you specify a particular date or tag to \fBcvs\fP commands, they
 510normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist on
 511the date) that you specified.  Use the \fB\-f\fP option if you want
 512files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date.  (The
 513most recent version is used in this situation.)
 514.B \-f
 515is available with these commands:
 516.BR checkout ", " export ", "
 517.BR rdiff ", " rtag ", and " update .
 519\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP
 520Alter the default
 521processing of keywords.
 522The \fB\-k\fP option is available with the
 523.BR add ", " checkout ", " diff ", " rdiff ", " export ", and "
 524BR update
 525commands.  Your \fIkflag\fP specification is ``sticky'' when you use
 526it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use
 527this option with the \fBcheckout\fP or \fBupdate\fP commands,
 528\fBcvs\fP associates your selected \fIkflag\fP with the file, and
 529continues to use it with future \fBupdate\fP commands on the same file
 530until you specify otherwise.
 532Some of the more useful \fIkflag\fPs are \-ko and \-kb (for binary files),
 533and \-kv which is useful for an
 534.B export
 535where you wish to retain keyword information after an
 536.B import
 537at some other site.
 539.B \-l
 540Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recurring through
 541subdirectories.   Available with the following commands:
 542.BR checkout ", " commit ", " diff ", "
 543.BR export ", " remove ", " rdiff ", " rtag ", "
 544.BR status ", " tag ", and " update .
 546.B \-n
 548.I not
 549run any
 550.BR checkout / commit / tag / update
 551program.  (A program can be specified to run on each of these
 552activities, in the modules database; this option bypasses it.)
 553Available with the
 554.BR checkout ", " export ", and "
 555.B rtag
 557.I Warning:
 558this is not the same
 559as the overall
 560.` "cvs \-n"
 561option, which you can specify to the
 562.I left
 563of a
 564.B cvs
 567.B \-P
 568Prune (remove) directories that are empty after being updated, on
 569.BR checkout ", or " update .
 570Normally, an empty directory (one that is void of revision-controlled
 571files) is left alone.
 573.B \-P
 574will cause these directories to be silently removed from your checked-out
 576This does not remove the directory from the repository, only from your
 577checked out copy.
 578Note that this option is implied by the
 579.B \-r
 581.B \-D
 582options of
 583.BR checkout " and " export .
 585.B \-T
 586Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the (local) repository.
 587This option is useful for developers maintaining a local cvs repository
 588but committing to a remote repository.  By maintaining CVS/Template the
 589remote commits will still be able to bring up the proper template in the
 590commit editor session.
 591Available with the
 592.BR checkout " and " update
 595.B \-p
 596Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output,
 597rather than writing them in the current directory.  Available with the
 598.BR checkout " and " update
 601\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP
 602Use the revision specified by the
 603.I tag
 604argument instead of the default ``head'' revision.  As well as
 605arbitrary tags defined with the \fBtag\fP or \fBrtag\fP command, two
 606special tags are always available:
 607.` "HEAD"
 608refers to the most
 609recent version available in the repository, and
 610.` "BASE"
 611refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working
 614The \fItag\fP specification is ``sticky'' when you use
 615this option with
 616.` "cvs checkout"
 618.` "cvs update"
 620make your own copy of a file: \fBcvs\fP remembers the \fItag\fP and
 621continues to use it on future \fBupdate\fP commands, until you specify
 623.I tag
 624can be either a symbolic or numeric tag.
 625When a command expects a specific revision,
 626the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent
 627revision on that branch.
 628Specifying the
 629.B \-q
 630global option along with the
 631.B \-r
 632command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the
 633.SM RCS
 634file does not contain the specified tag.
 635.B \-r
 636is available with the
 637.BR annotate ", " checkout ", " 
 638.BR commit ", " diff ", " history ", " export ", " rdiff ", "
 639.BR rtag ", and " update
 641.I Warning:
 642this is not the same
 643as the overall
 644.` "cvs \-r"
 645option, which you can specify to the
 646.I left
 647of a
 648.B cvs
 651Here (finally) are details on all the
 652.B cvs
 653commands and the options each accepts.  The summary lines at the top
 654of each command's description highlight three kinds of things:
 655.TP 1i
 656\ \ \ \ Command Options and Arguments
 657Special options are described in detail below; common command options
 658may appear only in the summary line.
 659.TP 1i
 660\ \ \ \ Working Directory, or Repository?
 661Some \fBcvs\fP commands require a working directory to operate; some
 662require a repository.  Also, some commands \fIchange\fP the
 663repository, some change the working directory, and some change
 665.TP 1i
 666\ \ \ \ Synonyms
 667Many commands have synonyms, which you may find easier to
 668remember (or type) than the principal name.
 671\fBadd\fP [\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP] [\fB\-m '\fP\fImessage\fP\fB'\fP] \fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP
 672.I Requires:
 673repository, working directory.
 675.I Changes:
 676working directory.
 678.I Synonym:
 679.B new
 681Use the
 682.B add
 683command to create a new file or directory in the
 684source repository.
 685The files or directories specified with
 686.B add
 687must already exist in the current directory (which must have been created
 688with the
 689.B checkout
 691To add a whole new directory hierarchy to the source repository
 692(for example, files received from a third-party vendor), use the
 693.` "cvs import"
 694command instead.
 696If the argument to
 697.` "cvs add"
 698refers to an immediate sub-directory, the directory is
 699created at the correct place in the
 700source repository, and the necessary
 701.B cvs
 702administration files are created in your working directory.
 703If the directory already exists in the source repository,
 704.` "cvs add"
 705still creates the administration files in your version of the directory.
 706This allows you to use
 707.` "cvs add"
 708to add a particular directory to your private sources even if
 709someone else created that directory after your
 710.B checkout
 711of the sources.  You can do the following:
 712.SP +1i
 714.ft B
 716example% mkdir new_directory
 717example% cvs add new_directory
 718example% cvs update new_directory
 720.ft P -1i
 723An alternate approach using
 724.` "cvs update"
 725might be:
 726.SP +1i
 728.ft B
 730example% cvs update -d new_directory
 732.ft P -1i
 735(To add \fIany available\fP new directories to your working directory, it's
 736probably simpler to use
 737.` "cvs checkout"
 739.` "cvs update -d".)
 741The added files are not placed in the
 742source repository until you use
 743.` "cvs commit"
 744to make the change permanent.
 745Doing a
 746.` "cvs add"
 747on a file that was removed with the
 748.` "cvs remove"
 749command will resurrect the file, if no
 750.` "cvs commit"
 751command intervened.
 753You will have the opportunity to specify a logging message, as usual,
 754when you use
 755.` "cvs commit"
 756to make the new file permanent.  If you'd like to have another
 757logging message associated with just
 758.I creation
 759of the file (for example, to describe the file's purpose), you can
 760specify it with the
 761.` "\-m \fImessage\fP"
 762option to the
 763.B add
 767.` "-k kflag"
 768option specifies the default way that this
 769file will be checked out.
 771.` "kflag"
 772argument is stored in the
 773.SM RCS
 774file and can be changed with
 775.` "cvs admin".
 777.` "-ko"
 778is useful for checking in binaries that
 779shouldn't have
 780keywords expanded.
 782\fBadmin\fP [\fIrcs-options\fP] \fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP
 783.I Requires:
 784repository, working directory.
 786.I Changes:
 789.I Synonym:
 790.B rcs
 792This is the
 793.B cvs
 794interface to assorted administrative
 795facilities, similar to
 796.BR rcs ( 1 ).
 797This command works recursively, so extreme care should be
 800\fBcheckout\fP [\fBoptions\fP] \fImodules\fP.\|.\|.
 801.I Requires:
 804.I Changes:
 805working directory.
 807.I Synonyms:
 808.BR co ", " get
 810Make a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by
 811.IR modules .
 812You must execute
 813.` "cvs checkout"
 814before using most of the other
 815.B cvs
 816commands, since most of them operate on your working directory.
 818\fImodules\fP are either symbolic names (themselves defined as the
 820.` "modules"
 821in the source repository; see
 822.BR cvs ( 5 ))
 823for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to
 824directories or files in the repository.
 826Depending on the
 827.I modules
 828you specify,
 829.B checkout
 830may recursively create directories and populate them with the appropriate
 831source files.
 832You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether
 833other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources);
 834update them to include new changes applied by others to the source
 835repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the
 838Note that
 839.B checkout
 840is used to create directories.
 841The top-level directory created is always added to the directory
 843.B checkout
 844is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified
 845.IR module .
 846In the case of a
 847.I module
 848alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be
 849sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that
 850.B checkout
 851will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into
 852your private work area (unless you specify the
 853.B \-Q
 854global option).
 857.` "cvs checkout"
 858on a directory that was already built by a prior
 859.B checkout
 860is also permitted, and
 861has the same effect as specifying the
 862.B \-d
 863option to the
 864.B update
 865command described below.
 868.I options
 869permitted with
 870.` "cvs checkout"
 871include the standard command options
 872.BR \-P ", " \-f ", "
 873.BI \-k " kflag"
 875.BR \-l ", " \-n ", " \-p ", "
 876.BR \-r
 877.IR tag ", and"
 878.BI \-D " date"\c
 881In addition to those, you can use these special command options
 883.BR checkout :
 885Use the
 886.B \-A
 887option to reset any sticky tags, dates, or
 888.B \-k
 889options.  (If you get a working file using one of the
 890\fB\-r\fP, \fB\-D\fP, or \fB\-k\fP options, \fBcvs\fP remembers the
 891corresponding tag, date, or \fIkflag\fP and continues using it on
 892future updates; use the \fB\-A\fP option to make \fBcvs\fP forget these
 893specifications, and retrieve the ``head'' version of the file).
 894Does not reset sticky
 895.B \-k
 896options on modified files.
 899.BI \-j " branch"
 900option merges the changes made between the
 901resulting revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g., if
 902the tag refers to a branch,
 903.B cvs
 904will merge all changes made in that branch into your working file).
 906With two \fB-j\fP options,
 907.B cvs
 908will merge in the changes between the two respective revisions.
 909This can be used to ``remove'' a certain delta from your working file.
 911In addition, each \fB-j\fP option can contain on optional date
 912specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen
 913revision to one within a specific date.
 914An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag.
 915An example might be what
 916.` "cvs import"
 917tells you to do when you have
 918just imported sources that have conflicts with local changes:
 919.SP +1i
 921.ft B
 923example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module
 925.ft P -1i
 928Use the
 929.B \-N
 930option with
 931.` "\-d \fIdir\fP"
 932to avoid shortening module paths in your working directory.   (Normally, \fBcvs\fP shortens paths as much as possible when you specify an explicit target directory.)
 934Use the
 935.B \-c
 936option to copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output,
 937instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your
 938working directory.
 940Use the
 941.BI \-d " dir"
 942option to create a directory called
 943.I dir
 944for the working files, instead of using the module name.  Unless you
 945also use \fB\-N\fP, the paths created under \fIdir\fP will be as short
 946as possible.
 948Use the
 949.B \-s
 950option to display per-module status information stored with
 952.B \-s
 953option within the modules file. 
 955\fBcommit\fP [\fB\-lR\fP] [\fB\-m\fP '\fIlog_message\fP' | \fB\-F\fP \fIfile\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIrevision\fP] [\fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP]
 956.I Requires:
 957working directory, repository.
 959.I Changes:
 962.I Synonym:
 963.B ci
 966.` "cvs commit"
 967when you want to incorporate changes from your working source
 968files into the general source repository.
 970If you don't specify particular \fIfiles\fP to commit, all
 971of the files in your working current directory are examined.
 972.B commit
 973is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have
 974really changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify the
 975.B \-R
 976option), files
 977in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have
 978changed; you can use the
 979.B \-l
 980option to limit
 981.B commit
 982to the current directory only.
 983Sometimes you may want to force a file to be committed even though it
 984is unchanged; this is achieved with the
 985.B \-f
 986flag, which also has the effect of disabling recursion (you can turn
 987it back on with
 988.B \-R
 989of course).
 991.B commit
 992verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions
 993in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without
 994committing, if any of the specified files must be made current first
 996.` "cvs update".
 997.B commit
 998does not call the
 999.B update
1000command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when
1001the time is right.
1003When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log
1004message that will be written to one or more logging programs and placed in the
1005source repository file.
1006You can instead specify the log message on the command line with the
1007.B \-m
1008option, thus suppressing the editor invocation, or use the
1009.B \-F
1010option to specify that the argument \fIfile\fP contains the log message.
1013.B \-r
1014option can be used to commit to a particular symbolic or numeric revision.
1015For example, to bring all your files up to the
1016revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you might do:
1017.SP +1i
1019.ft B
1021example% cvs commit -r3.0
1023.ft P -1i
1026.B cvs
1027will only allow you to commit to a revision that is on the main trunk (a
1028revision with a single dot).
1029However, you can also commit to a branch revision (one that has an even
1030number of dots) with the
1031.B \-r
1033To create a branch revision, one typically use the
1034.B \-b
1035option of the
1036.BR rtag " or " tag
1038Then, either
1039.BR checkout " or " update
1040can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch.
1041From that point on, all
1042.B commit
1043changes made within these working sources will be automatically added
1044to a branch revision, thereby not perturbing main-line development in any
1046For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the
1047product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you
1048might do:
1049.SP +1i
1051.ft B
1053example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
1054example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module
1055example% cd product_module
1056[[ hack away ]]
1057example% cvs commit
1059.ft P -1i
1062Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on
1063whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.
1064If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but
1065without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a
1066new branch.
1067Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full
1068benefit of
1069.B cvs
1070conflict resolution.
1071The scenario might look like:
1072.SP +1i
1074.ft B
1076example% cvs tag -b EXPR1
1077example% cvs update -rEXPR1
1078[[ hack away ]]
1079example% cvs commit
1081.ft P -1i
1084Others would simply do
1085.` "cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module"
1086to work with you on the experimental change.
1088\fBdiff\fP [\fB\-kl\fP] [\fIformat_options\fP] [[\fB\-r\fP \fIrev1\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate1\fP | \fB\-j\fP \fIrev1:date1\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIrev2\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate2\fP | \fB\-j\fP \fIrev2:date2\fP]] [\fIfiles.\|.\|.\fP]
1089.I Requires:
1090working directory, repository.
1092.I Changes:
1095You can compare your working files with revisions in the source
1096repository, with the
1097.` "cvs diff"
1098command.  If you don't specify a particular revision, your files
1099are compared with the revisions they were based on.  You can also use
1100the standard
1101.B cvs
1102command option
1103.B \-r
1104to specify a particular revision to compare your files with.  Finally,
1105if you use
1106.B \-r
1107twice, you can see differences between two revisions in the
1109You can also specify
1110.B \-D
1111options to diff against a revision (on the head branch) in the past, and
1112you can also specify
1113.B \-j
1114options to diff against a revision relative to a branch tag in the past.
1116.B \-r
1118.B \-D
1120.B \-j
1121options can be mixed together with at most two options ever specified.
1124.` "cvs --help diff"
1125for a list of supported
1126.IR format_options .
1128If you don't specify any files,
1129.B diff
1130will display differences for all those files in the current directory
1131(and its subdirectories, unless you use the standard option
1132.BR \-l )
1134differ from the corresponding revision in the source repository
1135(i.e. files that
1136.I you
1137have changed), or that differ from the revision specified.
1139\fBexport\fP [\-\fBf\|lNnQq\fP] \fB\-r\fP \fIrev\fP\||\|\fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP [\fB\-d\fP \fIdir\fP] [\fB\-k\fP \fIkflag\fP] \fImodule\fP.\|.\|.
1140.I Requires:
1143.I Changes:
1144current directory.
1146This command is a variant of
1147.` "cvs checkout";
1148use it when you want a copy of the source for \fImodule\fP
1149without the \fBcvs\fP administrative directories.  For example, you
1150might use
1151.` "cvs export"
1152to prepare source for shipment
1153off-site.  This command \fIrequires\fP that you specify a date or tag
1154(with \fB\-D\fP or \fB\-r\fP), so that you can count on reproducing
1155the source you ship to others.
1157The only non-standard options are
1158.` "\-d \fIdir\fP"
1159(write the
1160source into directory \fIdir\fP) and
1161.` "\-N"
1162(don't shorten
1163module paths).
1164These have the same meanings as the same options in
1165.` "cvs checkout".
1168.B \-kv
1169option is useful when
1170.B export
1171is used.
1172This causes any
1173keywords to be expanded such that an
1174.B import
1175done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information.
1176Other \fIkflag\fPs may be used with
1177.` "cvs export"
1178and are described in
1179.BR co ( 1 ).
1181\fBhistory\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIreport\fP] [\fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP] [\fB\-\fP\fIoptions args\fP] [\fIfiles\fP.\|.\|.]
1182.I Requires:
1183the file
1184.` "$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history"
1186.I Changes:
1189\fBcvs\fP keeps a history file that tracks each use of the
1190\fBcheckout\fP, \fBcommit\fP, \fBrtag\fP, \fBupdate\fP, and \fBrelease\fP
1191commands.  You can use
1192.` "cvs history"
1193to display this
1194information in various formats.
1196.I Warning:
1197.` "cvs history"
1199.` "\-f",
1200.` "\-l",
1201.` "\-n",
1203.` "\-p"
1204in ways that conflict with the
1205descriptions in
1210Several options (shown above as \fB\-\fP\fIreport\fP) control what
1211kind of report is generated:
1212.TP 1i
1213.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-c
1214Report on each time \fBcommit\fP was used (i.e., each time the
1215repository was modified).
1216.TP 1i
1217\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-m\fP \fImodule\fP
1218Report on a particular \fImodule\fP.  (You can meaningfully use
1219\fB\-m\fP more than once on the command line.)
1220.TP 1i
1221.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-o
1222Report on checked-out modules.
1223.TP 1i
1224.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-T
1225Report on all tags.
1226.TP 1i
1227\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-x\fP \fItype\fP
1228Extract a particular set of record types \fIX\fP from the \fBcvs\fP
1229history.  The types are indicated by single letters, which you may
1230specify in combination.
1231Certain commands have a single record type: \fBcheckout\fP (type `O'),
1232\fBrelease\fP (type `F'), and \fBrtag\fP (type `T').  One of four
1233record types may result from an \fBupdate\fP: `W', when the working copy
1234of a file is deleted during update (because it was gone from the
1235repository); `U', when a working file was copied from the
1236repository; `G', when a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C',
1237when a merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring
1238manual merging).  Finally, one of three record types results from
1239\fBcommit\fP: `M', when a file was modified; `A', when a file is first
1240added; and `R', when a file is removed.
1241.TP 1i
1242.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-e
1243Everything (all record types); equivalent to specifying
1244.` "\-xMACFROGWUT".
1245.TP 1i
1246\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-z\fP \fIzone\fP
1247Use time zone
1248.I zone
1249when outputting history records.
1250The zone name
1251.B LT
1252stands for local time;
1253numeric offsets stand for hours and minutes ahead of UTC.
1254For example,
1255.B +0530
1256stands for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east of) UTC.
1258.RS .5i
1259The options shown as \fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP constrain the report without
1260requiring option arguments:
1262.TP 1i
1263.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-a
1264Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user
1266.` "cvs history").
1267.TP 1i
1268.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-l
1269Show last modification only.
1270.TP 1i
1271.B \ \ \ \ \ \ \-w
1272Show only the records for modifications done from the same working
1273directory where
1274.` "cvs history"
1275is executing.
1277.RS .5i
1278The options shown as \fB\-\fP\fIoptions args\fP constrain the report
1279based on an argument:
1281.TP 1i
1282\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-b\fP \fIstr\fP
1283Show data back to a record containing the string \fIstr\fP in either
1284the module name, the file name, or the repository path.
1285.TP 1i
1286\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-D\fP \fIdate\fP
1287Show data since \fIdate\fP.
1288.TP 1i
1289\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-p\fP \fIrepository\fP
1290Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several
1291\fB\-p\fP options on the same command line).
1292.TP 1i
1293\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-r\fP \fIrev\fP
1294Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag
1295named \fIrev\fP appears in individual RCS files.
1297.SM RCS
1298file is searched for the revision or tag.
1299.TP 1i
1300\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-t\fP \fItag\fP
1301Show records since tag \fItag\fP was last added to the history file.
1302This differs from the \fB-r\fP flag above in that it reads
1303only the history file, not the
1304.SM RCS
1305files, and is much faster.
1306.TP 1i
1307\fB\ \ \ \ \ \ \-u\fP \fIname\fP
1308Show records for user \fIname\fP.
1311\fBimport\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIoptions\fP] \fIrepository vendortag releasetag\fP.\|.\|.
1312.I Requires:
1313Repository, source distribution directory.
1315.I Changes:
1319.` "cvs import"
1320to incorporate an entire source
1321distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your
1322source repository directory.  You can use this command both for
1323initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the
1324module form the outside source.
1326The \fIrepository\fP argument gives a directory name (or a path to a
1327directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories; if the
1328directory did not exist, \fBimport\fP creates it.
1330When you use \fBimport\fP for updates to source that has been modified in your
1331source repository (since a prior \fBimport\fP), it
1332will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of
1333development; use
1334.` "cvs checkout -j"
1335to reconcile the differences, as \fBimport\fP instructs you to do.
1337By default, certain file names are ignored during
1338.` "cvs import":
1339names associated with
1340.SM CVS
1341administration, or with other common source control systems; common
1342names for patch files, object files, archive files, and editor backup
1343files; and other names that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities.
1344For an up to date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as
1345described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).
1347The outside source is saved in a first-level
1348branch, by default
1349.` "1.1.1".
1350Updates are leaves of this
1351branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of
1352source will be revision
1353.` "",
1354then files from the first
1355imported update will be revision
1356.` "",
1357and so on.
1359At least three arguments are required.  \fIrepository\fP is needed to
1360identify the collection of source.  \fIvendortag\fP is a tag for the
1361entire branch (e.g., for
1362.` "1.1.1").
1363You must also specify at
1364least one \fIreleasetag\fR to uniquely identify the files at
1365the leaves created each time you execute
1366.` "cvs import".
1368\fIreleasetag\fR should be new, not previously existing in the
1369repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release.
1371One of the standard
1372.B cvs
1373command options is available: \fB\-m\fP
1374\fImessage\fP.  If you do not specify a logging message with
1375\fB\-m\fP, your editor is invoked (as with \fBcommit\fP) to allow you
1376to enter one.
1378There are three additional special options.
1381.` "\-d"
1382to specify that each file's time of last modification should be used
1383for the checkin date and time.
1386.` "\-b \fIbranch\fP"
1387to specify a first-level branch other
1389.` "1.1.1".
1392.` "\-I \fIname\fP"
1393to specify file names that should be
1394ignored during \fBimport\fP.  You can use this option repeatedly.
1395To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default),
1397.` "\-I !".
1399\fBlog\fP [\fB\-l\fP] \fIrlog-options [files\fP\|.\|.\|.]
1400.I Requires:
1401repository, working directory.
1403.I Changes:
1406.I Synonym:
1407.B rlog
1409Display log information for \fIfiles\fP.
1410Among the more useful options are \fB\-h\fP
1411to display only the header (including tag definitions, but omitting
1412most of the full log); \fB\-r\fP to select logs on particular
1413revisions or ranges of revisions; and \fB\-d\fP to select particular
1414dates or date ranges.  See
1415.BR rlog ( 1 )
1416for full explanations.
1417This command is recursive by default, unless the
1418.B \-l
1419option is specified.
1421\fBrdiff\fP [\fB\-\fP\fIflags\fP] [\fB\-V\fP \fIvn\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fIt\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fId\fP [\fB\-r\fP \fIt2\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fId2\fP]] \fImodules\|.\|.\|.\fP
1422.I Requires:
1425.I Changes:
1428.I Synonym:
1429.B patch
1431Builds a Larry Wall format
1432.BR patch ( 1 )
1433file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the
1434.B patch
1435program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release.
1436(This is one of the few \fBcvs\fP commands that operates directly from
1437the repository, and doesn't require a prior
1438.BR checkout .)
1439The diff output is sent to the standard output device.
1440You can specify (using the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options)
1441any combination of one or two revisions or dates.
1442If only one revision or date is specified, the
1443patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the
1444current ``head'' revisions in the
1445.SM RCS
1448Note that if the software release affected
1449is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to
1450specify the
1451.B \-p
1452option to the
1453.B patch
1454command when patching the old sources, so that
1455.B patch
1456is able to find the files that are located in other directories.
1458The standard option \fIflags\fP \fB\-f\fP, and \fB\-l\fP
1459are available with this command.  There are also several
1460special option flags:
1462If you use the
1463.B \-s
1464option, no patch output is produced.
1465Instead, a summary of the changed or added files between the two
1466releases is sent to the standard output device.
1467This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed
1468between two dates or revisions.
1470If you use the
1471.B \-t
1472option, a diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device.
1473This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was.
1475If you use the
1476.B \-u
1477option, the patch output uses the newer ``unidiff'' format for context
1480You can use
1481.B \-c
1482to explicitly specify the
1483.` "diff \-c"
1484form of context diffs
1485(which is the default), if you like.
1487\fBrelease\fP [\fB\-dQq\fP] \fImodules\fP\|.\|.\|.
1488.I Requires:
1489Working directory.
1491.I Changes:
1492Working directory, history log.
1494This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of
1495.` "cvs checkout".
1497.B cvs
1498doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command.
1499You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
1500like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you
1501leave no trace in the
1502.B cvs
1503history file that you've abandoned your checkout.
1506.` "cvs release"
1507to avoid these problems.  This command
1508checks that no un-committed changes are present; that you are
1509executing it from immediately above, or inside, a \fBcvs\fP working
1510directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same
1511as the repository defined in the module database.
1513If all these conditions are true,
1514.` "cvs release"
1515leaves a
1516record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning
1517your checkout) in the
1518.B cvs
1519history log.
1521You can use the \fB\-d\fP flag to request that your working copies of
1522the source files be deleted if the \fBrelease\fP succeeds.
1524\fBremove\fP [\fB\-lR\fP] [\fIfiles\|.\|.\|.\fP]
1525.I Requires:
1526Working directory.
1528.I Changes:
1529Working directory.
1531.I Synonyms:
1532.BR rm ", " delete
1534Use this command to declare that you wish to remove \fIfiles\fP from
1535the source repository.  Like most
1536.B cvs
1538.` "cvs remove"
1539works on files in your working
1540directory, not directly on the repository.  As a safeguard, it also
1541requires that you first erase the specified files from your working
1544The files are not actually removed until you apply your changes to the
1545repository with
1546.BR commit ;
1547at that point, the corresponding
1548.SM RCS
1549files in the source repository are
1550.I moved
1551into the
1552.` "Attic"
1553directory (also within the source repository).
1555This command is recursive by default, scheduling all physically removed
1556files that it finds for removal by the next
1557.BR commit .
1558Use the
1559.B \-l
1560option to avoid this recursion, or just specify that actual files that you
1561wish remove to consider.
1563\fBrtag\fP [\fB\-f\|alnRQq\fP] [\fB\-b\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] \fIsymbolic_tag\fP \fImodules\|.\|.\|.\fP
1564.I Requires:
1567.I Changes:
1570.I Synonym:
1571.B rfreeze
1573You can use this command to assign symbolic tags to particular,
1574explicitly specified source versions in the repository.
1575.` "cvs rtag"
1576works directly on the repository contents (and requires no
1578.BR checkout ).
1580.` "cvs tag"
1581instead, to base the selection of
1582versions to tag on the contents of your working directory.
1584In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distributions)
1585should not be removed, but the
1586.B \-d
1587option is available as a means to remove completely obsolete symbolic names
1588if necessary (as might be the case for an Alpha release, say).
1590.` "cvs rtag"
1591will not move a tag that already exists.  With the \fB\-F\fP option,
1593.` "cvs rtag"
1594will re-locate any instance of \fIsymbolic_tag\fP that already exists
1595on that file to the new repository versions.  Without the \fB\-F\fP
1596option, attempting to use
1597.` "cvs rtag"
1598to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce an error
1601The \fB-b\fP option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing
1602concurrent, isolated development.
1603This is most useful for creating a patch to a previously released software
1606You can use the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options to tag only those
1607files that already contain a certain tag.  This method would be used
1608to rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old tag, then delete the
1609old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the same files as the old tag.
1611.B rtag
1612executes recursively by default, tagging all subdirectories of
1613\fImodules\fP you specify in the argument.  You can restrict its
1614operation to top-level directories with the standard \fB\-l\fP option;
1615or you can explicitly request recursion with \fB\-R\fP.
1617The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a tag
1618is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to a group of
1619interested parties.  If you want to bypass that program, use the
1620standard \fB\-n\fP option.
1622Use the
1623.B \-a
1624option to have
1625.B rtag
1626look in the
1627.` "Attic"
1628for removed files that contain the specified tag.
1629The tag is removed from these files, which makes it convenient to re-use a
1630symbolic tag as development continues (and files get removed from the
1631up-coming distribution).
1633\fBstatus\fP [\fB\-lRqQ\fP] [\fB\-v\fP] [\fIfiles\fP\|.\|.\|.]
1634.I Requires:
1635working directory, repository.
1637.I Changes:
1640Display a brief report on the current status of \fIfiles\fP with
1641respect to the source repository, including any ``sticky'' tags,
1642dates, or \fB\-k\fP options.  (``Sticky'' options will restrict how
1643.` "cvs update"
1644operates until you reset them; see the
1645description of
1646.` "cvs update \-A\|.\|.\|.".)
1648You can also use this command to anticipate the potential impact of a
1649.` "cvs update"
1650on your working source directory.  If you do
1651not specify any \fIfiles\fP explicitly, reports are shown for all
1652files that \fBcvs\fP has placed in your working directory.  You can
1653limit the scope of this search to the current directory itself (not
1654its subdirectories) with the standard \fB\-l\fP option flag; or you
1655can explicitly request recursive status reports with the \fB\-R\fP
1659.B \-v
1660option causes the symbolic tags for the
1661.SM RCS
1662file to be displayed as well.
1664\fBtag\fP [\fB\-lQqR\fP] [\fB\-F\fP] [\fB\-b\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP | \fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] [\fB\-f\fP] \fIsymbolic_tag\fP [\fIfiles\fP\|.\|.\|.\|]
1665.I Requires:
1666working directory, repository.
1668.I Changes:
1671.I Synonym:
1672.B freeze
1674Use this command to assign symbolic tags to the nearest repository
1675versions to your working sources.  The tags are applied immediately to
1676the repository, as with \fBrtag\fP.
1678One potentially surprising aspect of the fact that \fBcvs tag\fP
1679operates on the repository is that you are tagging the checked-in
1680revisions, which may differ from locally modified files in your working
1681directory.  If you want to avoid doing this by mistake, specify the
1682\fB-c\fP option to \fBcvs tag\fP.  If there are any locally modified files, CVS
1683will abort with an error before it tags any files.
1685One use for tags is to record a ``snapshot'' of the current sources
1686when the software freeze date of a project arrives.  As bugs are fixed
1687after the freeze date, only those changed sources that are to be part
1688of the release need be re-tagged.
1690The symbolic tags are meant to permanently record which revisions of which
1691files were used in creating a software distribution.
1693.BR checkout ,
1694.B export
1696.B update
1697commands allow you to extract an exact copy of a tagged release at any time in
1698the future, regardless of whether files have been changed, added, or removed
1699since the release was tagged.
1701You can use the standard \fB\-r\fP and \fB\-D\fP options to tag only those
1702files that already contain a certain tag.  This method would be used
1703to rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old tag, then delete the
1704old tag, leaving the new tag on exactly the same files as the old tag.
1706Specifying the \fB\-f\fP flag in addition to the \fB\-r\fP or \fB\-D\fP
1707flags will tag those files named on the command line even if they do not
1708contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date.
1710By default (without a \fB\-r\fP or \fB\-D\fP flag)
1711the versions to be tagged are supplied
1712implicitly by the \fBcvs\fP records of your working files' history
1713rather than applied explicitly.
1715If you use
1716.` "cvs tag \-d \fIsymbolic_tag\fP\|.\|.\|.",
1718symbolic tag you specify is
1719.I deleted
1720instead of being added.  \fIWarning\fP: Be very certain of your ground
1721before you delete a tag; doing this effectively discards some
1722historical information, which may later turn out to have been valuable.
1724.` "cvs tag"
1725will not move a tag that already exists.  With the \fB\-F\fP option,
1727.` "cvs tag"
1728will re-locate any instance of \fIsymbolic_tag\fP that already exists
1729on that file to the new repository versions.  Without the \fB\-F\fP
1730option, attempting to use
1731.` "cvs tag"
1732to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce an error
1735The \fB-b\fP option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing
1736concurrent, isolated development.
1737This is most useful for creating a patch to a previously released software
1741.B tag
1742executes recursively through subdirectories; you can prevent this by
1743using the standard \fB\-l\fP option, or specify the recursion
1744explicitly by using \fB\-R\fP.
1746\fBupdate\fP [\fB\-ACdf\|lPpQqR\fP] [\fB\-d\fP] [\fB\-r\fP \fItag\fP|\fB\-D\fP \fIdate\fP] \fIfiles\|.\|.\|.\fP
1747.I Requires:
1748repository, working directory.
1750.I Changes:
1751working directory.
1753After you've run
1754.B checkout
1755to create your private copy of source from the common repository,
1756other developers will continue changing the central source.  From time
1757to time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can
1758use the
1759.B update
1761from within your working directory to reconcile your work with any
1762revisions applied to  the source repository since your last
1763.B checkout
1765.BR update .
1767.B update
1768keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file,
1769prefaced with one of the characters
1770.` "U P A R M C ?"
1771to indicate the status of the file:
1772.TP 1i
1773\fBU\fP \fIfile\fP
1774The file was brought \fIup to date\fP with respect to the repository.
1775This is done for any file that exists in the repository but not in your
1776working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not the most
1777recent versions available in the repository.
1778.TP 1i
1779\fBP\fP \fIfile\fP
1780Like \fBU\fP, but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an entire file.
1781This accomplishes the same thing as \fBU\fP using less bandwidth.
1782.TP 1i
1783\fBA\fP \fIfile\fP
1784The file has been \fIadded\fP to your private copy of the sources, and
1785will be added to the
1786source repository when you run
1787.` "cvs commit"
1788on the file.
1789This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.
1790.TP 1i
1791\fBR\fP \fIfile\fP
1792The file has been \fIremoved\fP from your private copy of the sources, and
1793will be removed from the
1794source repository when you run
1795.` "cvs commit"
1796on the file.
1797This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.
1798.TP 1i
1799\fBM\fP \fIfile\fP
1800The file is \fImodified\fP in your working directory.
1801.` "M"
1802can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
1803there were no modifications to the same file in the repository, so
1804that your file remains as you last saw it; or there were modifications
1805in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were
1806\fImerged\fP successfully, without conflict, in your working
1808.TP 1i
1809\fBC\fP \fIfile\fP
1810A \fIconflict\fP was detected while trying to merge your changes to
1811\fIfile\fP with changes from the source repository.  \fIfile\fP (the
1812copy in your working directory) is now the result of merging
1813the two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also
1814in your working directory, with the name `\fB.#\fP\fIfile\fP\fB.\fP\fIversion\fP',
1816.I version
1817is the
1818revision that your modified file started from.
1819(Note that some systems automatically purge files that begin with
1821.` ".#"
1822if they have not been accessed for a few days.
1823If you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is a very good
1824idea to rename it.)
1825.TP 1i
1826\fB?\fP \fIfile\fP
1827\fIfile\fP is in your working directory, but does not correspond to
1828anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files
1829for \fBcvs\fP to ignore (see the description of the \fB\-I\fP option).
1831.RS .5i
1833Use the
1834.B \-A
1835option to reset any sticky tags, dates, or
1836.B \-k
1837options.  (If you get a working copy of a file by using one of the
1838\fB\-r\fP, \fB\-D\fP, or \fB\-k\fP options, \fBcvs\fP remembers the
1839corresponding tag, date, or \fIkflag\fP and continues using it on
1840future updates; use the \fB\-A\fP option to make \fBcvs\fP forget these
1841specifications, and retrieve the ``head'' version of the file).
1843The \fB\-j\fP\fIbranch\fP option 
1844merges the changes made between the
1845resulting revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g., if
1846the tag refers to a branch,
1847.B cvs
1848will merge all changes made in
1849that branch into your working file).
1851With two \fB-j\fP options,
1852.B cvs
1853will merge in the changes between the two respective revisions.
1854This can be used to ``remove'' a certain delta from your working file.
1855E.g., If the file foo.c is based on
1856revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and
18571.5, I might do:
1858.SP +1i
1860.ft B
1862example% cvs update -j1.5 -j1.3 foo.c	# note the order...
1864.ft P -1i
1867In addition, each \fB-j\fP option can contain on optional date
1868specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen
1869revision to one within a specific date.
1870An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag.
1871.SP +1i
1873.ft B
1877.ft P -1i
1880Use the
1881.B \-d
1882option to create any directories that exist in the repository if they're
1883missing from the working directory.  (Normally, update acts only on
1884directories and files that were already enrolled in your
1885working directory.)  This is useful for updating directories
1886that were created in the repository since the initial
1887\fBcheckout\fP; but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you
1888deliberately avoided certain directories in the repository when you
1889created your working directory (either through use of a module name or by
1890listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on the
1891command line), then updating with
1892.B \-d
1893will create those directories, which may not be what you want.
1895Use \fB\-I\fP \fIname\fP to ignore files whose names match \fIname\fP
1896(in your working directory) during the update.  You can specify
1897\fB\-I\fP more than once on the command line to specify several files
1898to ignore.  By default,
1899\fBupdate\fP ignores files whose names match certain patterns; for
1900an up to date list of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as
1901described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).
1904.` "\-I !"
1905to avoid ignoring any files at all.
1907Use the
1908.` "\-C"
1909option to overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from
1910the repository (the modified file is saved in
1911`\fB.#\fP\fIfile\fP\fB.\fP\fIrevision\fP', however).
1913The standard \fBcvs\fP command options \fB\-f\fP, \fB\-k\fP,
1914\fB\-l\fP, \fB\-P\fP, \fB\-p\fP, and \fB\-r\fP
1915are also available with \fBupdate\fP.
1917.SH "FILES"
1918For more detailed information on
1919.B cvs
1920supporting files, see
1921.BR cvs ( 5 ).
1924Files in home directories:
1928.B cvs
1929initialization file.  Lines in this file can be used to specify default
1930options for each
1931.B cvs
1932command.  For example the line
1933.` "diff \-c"
1934will ensure that
1935.` "cvs diff"
1936is always passed the
1937.B \-c
1938option in addition to any other options passed on the command line.
1941Specifies wrappers to be used in addition to those specified in the
1942CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository.
1945Files in working directories:
1948A directory of \fBcvs\fP administrative files.
1950Do not delete.
1953List and status of files in your working directory.
1956A backup of
1957.` "CVS/Entries".
1960Flag: do not add more entries on
1961.` "cvs update".
1964Pathname to the repository (
1966) location at the time of checkout.  This file is used instead
1967of the
1969environment variable if the environment variable is not
1970set.  A warning message will be issued when the contents of this
1971file and the
1973environment variable differ.  The file may be over-ridden by the
1974presence of the
1976environment variable.
1979Pathname to the corresponding directory in the source repository.
1982Contains the per-directory ``sticky'' tag or date information.
1983This file is created/updated when you specify
1984.B \-r
1986.B \-D
1987to the
1988.B checkout
1990.B update
1991commands, and no files are specified.
1994Name of program to run on
1995.` "cvs commit".
1998Name of program to run on
1999.` "cvs update".
2002Files in source repositories:
2005Directory of global administrative files for repository.
2008Records programs for filtering
2009.` "cvs commit"
2014.B cvs
2015wrapper commands to be used when checking files into and out of the
2016repository.  Wrappers allow the file or directory to be processed
2017on the way in and out of CVS.  The intended uses are many, one
2018possible use would be to reformat a C file before the file is checked
2019in, so all of the code in the repository looks the same.
2022Records programs for editing/validating
2023.` "cvs commit"
2024log entries.
2027Log file of \fBcvs\fP transactions.
2030Records programs for piping
2031.` "cvs commit"
2032log entries.
2035Definitions for modules in this repository.
2038Records pathnames to templates used during a
2039.` "cvs commit"
2043Records programs for validating/logging
2044.` "cvs tag"
2046.` "cvs rtag"
2050Directory for removed source files.
2053A lock directory created by
2054.B cvs
2055when doing sensitive changes to the
2056source repository.
2059Temporary lock file for repository.
2062A read lock.
2065A write lock.
2069Should contain the full pathname to the root of the
2070.B cvs
2071source repository (where the
2072.SM RCS
2073files are kept).  This information must be available to \fBcvs\fP for
2074most commands to execute; if
2076is not set, or if you wish to override it for one invocation, you can
2077supply it on the command line:
2078.` "cvs \-d \fIcvsroot cvs_command\fP\|.\|.\|."
2079You may not need to set
2081if your \fBcvs\fP binary has the right path compiled in.
2084If this is set,
2085.B checkout
2087.B update
2088will try hard to make the files in your working directory read-only.
2089When this is not set, the default behavior is to permit modification
2090of your working files.
2093If this is set, the
2094.B \-R
2095option is assumed, and
2096.B cvs
2097operates in read-only repository mode.
2100Specifies the full pathname where to find
2101.SM RCS
2102programs, such as
2103.BR co ( 1 )
2105.BR ci ( 1 )
2106(CVS 1.9 and older).
2109Specifies the program to use for recording log messages during
2110.BR commit .
2111If not set, the
2115environment variables are tried (in that order).
2116If neither is set, a system-dependent default editor (e.g.,
2117.BR vi )
2118is used.
2121If this variable is set then
2122.B cvs
2123will use this port in
2124\fIpserver mode\fP
2125rather than the default port (cvspserver 2401).
2128If this variable is set then
2129.B cvs
2130will ignore all references to remote repositories in the CVS/Root file.
2133Specifies a set of default options for
2134.B cvs.
2135These options are interpreted before the startup file (\fI~/.cvsrc\fP) is read
2136and can be overridden by explicit command line parameters.
2139.B cvs
2140uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the
2141remote shell command to use when starting a
2142.B cvs
2143server.  If this variable is not set then
2144.` "ssh"
2145is used.
2148.B cvs 
2149uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the
2150.B cvs
2151server command.  If this variable is not set then
2152.` "cvs"
2153is used.
2156This variable is used by the
2157.` "cvswrappers"
2158script to determine the name of the wrapper file, in addition to the
2159wrappers defaults contained in the repository
2160.SM (CVSROOT/cvswrappers)
2161and the user's home directory (~/.cvswrappers).
2164Dick Grune
2165Original author of the
2166.B cvs
2167shell script version posted to
2168.B comp.sources.unix
2169in the volume6 release of December, 1986.
2170Credited with much of the
2171.B cvs
2172conflict resolution algorithms.
2174Brian Berliner
2175Coder and designer of the
2176.B cvs
2177program itself in April, 1989, based on the original work done by Dick.
2179Jeff Polk
2180Helped Brian with the design of the
2181.B cvs
2182module and vendor branch support and author of the
2183.BR checkin ( 1 )
2184shell script (the ancestor of
2185.` "cvs import").
2187And many others too numerous to mention here.
2188.SH "SEE ALSO"
2189The most comprehensive manual for CVS is
2190Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on
2191your system, you may be able to get it with the
2192.B info cvs
2193command or it may be available as (postscript), cvs.texinfo
2194(texinfo source), or cvs.html.
2196For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related
2197to CVS, development of CVS, and more, see: +1i
2199.B -1i
2202.BR ci ( 1 ),
2203.BR co ( 1 ),
2204.BR cvs ( 5 ),
2205.BR cvsbug ( 8 ),
2206.BR diff ( 1 ),
2207.BR grep ( 1 ),
2208.BR patch ( 1 ),
2209.BR rcs ( 1 ),
2210.BR rcsdiff ( 1 ),
2211.BR rcsmerge ( 1 ),
2212.BR rlog ( 1 ).